|Harbin Y-12 II of the Iranian IRGC|
|Role||Twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft|
|Manufacturer||Harbin Aircraft Industry Group|
|First flight||14 July 1982|
|Status||Active, In production|
|Primary user||People's Liberation Army Air Force|
|Produced||1985 - present|
US$3 million (1998)
|Developed from||Harbin Y-11|
Design and developmentEdit
The Y-12 started as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe called Y-11T in 1980. The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction.
The first prototype, followed by about 30 production Y-12 (I) aircraft before a revised version was produced. This was designated the Y-12 (II), which featured more powerful engines and removal of leading edge slats, first flying on 16 August 1984 and receiving Chinese certification in December of the following year. The power plants are two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprops with Hartzell propellers. The Y-12 has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) with seating for 17 passengers and two crew. The aircraft is operated as a light commuter and transport aircraft.
The latest development is Y-12F, which is almost a new design with many improvements: new wings, new landing gears, new fuselage, with more powerful engines from Pratt & Whitney Canada and extended payload and range. The Y-12F made its maiden flight on December 29, 2010, received the CAAC type certification on December 10, 2015, and the FAA type certification on February 22, 2016. In 2015 Kenmore Air announced that they would begin development of floats for the Y-12 for FAA certification.The Y-12 completed the FAA evaluation flight tests for its automatic flight control system on June 30, 2018, with its performance meeting the requirements, said AVIC Harbin Aircraft Industry Company Ltd (AVIC HAFEI).
- Y-12 (I): Twin-engined STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 500-shp (373-kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines. Prototype version.
- Y-12 (II): Fitted with more powerful PT6A-27 engines.
- Y-12 (III): Planned version to be fitted with WJ-9 turboprop. Evolved to Y-12C because of IV's success when WJ-9 development was completed.
- Y-12 (IV): Improved version. Revised wingtips (span increased to 19.2 m (63 ft)) and increased takeoff weight. 19 passenger seats. This version is the first aircraft in the series certified by the FAA in 1995.
- Y-12C: Basically a (IV) version with WJ-9 turboprop, now used by PLAAF for aerial survey.
- Y-12D: Domestically deployed military version with upgraded engines driving four-bladed propellers, now used by PLA Airborne Corps for parachute training.
- Y-12E: Variant with 18 passenger seats. PT6A-135A engines of equal horsepower but increased torque driving four-bladed propellers. This version was certified by the FAA in 2006.
- Y-12F: The latest development with almost everything redesigned: wider fuselage, new wings, retractable landing gear and more powerful PT6A-65B engines. The Y-12F has higher cruise speed, longer range and can accommodate 19 passengers or 3x LD3 containers. Design started in April 2005 and the maiden flight was on 29 December 2010. CAAC type certification was received on 10 December 2015 and FAA certification on 22 February 2016. The Y-12F aloso passed flight tests for its automatic flight control system by the FAA on 30 June 2018. It has been also demonstrated during the 2012 Zhuhai Airshow.
- Y-12G: Proposed cargo version of Y-12F.
- Turbo Panda: Export name for (II) version, marketed by England and Japanese companies. No real order due to airworthiness certification.
- Twin Panda: Originally (II) version for export. Later a modified Y-12 (IV) powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engines and fitted with uprated undercarriage, upgraded avionics and interior. Thirty-five orders reportedly received by 2000 but production not proceeded with.
- China Flying Dragon Aviation
- China Heilongjiang Longken General Aviation
- Donghua General Aviation
- Jiangnan General Aviation
- Ordos General Aviation Co. Ltd.
- Shuangyang General Aviation
- Xinjiang General Aviation
- YingAn Airlines
- Zhong Fei General Aviation Company
- Trans Air Congo (10 on order)
- MIAT Mongolian Airlines- After 2 planes crashing remaining 3 planes returned to the manufacturer.
- Uganda Air Cargo (2)
Accidents and incidentsEdit
- On 13 December 1993, a Lao Aviation Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34117, clipped trees in fog and crashed at Phonesavanh, Laos, killing all 18 on board.
- On 4 April 1995, a TANS Y-12-II, registration 333/OB-1498, crashed shortly after takeoff from Iquitos Airport, Peru, killing all three on board.
- On 21 June 1996, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3822, crashed into a 100 m (330 ft) mountain near Changhai Airport after the crew began the final approach too early and deviated from the intended course, killing two of 12 on board.
- On 20 January 1997, a Sri Lanka Air Force Y-12-II, CR851, crashed off Palali Air Base while on a surveillance mission, killing all four on board.
- On 10 June 1997, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1020, crashed at Mandalgobi Airport due to windshear, killing seven of 12 on board.
- On 26 May 1998, a MIAT Mongolian Airlines Y-12-II, registration JU-1017, crashed into a 10,800 ft (3,300 m) mountain near Galt, Mongolia en route to Tosontsengel due to heavy icing, wing de-ice system fault and overloading, killing all 28 on board; this crash is the worst ever accident involving the Y-12.
- On 19 October 2000, a Lao Aviation (now Lao Airlines) Y-12-II, registration RDPL-34130 and operating as Flight 703, crashed in a mountainous area in bad weather while on approach to Sam Neua, killing eight of 15 passengers; both pilots survived.
- On 18 May 2005, a Zambia Air Force Y-12-II, AF-216, crashed shortly after takeoff from Mongu Airport, killing all 13 on board.
- On 10 April 2006, a Kenya Air Force (KAF) Y-12-II, 132, struck the side of Mount Marsabit, killing 14 of 17 on board.
- On 15 June 2008, a China Flying Dragon Aviation Y-12-II, registration B-3841, struck a small hill during a survey flight for a new aluminum mine, killing three of four on board.
- On 12 July 2012, a Y-12-II of the Mauritanian Air Force crashed while transporting gold, killing all 7 occupants.
- On 12 May 2014, a Y-12-II of the Kenyan Air Force crashed in El Wak, Kenya. The airplane operated on a flight from Mandera to Nairobi with stops at El Wak and Garissa. Preliminary information suggests that one pilot was killed and the remaining eleven occupants were injured.
Specifications (Y-12 (II))Edit
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 17 pax / 1,700 kg (3,748 lb) max payload
- Length: 14.86 m (48 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 17.235 m (56 ft 7 in)
- Height: 5.575 m (18 ft 3 in)
- Wing area: 34.27 m2 (368.9 sq ft)
- Airfoil: LS(1)-0417
- Empty weight: 2,840 kg (6,261 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 5,300 kg (11,684 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 1,616 l (427 US gal; 355 imp gal) / 1,230 kg (2,712 lb) max usable fuel weight
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines, 462 kW (620 hp) each
- Propellers: 3-bladed Hartzell HC-B3TN-3B/T10173B-3, 2.49 m (8 ft 2 in) diameter constant-speed fully-feathering reversible-pitch propellers (4 and 5 bladed propellersals used on some models)
- Maximum speed: 328 km/h (204 mph, 177 kn) VMO (maximum operating speed)at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Cruise speed: 292 km/h (181 mph, 158 kn) (max) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- 250 km/h (160 mph; 130 kn) (economical) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Range: 1,340 km (830 mi, 720 nmi) at econ cruise, 45 min reserves at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Endurance: 5 hours 12 minutes at econ cruise
- Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
- 3,000 m (9,843 ft) on one engine
- Rate of climb: 8.1 m/s (1,590 ft/min)
- 1.4 m/s (4.6 ft/s) on one engine
- Wing loading: 145.9 kg/m2 (29.9 lb/sq ft)
- Power/mass: 0.106 kW/kg (0.064 hp/lb)
- Take-off run: 370 m (1,214 ft)
- Take-off run to 15 m (49 ft): 490 m (1,608 ft)
- Landing run: 340 m (1,115 ft)
- Landing run from 15 m (49 ft): 630 m (2,067 ft)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Antonov An-28
- Britten Norman Trislander
- CASA C-212 Aviocar
- Cessna 408 SkyCourier
- Dornier 228
- DHC-6 Twin Otter
- IAI Arava
- GAF Nomad
- LET L-410
- PZL M28
- Shorts SC.7 Skyvan
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