In human biology, handedness is a better, faster, or more precise performance or individual preference for use of a hand, known as the dominant hand; the less capable or less preferred hand is called the non-dominant hand. Men are somewhat more likely to express a strongly dominant left hand than women. It is estimated that between 70 and 95 percent of the world's population is right-handed.
- Right-handedness is the most common type. Right-handed people are more skillful with their right hands when performing tasks. Studies suggest 70–95% of the world's population is right-handed.
- Left-handedness is far less common than right-handedness. Left-handed people are more skillful with their left hands when performing tasks. Studies suggest that approximately 10% of the world population is left-handed.
- Cross-dominance or mixed-handedness is the change of hand preference between tasks. This is very uncommon in the population with about a 1% prevalence.
- Ambidexterity, equal ability to use both hands, is exceptionally rare, although it can be learned. A completely ambidextrous person is able to do any task equally well with either hand. Those who learn it still tend to favor their originally dominant hand.
There are several theories of how handedness develops in individual humans. Occurrences during prenatal development may be important; researchers studied fetuses in utero and determined that handedness in the womb was a very accurate predictor of handedness after birth. In a 2013 study, 39% of infants (6 to 14 months) and 97% of toddlers (18 to 24 months) demonstrated a hand preference.
Division of laborEdit
One common theory as to how handedness affects the hemispheres is the brain hemisphere division of labor. Since speaking and handiwork require fine motor skills, its presumption is that it would be more efficient to have one brain hemisphere do both, rather than having it divided up. Since in most people, the left side of the brain controls speaking, right-handedness predominates. This theory also predicts that left-handed people have a reversed brain division of labor.
Verbal processing in right-handed individuals takes place mostly in the left hemisphere, whereas visuospatial processing is mostly done in the opposite hemisphere. Left-handed individuals have a heterogeneous brain organization in which their brain hemispheres are either organized in the same way as right-handers (but with the hemispheres reversed) or even such that both hemispheres are used for verbal processing. When the average is taken across all types of left-handedness, it shows that left-handers are less lateralized.
Handedness displays a complex inheritance pattern. For example, if both parents of a child are left-handed, there is a 26% chance of that child being left-handed. A large study of twins from 25,732 families by Medland et al. (2006) has indicated that the heritability of handedness is roughly 24%.
To date, two theoretical single gene models have been proposed to explain the patterns of inheritance of handedness, the first by Marian Annett of the University of Leicester and the second by Chris McManus of UCL.
However, the growing weight of evidence from linkage and genome-wide association studies suggests that genetic variance in handedness cannot be explained by a single genetic locus. From these studies McManus et al. now conclude that handedness is polygenic and estimate that at least 40 loci contribute to determining this trait.
Brandler et al. performed a genome-wide association study for a measure of relative hand skill and found that genes involved in the determination of left/right asymmetry in the body play a key role in determining handedness. These results suggest the same mechanisms that determine left/right asymmetry in the body (e.g. Nodal signaling and ciliogenesis) also play a role in the development of brain asymmetry (handedness is an outward reflection of brain asymmetry for motor function).
Twin studies indicate that genetic factors explain 25% of the variance in handedness, while environmental factors explain the remaining 75%. While the molecular basis of handedness epigenetics is largely unclear, Ocklenburg et al. 2017 found that asymmetric methylation of CpG sites plays a key role for gene expression asymmetries that have been related to handedness.
Prenatal hormone exposureEdit
Four studies have indicated that individuals who have had in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (a synthetic estrogen based medication used between 1940 and 1971) were more likely to be left-handed over the clinical control group. Diethylstilbestrol animal studies "suggest that estrogen affects the developing brain, including the part that governs sexual behavior and right and left dominance".
Prenatal vestibular asymmetryEdit
Previc, after reviewing a large number of studies, found evidence that the position of the fetus in the final trimester and a baby's subsequent birth position can affect handedness. About two-thirds of fetuses present with their left occiput (back of the head) at birth. This partly explains why prematurity results in a decrease in right-handedness. Previc argues that asymmetric prenatal positioning creates asymmetric stimulation of the vestibular system, which is involved in the development of handedness. In fact, every major disorder in which patients show reduced right-handedness is associated with either vestibular abnormalities or delay, and asymmetry of the vestibular cortex is strongly correlated with the direction of handedness.
Another theory is that ultrasound may, but not always affect the brains of unborn children, causing higher rates of left-handedness in children whose mothers received ultrasounds during pregnancy. Research on this topic suggests there may exist a weak association between ultrasound screening (sonography used to check on the healthy development of the fetus and mother during pregnancy) and left-handedness.
Handedness developmental timelineEdit
Infants have been known to fluctuate heavily when choosing a hand to lead in grasping and object manipulation tasks. This is especially shown when observing hand dominance in one versus two-handed grasping tasks. Between 36 and 48 months, variability between handedness in one handed grasping begins to decline significantly. This difference can be seen earlier in bi-manual manipulation tasks. Children aged 18 to 36 months showed more hand preference when performing bi-manipulation tasks than simple grasping. The decrease in handedness variability for 36-to-48-month-old children could likely be attributed to preschool or kindergarten attendance. The increase in required single hand grasping activities such as writing or coloring can force children to develop a hand preference.
Correlation with other factorsEdit
In his book Right-Hand, Left-Hand, Chris McManus of University College London argues that the proportion of left-handers is increasing and left-handed people as a group have historically produced an above-average quota of high achievers. He says that left-handers' brains are structured differently (in a way that increases their range of abilities) and the genes that determine left-handedness also govern development of the language centers of the brain.
Writing in Scientific American, McManus states that,
Studies in the U.K., U.S. and Australia have revealed that left-handed people differ from right-handers by only one IQ point, which is not noteworthy ... Left-handers' brains are structured differently from right-handers' in ways that can allow them to process language, spatial relations and emotions in more diverse and potentially creative ways. Also, a slightly larger number of left-handers than right-handers are especially gifted in music and math. A study of musicians in professional orchestras found a significantly greater proportion of talented left-handers, even among those who played instruments that seem designed for right-handers, such as violins. Similarly, studies of adolescents who took tests to assess mathematical giftedness found many more left-handers in the population.
Conversely, Joshua Goodman found evidence that left-handers were overrepresented amongst high end of the cognitive spectrum was weak due to methodological and sampling issues in conducted studies. Goodman also found that left-handers were overrepresented at the low end of the cognitive spectrum, with the mentally disabled being twice as likely to be left-handed compared to the general population, as well as generally lower cognitive and non-cognitive abilities amongst left-handed children. Moreover, Ntolka and Papadatou-Pastou in a systematic review and meta-analysis found that it is right-handers who have higher IQ scores, but this difference is negligible (about 1.5 points).
Early childhood intelligenceEdit
Nelson, Campbell, and Michel studied infants and whether developing handedness during infancy correlated with language abilities in toddlers. In the article they assessed 38 infants and followed them through to 12 months and then again once they became toddlers from 18–24 months. What they discovered was that when a child developed a consistent use of its right or left hand during infancy (such as using the right hand to put the pacifier back in, or grasping random objects with the left hand), it was more likely to have superior language skills as a toddler. Children who became lateral later than infancy (i.e., when they were toddlers) showed normal development of language and had typical language scores. The researchers used Bayley scales of infant and toddler development to assess all the subjects.
Lower-birth-weight and complications at birth are positively correlated with left-handness.
A variety of neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders like autism spectrum disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism has been associated with left- and mixed-handedness.
A 2012 study showed that nearly 40% of children with cerebral palsy were left-handed, while another study demonstrated that left-handedness was associated with a 62 percent increased risk of Parkinson's disease in women, but not in men. Another study suggests that the risk of developing multiple sclerosis increases for left-handed women, but the effect is unknown for men at this point.
Left-handers are more likely to suffer bone fractures.
If handedness is entirely genetic, these health problems mean left-handness could be eliminated through natural selection. However, left-handers enjoy an advantage in fighting and sports increasing their likelihood of reproduction.
In a 2006 U.S. study, researchers from Lafayette College and Johns Hopkins University concluded that there was no statistically significant correlation between handedness and earnings for the general population, but among college-educated people, left-handers earned 10 to 15% more than their right-handed counterparts.
More recently, in a 2014 study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, Harvard economist Joshua Goodman finds that left-handed people earn 10 to 12 percent less over the course of their lives than right-handed people. Goodman attributes this disparity to higher rates of emotional and behavioral problems in left-handed people.
Left-handedness and sportsEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Interactive sports such as table tennis, badminton and cricket have an overrepresentation of left-handedness, while non-interactive sports such as swimming show no overrepresentation. Smaller physical distance between participants increases the overrepresentation. In fencing, about half the participants are left-handed.
Other, sports-specific factors may increase or decrease the advantage left-handers usually hold in one-on-one situations:
- In cricket, the overall advantage of a bowler's left-handedness exceeds that resulting from experience alone: even disregarding the experience factor (i.e., even for a batsman whose experience against left-handed bowlers equals his experience against right-handed bowlers), a left-handed bowler challenges the average (i.e., right-handed) batsman more than a right-handed bowler does, because the angle of a bowler's delivery to an opposite-handed batsman is much more penetrating than that of a bowler to a same-handed batsman (see Wasim Akram).
- In baseball, a right-handed pitcher's curve ball will break away from a right-handed batter and towards a left-handed batter. While studies of handedness show that only 10% of the general population are left-handed, the proportion of left-handed MLB players is closer to 39% of hitters and 28% of pitchers, according to 2012 data. Historical batting averages show that left-handed batters have a slight advantage over right-handed batters when facing right-handed pitchers. Because there are fewer left-handed pitchers than right-handed pitchers, left-handed batters have more opportunities to face right-handed pitchers than their right-handed counterparts have against left-handed pitchers. Fourteen of the top twenty career batting averages in Major League Baseball history have been posted by left-handed batters. Left-handed batters have a slightly shorter run from the batter's box to first base than right-handers. This gives left-handers a slight advantage in beating throws to first base on infield ground balls.
- Because a left-handed pitcher faces first base when he is in position to throw to the batter, whereas a right-handed pitcher has his back to first base, a left-handed pitcher has an advantage when attempting to pickoff baserunners at first base.
- Defensively in baseball, left-handedness is considered an advantage for first basemen because they are better suited to fielding balls hit in the gap between first and second base, and because they do not have to pivot their body around before throwing the ball to another infielder. For the same reason, the other infielder's positions are seen as being advantageous to right-handed throwers. Historically, there have been few left-handed catchers because of the perceived disadvantage a left-handed catcher would have in making the throw to third base, especially with a right-handed hitter at the plate. A left-handed catcher would have a potentially more dangerous time tagging out a baserunner trying to score. With the ball in the glove on the right hand, a left-handed catcher would have to turn his body to the left to tag a runner. In doing so, he can lose the opportunity to brace himself for an impending collision. On the other hand, the Encyclopedia of Baseball Catchers states:
One advantage is a left-handed catcher's ability to frame a right-handed pitcher's breaking balls. A right-handed catcher catches a right-hander's breaking ball across his body, with his glove moving out of the strike zone. A left-handed catcher would be able to catch the pitch moving into the strike zone and create a better target for the umpire.
- In four wall handball, typical strategy is to play along the left wall forcing the opponent to use their left hand to counter the attack and playing into the strength of a left-handed competitor.
- In water polo the centre forward position has an advantage in turning to shoot on net when rotating the reverse direction as expected by the centre of the opposition defence and gain an improved position to score.
- Ice hockey typically uses a strategy in which a defence pairing includes one left-handed and one right-handed defender. A disproportionately large number of ice hockey players of all positions, 62 percent, shoot left, though this does not necessarily indicate left-handedness.
- In American football, the handedness of a quarterback affects blocking patterns on the offensive line. Tight ends, when only one is used, typically line up on the same side as the throwing hand of the quarterback, while the offensive tackle on the opposite hand, which protects the quarterback's "blind side," is typically the most valued member of the offensive line. While uncommon, there have been several notable left-handed quarterbacks.
According to a meta-analysis of 144 studies, totaling 1,787,629 participants, the best estimate for the male to female odds ratio was 1.23, indicating 23% more men are left-handed. 11% of men and 9% of women would be approximately 10% overall, at a 1.22 male to female odds ratio.[clarification needed]
Sexuality and gender identityEdit
A number of studies examining the relationship between handedness and sexual orientation have reported that a disproportionate minority of homosexual people exhibit left-handedness, though findings are mixed.
A 2001 study also found that children who are genetically male but have different gender identities were more than twice as likely to be left-handed than a clinical control group (19.5% vs. 8.3%, respectively).
Paraphilias (atypical sexual interests) have also been linked to higher rates of left-handedness. A 2008 study analyzing the sexual fantasies of 200 males found "elevated paraphilic interests were correlated with elevated non-right handedness". Greater rates of left-handedness has also been documented among pedophiles.
A 2014 study attempting to analyze the biological markers of asexuality asserts that non-sexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be left-handed than their heterosexual counterparts.
Many tools and procedures are designed to facilitate use by right-handed people, often without realizing the difficulties incurred by the left-handed. John W. Santrock has written, "For centuries, left-handers have suffered unfair discrimination in a world designed for right-handers."
McManus noted that, beginning at the time of the Industrial Revolution, workers needed to operate complex machines that were almost certainly designed with right-handers in mind. This would have made left-handers more visible and at the same time appear less capable and more clumsy. During this era, children were taught to write with a dip pen. While a right-hander could smoothly drag the pen across paper from left to right, a dip pen could not easily be pushed across by the left hand without digging into the paper and making blots and stains.
Moreover, apart from inconvenience, left-handed people have historically been considered unlucky or even malicious for their difference by the right-handed majority. In many European languages, including English, the word for the direction "right" also means "correct" or "proper". Throughout history, being left-handed was considered negative. The Latin adjective sinister means "left" as well as "unlucky", and this double meaning survives in European derivatives of Latin, including the English words "sinister" (meaning both 'evil' and 'on the bearer's left on a coat of arms') and "ambisinister" meaning 'awkward or clumsy with both or either hand'.
There are many negative connotations associated with the phrase "left-handed": clumsy, awkward, unlucky, insincere, sinister, malicious, and so on. A "left-handed compliment" is considered one that is unflattering or dismissive in meaning. In French, gauche means both "left" and "awkward" or "clumsy", while droit(e) (cognate to English direct and related to "adroit") means both "right" and "straight", as well as "law" and the legal sense of "right". The name "Dexter" derives from the Latin for "right", as does the word "dexterity" meaning manual skill. As these are all very old words, they would tend to support theories indicating that the predominance of right-handedness is an extremely old phenomenon.
Until very recently in Taiwan (and still in Mainland China, Japan and both North and South Korea), left-handed people were strongly encouraged to switch to being right-handed, or at least switch to writing with the right hand. Due to the importance of stroke order, developed for the comfortable use of right-handed people, it is considered more difficult to write legible Chinese characters with the left hand than it is to write Latin letters, though difficulty is subjective and depends on the writer. Because writing when moving one's hand away from its side towards the other side of the body can cause smudging if the outward side of the hand is allowed to drag across the writing, writing in the Latin alphabet might possibly be less feasible with the left hand than the right under certain circumstances. Conversely, right-to-left alphabets, such as the Arabic and Hebrew, are generally considered easier to write with the left hand in general. Depending on the position and inclination of the writing paper, and the writing method, the left-handed writer can write as neatly and efficiently or as messily and slowly as right-handed writers. Usually the left-handed child needs to be taught how to write correctly with the left hand, since discovering a comfortable left-handed writing method on one's own may not be straightforward.
International Left-Handers DayEdit
International Left-Handers Day is held annually every August 13. It was founded by the Left-Handers Club in 1992, with the club itself having been founded in 1990. International Left-Handers Day is, according to the club, "an annual event when left-handers everywhere can celebrate their sinistrality (left-handedness) and increase public awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of being left-handed." It celebrates their uniqueness and differences, who are from seven to ten percent of the world's population. Thousands of left-handed people in today's society have to adapt to use right-handed tools and objects. Again according to the club, "in the U.K. alone there were over 20 regional events to mark the day in 2001- including left-v-right sports matches, a left-handed tea party, pubs using left-handed corkscrews where patrons drank and played pub games with the left hand only, and nationwide 'Lefty Zones' where left-handers' creativity, adaptability and sporting prowess were celebrated, whilst right-handers were encouraged to try out everyday left-handed objects to see just how awkward it can feel using the wrong equipment!"
In other animalsEdit
Kangaroos and other macropod marsupials have a left-hand preference for everyday tasks in the wild. 'True' handedness is unexpected in marsupials because, unlike placental mammals, they lack a corpus callosum. Left-handedness was particularly apparent in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and the eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). Red-necked (Bennett's) wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) preferentially use their left hand for behaviours that involve fine manipulation, but the right for behaviours that require more physical strength. There was less evidence for handedness in arboreal species. Studies of dogs, horses, and domestic cats have shown that females of those species tend to be right-handed, while males are left-handed.
- Ocular dominance (eyedness)
- Proper right and proper left
- Clockwise, which also discusses counterclockwise/anticlockwise, the two terms for the opposite sense of rotation
- Dexter and sinister
- Relative direction
- Cardinal direction
- Holder, M.K. What does Handedness have to do with Brain Lateralization (and who cares?). Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- "dominant". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
4 : biology : being the one of a pair of bodily structures that is the more effective or predominant in action • dominant eye • used her dominant hand
- "non-". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
Definition of non- 1 : not : other than : reverse of : absence of • nontoxic • nonlinear. ("Nondominant" is one of 945 words listed under "non-")
- Papadatou-Pastou, M; Martin, M; Munafò, MR; Jones, GV (September 2008). "Sex differences in left-handedness: a meta-analysis of 144 studies". Psychological Bulletin. 134 (5): 677–99. doi:10.1037/a0012814. PMID 18729568.
- Holder, M. K. (1997). "Why are more people right-handed?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
- Hardyck C, Petrinovich LF (1977). "Left-handedness". Psychol Bull. 84 (3): 385–404. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.3.385. PMID 859955.
- Annett, Marian (2002). Handedness and Brain Asymmetry. Psychology Press.
- Hepper, Peter G. (2005). "Prenatal thumb sucking is related to postnatal handedness". Neuropsychologia. 43 (3): 313–315. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.08.009. PMID 15707608.
- Nelson EL, Campbell JM, Michel GF (2013). "Unimanual to bimanual: Tracking the development of handedness from 6 to 24 months". Infant Behavior and Development. 36 (2): 181–188. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.01.009. PMC 3615031. PMID 23454419.
- Banich, Marie (1997). Neuropsychology: The Neural Bases of Mental Function.
- McManus, Chris (2003). Right Hand, Left Hand. Phoenix Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0753813553.
- Medland, SE; Duffy, DL; Wright, MJ; et al. (January 2009). "Genetic influences on handedness: Data from 25,732 Australian and Dutch twin families". Neuropsychologia. 47 (2): 330–337. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.09.005. PMC 2755095. PMID 18824185.
- Annett, M. (2009). "The genetic basis of lateralization". In Sommer, Iris E. C.; Kahn, René S. (eds.). Language lateralization and psychosis. pp. 73–86. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511576744.006. hdl:2381/4737. ISBN 9780511576744.
- Francks, C; DeLisi, LE; Fisher, SE; Laval, SH; Rue, JE; Stein, JF; Monaco, AP (February 2003). "Confirmatory evidence for linkage of relative hand skill to 2p12-q11". American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (2): 499–502. doi:10.1086/367548. PMC 379245. PMID 12596796.
- Francks C, Maegawa S, Laurén J, Abrahams BS, Velayos-Baeza A, Medland SE, Colella S, Groszer M, McAuley EZ, Caffrey TM, Timmusk T, Pruunsild P, Koppel I, Lind PA, Matsumoto-Itaba N, Nicod J, Xiong L, Joober R, Enard W, Krinsky B, Nanba E, Richardson AJ, Riley BP, Martin NG, Strittmatter SM, Möller HJ, Rujescu D, St Clair D, Muglia P, Roos JL, Fisher SE, Wade-Martins R, Rouleau GA, Stein JF, Karayiorgou M, Geschwind DH, Ragoussis J, Kendler KS, Airaksinen MS, Oshimura M, DeLisi LE, Monaco, AP (December 2007). "LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia". Molecular Psychiatry. 12 (12): 1129–39, 1057. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4002053. PMC 2990633. PMID 17667961.
- Van Agtmael, T; Forrest, SM; Williamson, R (October 2002). "Parametric and non-parametric linkage analysis of several candidate regions for genes for human handedness". European Journal of Human Genetics. 10 (10): 623–30. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200851. PMID 12357333.
- Warren, Diane M.; Stern, Michael; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Dyer, Thomas D.; Almasy, Laura (1 November 2006). "Heritability and linkage analysis of hand, foot, and eye preference in Mexican Americans". Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition. 11 (6): 508–524. doi:10.1080/13576500600761056. PMID 16966240.
- Laval SH, Dann JC, Butler RJ, Loftus J, Rue J, Leask SJ, Bass N, Comazzi M, Vita A, Nanko S, Shaw S, Peterson P, Shields G, Smith AB, Stewart J, DeLisi LE, Crow TJ (September 7, 1998). "Evidence for linkage to psychosis and cerebral asymmetry (relative hand skill) on the X chromosome". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 81 (5): 420–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19980907)81:5<420::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 9754628.
- Armour, JA; Davison, A; McManus, IC (Sep 25, 2013). "Genome-wide association study of handedness excludes simple genetic models". Heredity. 112 (3): 221–5. doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.93. PMC 3931166. PMID 24065183.
- Eriksson, N; Macpherson, JM; Tung, JY; Hon, LS; Naughton, B; Saxonov, S; Avey, L; Wojcicki, A; Pe'er, I; Mountain, J (Jun 24, 2010). "Web-based, participant-driven studies yield novel genetic associations for common traits". PLOS Genetics. 6 (6): e1000993. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993. PMC 2891811. PMID 20585627.
- Scerri, TS; Brandler, WM; Paracchini, S; Morris, AP; Ring, SM; Richardson, AJ; Talcott, JB; Stein, J; Monaco, AP (Feb 1, 2011). "PCSK6 is associated with handedness in individuals with dyslexia". Human Molecular Genetics. 20 (3): 608–14. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq475. PMC 3016905. PMID 21051773.
- McManus, IC; Davison, A; Armour, JA (June 2013). "Multilocus genetic models of handedness closely resemble single-locus models in explaining family data and are compatible with genome-wide association studies". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1288 (1): 48–58. doi:10.1111/nyas.12102. PMC 4298034. PMID 23631511.
- Brandler WM, Morris AP, Evans DM, Scerri TS, Kemp JP, Timpson NJ, St Pourcain B, Smith GD, Ring SM, Stein J, Monaco AP, Talcott JB, Fisher SE, Webber C, Paracchini S (September 2013). "Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill". PLOS Genetics. 9 (9): e1003751. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003751. PMC 3772043. PMID 24068947.
- Medland, SE; Duffy, DL; Wright, MJ; Geffen, GM; Martin, NG (Feb 2006). "Handedness in twins: joint analysis of data from 35 samples". Twin Res Hum Genet. 9 (1): 46–53. doi:10.1375/183242706776402885. PMID 16611467.
- Sun, T; Collura, RV; Ruvolo, M; Walsh, CA (Jul 2006). "Genomic and evolutionary analyses of asymmetrically expressed genes in human fetal left and right cerebral cortex". Cereb Cortex. 16 (Suppl 1): i18–25. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhk026. PMID 16766703.
- Ocklenburg, S; Schmitz, J; Moinfar, Z; Moser, D; Klose, R; Lor, S; Kunz, G; Tegenthoff, M; Faustmann, P; Francks, C; Epplen, JT; Kumsta, R; Güntürkün, O (Feb 2017). "Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries". eLife. 6. doi:10.7554/eLife.22784. PMC 5295814. PMID 28145864.
- Titus-Ernstoff, L. (2003). "Psychosexual Characteristics of Men and Women Exposed Prenatally to Diethylstilbestrol". CDC.
- Scheirs JG1, Vingerhoets AJ. (1995). "Handedness and other laterality indices in women prenatally exposed to DES". J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 17 (5): 725–30. doi:10.1080/01688639508405162. PMID 8557813.
- Schachter SC (1994). "Handedness in women with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol". Neuropsychologia. 32 (5): 619–23. doi:10.1016/0028-3932(94)90149-x. PMID 8084419.
- Smith LL1, Hines M. (2000). "Language lateralization and handedness in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES)". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 25 (5): 497–512. doi:10.1016/s0306-4530(00)00005-6. PMID 10818283.
- Nonright-handedness, central nervous system and related pathology, and its lateralization: A reformulation and synthesis.
- Dieterich, M.; Bense, S.; Lutz, S.; Drzezga, A.; Stephan, T.; Bartenstein, P.; Brandt, T. (2003). "Dominance for vestibular cortical function in the non-dominant hemisphere". Cerebral Cortex. 13 (9): 994–1007. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.9.994. PMID 12902399.
- Salvesen, K. Å. (1 September 2011). "Ultrasound in pregnancy and non-right handedness: meta-analysis of randomized trials". Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 38 (3): 267–271. doi:10.1002/uog.9055. PMID 21584892.
- Fagard, Jacqueline; Lockman, Jeffrey J. (2005). "The effect of task constraints on infants' (bi)manual strategy for grasping and exploring objects". Infant Behavior and Development. 28 (3): 305–315. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2005.05.005.
- Right-Hand, Left-Hand official website Accessed June 2006.
- Chris McManus. April 14, 2012. Is It True That Left-Handed People Are Smarter Than Right-Handed People? Scientific American. Retrieved: 26 May 2013.
- Goodman, Joshua (Fall 2014). "The Wages of Sinistrality: Handedness, Brain Structure, and Human Capital Accumulation". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 28 (4): 193–212. doi:10.1257/jep.28.4.193.
- Ntolka, Eleni; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta (2018). "Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 84: 376–393. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.08.007. PMID 28826694.
- Nelson, E.L., J.M. Campbell, and G.F. Michel, Early handedness in infancy predicts language ability in toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 2014. 50(3): p. 809-814.
- "A lefty's lament". Harvard Gazette. 2015-01-30.
- Sebastian Ocklenburg (2017). "Epigenetic regulation of lateralized fetal spinal gene expression underlies hemispheric asymmetries". eLife. 6. doi:10.7554/eLife.22784. PMC 5295814. PMID 28145864.
- Hirnstein, Marco; Hugdahl, Kenneth (October 2014). "Excess of left-handedness in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of gender effects and potential biases in handedness assessment" (PDF). The British Journal of Psychiatry. 205 (4): 260–267. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137349. PMID 25274314. Retrieved 2016-05-09.
- Lin KR, Prabhu V, Shah H, Kamath A, Joseph B (2015). "Handedness in diplegic cerebral palsy". Dev Neurorehabil. 15 (5): 386–9. doi:10.3109/17518423.2012.696736. PMID 22758776.
- Hannah Gardener; Xiang Gao; Honglei Chen; Michael A. Schwarzschild; Donna Spiegelman; Alberto Ascherio (2011). "Prenatal and Early Life Factors and Risk of Parkinson's Disease". Mov Disord. 25 (11): 1560–7. doi:10.1002/mds.23339. PMC 3132935. PMID 20740569.
- Hannah Gardener; Kassandra L. Munger (2009). "The Relationship between Handedness and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis". Multiple Sclerosis. 15 (5): 587–592. doi:10.1177/1352458509102622. PMC 2771381. PMID 19389750.
- L Fritschi; M Divitini; A Talbot-Smith; M Knuiman (2007). "Left-handedness and risk of breast cancer". Br J Cancer. 97 (5): 686–687. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603920. PMC 2360366. PMID 17687338.
- Hughes JR, Dorner E, Wind M (2008). "Is the decreased longevity among left-handers related to an increase in heart disease?". Clin EEG Neurosci. 39 (4): 182–184. doi:10.1177/155005940803900406. PMID 19044215.
- Luetters CM, Kelsey JL, Keegan TH, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S (2003). "Left-handedness as a risk factor for fractures". Osteoporos. Int. 14 (11): 918–22. doi:10.1007/s00198-003-1450-z. PMID 14530828.
- "Three Myths and Three Facts About Left-Handers". Psychology Today.
- Knight, Will (8 December 2004). "Left-handers win in hand-to-hand combat". New Scientist. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Waldfogel, Joel (August 16, 2006). "Sinister and Rich: The evidence that lefties earn more". Slate.
- Diana Widermann, Robert A. Barton, and Russel A. Hill. Evolutionary perspectives on sport and competition. In Roberts, S. C. (2011). Roberts, S. Craig (ed.). Applied Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586073.001.0001. ISBN 9780199586073.
- Peterson, Dan. "Righties vs Lefties - The Importance Of Handedness Training In Hitting". Game Sense Sports. Game Sense Sports. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "2012 Major League Baseball Batting Splits". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "The advantage of batting left-handed". hardballtimes.com. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Career Leaders & Records for Batting Average". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "First Base Pickoffs for Lefty Pitchers". isport.com. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Miller, Stuart (29 March 2009). "The Decline of Left-Handed First Basemen". nytimes.com. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Left Handed Catchers". The Encyclopedia of Baseball Catchers. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Hoppe, Bill (January 23, 2017). "Depleted Sabres defense thrives". Buffalo Hockey Beat. Olean Times Herald. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- Lalumière ML, Blanchard R, Zucker KJ (2000). "Sexual orientation and handedness in men and women: a meta-analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 126 (4): 575–592. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.126.4.575. PMID 10900997.
- Mustanski, B. S.; Bailey, J. M.; Kaspar, S. (2002). "Dermatoglyphics, handedness, sex, and sexual orientation". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31 (1): 113–122. doi:10.1023/A:1014039403752. PMID 11910784.
- Terrance J. Williams; Michelle E. Pepitone; Scott E. Christensen; Bradley M. Cooke; Andrew D. Huberman; Nicholas J. Breedlove; Tessa J. Breedlove; Cynthia L. Jordan; S. Marc Breedlove (2000). "Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation" (PDF). Nature. 404 (6777): 455–456. doi:10.1038/35006555. PMID 10761903.
- Gene Schwartz; et al. (2010). "Biodemographic and Physical Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Men". Arch Sex Behav. 39 (1): 93–109. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9499-1. PMID 19387815.
- Zucker KJ, Beaulieu N, Bradley SJ, Grimshaw GM, Wilcox A (2001). "Handedness in boys with gender identity disorder". J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 42 (6): 767–776. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00773. PMID 11583249.
- Rahman Q, Symeonides DJ (February 2007). "Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Paraphilic Sexual Interests in Men". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (1): 166–172. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9255-3. PMID 18074220.
- Blanchard R, Kolla NJ, Cantor JM, Klassen PE, Dickey R, Kuban ME, Blak T (2007). "IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source". Sex Abuse. 19 (3): 285–309. doi:10.1007/s11194-007-9049-0. PMID 17634757.
- Cantor JM, Klassen PE, Dickey R, Christensen BK, Kuban ME, Blak T, Williams NS, Blanchard R (2005). "Handedness in pedophilia and hebephilia". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 34 (4): 447–459. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-4344-7. PMID 16010467.
- Bogaert AF (2001). "Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending". Neuropsychologia. 39 (5): 465–469. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(00)00134-2. PMID 11254928.
- Fiona Dyshniku; Michelle E. Murray; Rachel L. Fazio; Amy D. Lykins; James M. Cantor (2015). "Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (8): 2151–2159. doi:10.1007/s10508-015-0564-7. PMID 26058490.
- Yule MA, Brotto LA, Gorzalka BB (2014). "Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (2): 299–310. doi:10.1007/s10508-013-0175-0. PMID 24045903.
- Santrock, John W. (2008). Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development. Mike Ryan [Ed.], A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development(pgs.172–205). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
- McManus, IC. The history and geography of human handedness. In: Language Lateralization and Psychosis, Iris E. C. Sommer and René S. Kahn. eds. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009.
- "A question of the left being right – and normal". China Daily. February 22, 2008. Archived from the original on January 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
- Erste deutsche Beratungs- und Informationsstelle für Linkshänder und umge-schulte Linkshänder. lefthander-consulting.org. Retrieved 21 September 2013
- Handedness Research Institute | Teaching Left-Handers to Write. handedness.org. Retrieved 21 September 2013
- Left-Handers' Day August 13th: Celebrate your right to be left-handed. lefthandersday.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013
- "All kangaroos are lefties, scientists say". Sci-News.com. June 18, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
- Callaway, Ewen (24 July 2009). "Is your cat left or right pawed?". New Scientist. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
|Look up handedness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Left-handedness.|
- Lefties Have The Advantage In Adversarial Situations, ScienceDaily, April 14, 2006.
- Science Creative Quarterly's overview of some of the genetic underpinnings of left-handedness
- A left-handed senior citizen recalls the emotional torment he faced at a New York public school in the 1920s. (Audio slideshow)
- Woznicki, Katrina (2005). "Breast Cancer Risk Doubles for Southpaw Women", MedPage Today, 26 September.
- Hansard (1998) 'Left-handed Children', Debate contribution by the Rt Hon. Mr. Peter Luff (MP for Mid-Worcestershire), House of Commons, 22 July.
- Is your Child Left-Handed? Why, according to psychological tests, left-handed people ought to remain so. Popular Science. December 1918. p. 22.
- Handedness and Earnings / Higher paychecks: a left-handed compliment?
- Handedness & earnings, published in Journal of Human Resources 2007
- Handedness Research Institute
- Study Reveals Why Lefties Are Rare