Gurjar

  (Redirected from Gujjar)

Gurjar or Gujjar (also transliterated as Gujar, Gojar and Goojar) is an ethnic agricultural and pastoral community of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. They were known as Gurjaras during the medieval times, a name which is believed to have been an ethnonym in the beginning as well as a demonym later on.[citation needed] Although traditionally they have been involved in agriculture (most famously, dairy and livestock farming), Gurjars are a large heterogeneous group that is internally differentiated in terms of culture, religion, occupation, and socio-economic status. The historical role of Gurjars has been quite diverse in society, at one end they have founded kingdom, districts, cities, towns, and villages, and at the other end, they are also nomads with no land of their own.[1][2][3][4]

Gurjar
Goojur Sirdars of Rajpootana.jpg
Goojar Sirdars of Rajpootana, from The People of India by Watson and Kayle.
ReligionsHinduism, Islam, Sikhism
LanguagesHindi, Urdu, Gujari, Punjabi, Hindko, Gujarati, Rajasthani, Marwari, Marathi, Pashto, Persian, Bhojpuri, Sindhi
RegionUttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Azad Kashmir, Bihar, Sindh, Gilgit-Baltistan, Nuristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Balochistan, Delhi

The pivotal point in the history of Gurjar identity is often traced back to the emergence of a Gurjara kingdom in present-day Rajasthan during medieval times (around 570 CE). It is believed that the Gurjars migrated to different parts of the Indian Subcontinent from the Gurjara kingdom.[5] Previously, it was believed that the Gurjars did an earlier migration from Central Asia as well, however, that view is generally considered to be speculative.[6] Historical references speak of Gurjara warriors and commoners in North India in the 7th century CE, and mention several Gurjara kingdoms and dynasties.[7] The Gurjaras started fading way from the forefront of history after 10th century CE. Thereafter, several Gurjar chieftains and upstart warriors are mentioned in history, who were rather petty rulers in contrast to their predecessors. The modern forms "Gurjar" and "Gujjar" were quite common during the Mughal era, and documents dating from the period mention Gurjars as a "turbulent" people. The Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan were known as Gurjaradesa and Gurjaratra for centuries prior to the arrival of the British power. The Gujrat and Gujranwala districts of Pakistani Punjab have also been associated with Gujjars from as early as the 8th century CE, when there existed a Gurjara kingdom in the same area. The Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh was also known as Gujarat previously, due to the presence of many Gujjar zamindars, or land holding farmer class, in the area.

Gurjars are linguistically and religiously diverse. Although they are able to speak the language of the region and country where they live, Gurjars have their own language, known as Gujari. They variously follow Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism.[2][8] The Hindu Gurjars are mostly found in Indian states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab Plains and Maharashtra. Muslim Gujjars are mostly found in Punjab, Pakistan where they make up 20% of the population, mainly concentrated in Northern Punjabi cities of Gujranwala, Gujrat, Gujar Khan, Jehlum and Lahore,[9] Afghanistan and Indian Himalayan regions such as Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garhwal and Kumaon divisions of Uttarakhand.

The Gurjars are classified as Other Backward Class (OBC) in some of India's States and UTs; in Jammu and Kashmir and some parts of Himachal Pradesh they are categorised as a Scheduled Tribe.[10][11][12][13] Hindu Gurjars were assimilated into various varnas in the medieval period.

Etymology

The word Gurjar represents a modern caste group in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, locally referred to as jati, zaat, qaum or biradari[14][15] The history of the word Gurjar can be confidently traced back to an ancient ethnic and tribal identity called Gurjara, which became prominent after the collapse of Gupta Empire. A literal or definitive meaning of the word Gurjara is not available in any of the historical references. The oldest reference to the word Gurjara is found in the book called Harshacharita (Harsha's Deeds), a biography of king Harshavardhana written around 630 CE.[16] Banabhatta, the author of Harshacharita, mentions that Harsha's father Prabhakravardhana (560-580 CE) was "a constant threat to the sleep of Gurjara"apparently a reference to the Gurjara king or kingdom. Inscriptions from a collateral branch of Gurjaras, known as Gurjaras of Lata, claim that their family was ruling Bharakucha (Bharuch) as early as 450 CE from their capital at Nandipuri. Based on these early dates, it has been proposed by some authors that Gurjara identity might have been present in India as early as the 3rd century CE, but it became prominent only after the fall of Guptas.

It has been suggested by several historians that Gurjara was initially the name of a tribe or clan which later evolved into a geographical and ethnic identity following the establishment of a janapada (tribal kingdom) called 'Gurjara'.[5] This understanding has introduced an element of ambiguity regarding ancient royal designations containing the word 'gurjara' such as 'gurjaraeshvara' or 'gurjararaja', as now its debatable whether the kings bearing these epithets were tribal or ethnic Gurjaras.[17][18]

A study by Gujjar Scholar Javaid Rahi on the origin of the word Gurjar suggested that 'Gujjar' is the same word as Turkish ' Göçer' (nomad), and that Gurjar or Gurjara are its Sanskritized forms.[citation needed] He revealed that some part of the Gujjar tribe, presently known as Konar-Göçer and Göçer Arıcılık still exits in Turkey.[19] The word 'Gurjara' is often traced by historians from groups that invaded India in early medieval times, such as Khazars also known as Guzars, or Kushans also known as Gaussuras.[20] Some Indian historians, especially of a nationalistic orientation, argue that there is nothing in the historical records to suggest that Gurjaras had a foreign origin, as even the earliest members of this group were steeped in Indian religion and culture.[citation needed]

History

Origin

Historians and anthropologists differ on the issue of Gurjar origin. According to one view, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came from central Asia via Georgia from near the Caspian Sea; that Sea's alternate name of the Bahr-e-Khizar caused the tribe to be known as Khizar, Guzar, Gujur, Gurjara, or Gujjar. According to this view, between 1 BCE and 1 CE, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came in multiple waves of migration and they were initially accorded status as high-caste warriors in the Hindu fold in the North-Western regions (modern Rajasthan and Gujarat).[20] Aydogdy Kurbanov states that some Gurjars, along with people from northwestern India, merged with the Hephthalites to become the Rajput clan.[21]

According to scholars such as Baij Nath Puri, the Mount Abu (ancient Arbuda Mountain) region of present-day Rajasthan had been an abode of the Gurjars during the medieval period.[22] The association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and epigraphs including Tilakamanjari of Dhanpala.[23][better source needed] These Gurjars migrated from the Arbuda mountain region and as early as in the 6th century A.D., they set up one or more principalities in Rajasthan and Gujarat. The whole or a larger part of Rajasthan and Gujarat had been long known as Gurjaratra (country ruled or protected by the Gurjars) or Gurjarabhumi (land of the Gurjars) for centuries prior to the Mughal period.[24]

In Sanskrit texts, the ethnonym has sometimes been interpreted as "destroyer of the enemy": gur meaning "enemy" and ujjar meaning "destroyer").[25][26]

In its survey of The People of India, the Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) – a government-sponsored organisation – noted that

The Gurjars/Gujjars were no doubt a remarkable people spread from Kashmir to Gujarat and Maharashtra, who gave an identity to Gujarat, established kingdoms, entered the Rajput groups as the dominant lineage of Badgujar, and survive today as a pastoral and a tribal group with both Hindu and Muslim segments.[27]

Irawati Karve, the Indologist and historian, believed that the Gurjars position in society and the caste system generally varied from one linguistic area of India to another. In Maharashtra, Karve thought that they were probably absorbed by the Rajputs and Marathas but retained some of their distinct identity. She based her theories on analysis of clan names and tradition, noting that while most Rajputs claim their origins to lie in the mythological Chandravansh or Suryavansh dynasties, at least two of the communities in the region claimed instead to be descended from the Agnivansh.[27][a]

A 2009 study conducted by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, under the supervision of Gurjar scholar Javaid Rahi, claimed that the word "Gojar" has a Central Asian Turkic origin, written in romanized Turkish as Göçer. The study claimed that according to the new research, the Gurjar race "remained one of the most vibrant identity of Central Asia in BC era and later ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years."[citation needed]

British rule

In the 18th century, several Gurjar chieftains and small kings were in power. During the reign of Rohilla Nawab Najib-ul-Daula, Rao Dargahi Singh Bhati, the Gurjar chieftain of Dadri possessed 133 villages at a fixed revenue of Rs. 29,000.[28] A fort in Parikshitgarh in Meerut district, also known as Qila Parikishatgarh, is ascribed to a Gurjar king Nain Singh Nagar.[29]

During the revolt of 1857, the Gurjars of Chundrowli rose against the British, under the leadership of Damar Ram. The Gurjars of Shunkuri village, numbering around three thousand, joined the rebel sepoys. According to British records, the Gurjars plundered gunpowder and ammunition from the British and their allies.[30] In Delhi, the Metcalfe House was sacked by Gurjar villagers from whom the land was taken to erect the building.[31] The British records claim that the Gurjars carried out several robberies. They were famously known by the British and Indian locals for committing banditry and aggressively attacking, killing, and then looting anyone who tried to enter Delhi. Twenty Gurjars were reported to have been beheaded by Rao Tula Ram for committing dacoities in July 1857.[32] In September 1857, the British were able to enlist the support of many Gurjars at Meerut.[33] The colonial authors always used the code word "turbulent" for the castes who were generally hostile to British rule. They cited proverbs that appear to evaluate the caste in an unfavorable light. A British administrator, William Crooke, described that Gurjars seriously impeded the operations of the British Army before Delhi.[34] Reporter Meena Radhakrishna believe that the British classified the Gurjars along with others as "criminal tribes" because of their active participation in the revolt of 1857, and also because, they considered these tribes to be prone to criminality in the absence of legitimate means of livelihood.[35]

Culture

Afghanistan

 
Gurjar children in Afghanistan, 1984

Small pockets of Gurjars are found in Afghanistan's northeastern region, particularly in and around the Nuristan province.[2]

India

Today, the Gurjars are classified under the Other Backward Class category in some states in India.[13] However, in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himachal Pradesh, they are designated as a Scheduled Tribe under the Indian government's reservation program of positive discrimination. Hindu Gurjars were assimilated into several varnas.[36]

Haryana

The Gurjar community in Haryana has set elaborate guidelines for solemnizing marriages and holding other functions.[37] In a mahapanchayat ("the great panchayat"), the Gurjar community decided that those who sought dowry would be excommunicated from the society.[38]

Rajasthan

 
Fairs of Shri Devnarayan Bhagwan are organized two times in a year at Demali, Maalasheri, Asind and Jodhpuriya
 
Statue of Sri Sawai Bhoj Bagaravat, one of the 24 Gurjar brothers collectively known as Bagaravats, at Dev Dham Jodhpuriya temple.

Songs pertaining to Krishna and Gurjars were documented in Gurjar-inhabited areas during the British Raj, the connection being that Nand Mihir, the foster-father of Krishna, is claimed to be a Gurjar.[39] Radha, the consort of Krishna, was also a Gurjar.[40]

The Rajasthani Gurjars worship the Sun God, Devnarayan (an avatar of Vishnu), Shiva and Bhavani.[41][42]

In Rajasthan, some members of the Gurjar community resorted to violent protests over the issue of reservation in 2006 and 2007. During the 2003 election to the Rajasthan assembly, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) promised them ST status.[43] However, the party failed to keep its promise after coming to the power, resulting in protests by the Gurjars in September 2006.[44]

In May 2007, during violent protests over the reservation issue, members of the Gurjar community clashed with the police.[45] Subsequently, the Gurjars protested violently, under various groups including the Gurjar Sangarsh Samiti,[46] Gurjar Mahasabha[47] and the Gurjar Action Committee.[48] The protestors blocked roads and set fire to two police stations and some vehicles.[49] Presently, the Gurjars in Rajasthan are classified as Other Backward Classes.[50]

On 5 June 2007, Gurjars rioted over their desire to be added to the central list of tribes who are given preference in India government job selection as well as placement in the schools sponsored by the states of India. This preference is given under a system designed to help India's poor and disadvantaged citizens. However, other tribes on the list oppose this request as it would make it harder to obtain the few positions already set aside.[51]

In December 2007, the Akhil Bhartiya Gurjar Mahasabha ("All-India Gurjar Council") stated that the community would boycott BJP, which is in power in Rajasthan.[52] But now in 2009 all Gurjars were supporting BJP so that they can be politically benefitted. Kirori Singh Bainsla fought and lost at BJP ticket. In early 2000s (decade), the Gurjar community in Dang region of Rajasthan was also in news for the falling sex ratio, unavailability of brides, and the resulting polyandry.[53][54]

Madhya Pradesh

As of 2007, the Gurjars in Madhya Pradesh are classified as Other Backward Classes.[55]

Maharashtra

Dode Gujars and Dore Gujars are listed as Other Backward Classes in Maharashtra.[56]

Gujarat

Gurjars are one of the 6 main carpenter (Suthar) castes of Gujarat, and are believed to be of Central Asian descent.[57] They are listed among the Other Backward Classes of Gujarat.[58]

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya (also known as Mistri) and Gurjar Kshatriya Kadia are minority communities of Gujarat which are listed among the Other Backward Classes of Gujarat.[58]

A few scholars believe that the Leva Kunbis (or Kambis) of Gujarat, a section of the Patidars, are possibly of Gurjar origin.[59][60] However, several others state that the Patidars are Kurmis or Kunbis (Kanbis);[61][62] Gurjars are included in the OBC list in Gujarat but Patidars are not.[58]

The Gurjars are a subtype of Kumhar and Prajapati community of Gujarat and are listed among the Other Backward Classes of Gujarat.[58]

Gurjars of North Gujarat, along with those of Western Rajasthan and Punjab, worship Sitala and Bhavani.[42]

Himachal Pradesh

As of 2001, the Gurjars in parts of Himachal Pradesh were classified as a Scheduled Tribe.[63]

Jammu and Kashmir

Gujjars, Bakerwals tribes of Jammu and Kashmir were declared Scheduled Tribe (ST) in 1991.[64] In the Indian Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, the concentration of Gurjars is observed in all but largely found in Rajouri, Poonch, Reasi, Kishtwar district and, followed by, Anantnag, Udhampur and Doda districts.[65] It is believed that Gurjars migrated to Jammu and Kashmir from Gujarat (via Rajasthan) and Hazara district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[66]

As of 2011, the Gurjars and the Bakarwals in Jammu and Kashmir were classified as Scheduled Tribes constitute 12% of the total population of Jammu and Kashmir but Gujjars / Bakerwal claim that they constitute more than 20%, as when the Census held in, 2001 and 2011, more than 50% of their population is in upper reaches of Himalaya in connection with by annual tribal migrations and accordingly seek special census of tribal.[63][67] According to 2011 Census of India, Gurjar is the most populous scheduled tribe in J&K, having a population of 1493299 . Around 99.3 percent population of Gurjar and Bakarwal in J&K follow Islam.[65][68]

The Gurjars of Jammu and Kashmir in 2007 demanded to treat this tribal community as a linguistic minority in the State and provide constitutional safeguards to their language Gojri. They also impressed upon the state government to take up the matter with Delhi for inclusion of Gojri in the list of official languages of India.[69][70]

In 2002, some Gurjars and Bakarwals in J&K demanded a separate state (Gujaristan) for Gurjar and Bakarwal communities, under the banner of All India Gurjar Parishad.[71]

Uttarakhand - Van Gurjars

The Van Gurjars ("forest Gurjars") are found in the Shivalik Hills area of Uttarakhand. The Van Gurjars follow Islam, and they have their own clans, similar to the Hindu gotras.[72] They are a pastoral semi-nomadic community, practising transhumance. In the winter season, the Van Gurjars migrate with herds of semi-wild water buffalo to the Shivalik Hills at the foot of the Himalayas, and in summer, they migrate to alpine pastures higher up the Himalayas. The Gurjar's sell milk to local peoples as their primary source of income.[73] They treat their animals with great care and do not eat them nor sell them for meat.[73]

The Van Gurjars have had conflicts with forest authorities, who prohibited human and livestock populations inside reserved parks.[72] However, India's Forest Rights Act of 2006 granted rights to "traditional forest dwellers" to the lands they've relied on for generations.[73] The conflict between local forest officials who claim rights over the newly created parks, and the thousand year nomadic traditions of the Van Gurjars has been ongoing.[74][73]

Pakistan

Gujjars are a major tribe in Pakistan and compromise as much as twenty percent of the country's population.[9] Several cities in Punjab, Pakistan are named after them including Gujranwala, Gujar Khan and Gujrat[citation needed]. Due to migrations, large Gujjar population can also be found in Islamabad, Sialkot, Lahore and Faisalabad. Majority of Gujjars in Pakistan speak Punjabi. Punjabi Gujjars typically use the prefix Chaudhry as a courtesy title.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ AnSI cites I. Karve's Hindu Society – An Interpretation," page 64.[27]

Citations

  1. ^ Shail Mayaram (2 June 2007). "Caste, tribe, and the politics of reservation". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 March 2019. The Gujjars, estimated to number 1.6 crore nationwide, are internally differentiated in terms of religion, occupation, and socio-economic status. Historically, they have comprised a hugely heterogeneous group ranging from the Gurjar-Pratihara rulers of north India to the Gujjar and Bakarwal nomads of Jammu and the Kashmir valley
  2. ^ a b c "Nuristan". Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. October 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  3. ^ Jean-Philippe Platteau (2010). Culture, Institutions, and Development: New Insights into an Old Debate. ISBN 9780203843338.
  4. ^ Randeep Ramesh in Delhi (29 May 2007). "Rajasthan hit by riots over caste system". theguardian. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 6.
  6. ^ Shail Mayaram (2016). Vijay Ramaswamy (ed.). Migrations in medieval and Early Colondial India. Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-138-12192-8.
  7. ^ Chattopadhyaya 1994, p. 64.
  8. ^ Singh 2012, pp. 48 & 51.
  9. ^ a b "Who are the Gujjars?". Hindustan Times. 3 June 2007. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Inclusion of Castes in OBC List". PIB, Govt of India. 23 April 2013.
  11. ^ S. P. Agrawal; J. C. Aggarwal (1991). Educational and Social Uplift of Backward Classes: At what Cost and How? : Mandal Commission and After, Part 1. Concept Publishing Company. p. 175. ISBN 9788170223399.
  12. ^ Census India. "List of notified Scheduled Tribes" (PDF). Census India, Govt. of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  13. ^ a b Page, Jeremy (30 May 2008). "India's Gujjar caste fight for a downgrade". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  14. ^ Gloria Goodwin Raheja (15 September 1988). The Poison in the Gift: Ritual, Prestation, and the Dominant Caste in a North Indian Village. University of Chicago Press. pp. 01–03. ISBN 978-0-226-70729-7. This regional dominance and the kingship (rajya) exercised by Gujar chiefs still figure prominently in oral traditions current among Saharanpur Gujars and in the depiction of their identity as Ksatriya "kings" in printed histories of the Gujar Jati.
  15. ^ Muhammad Asghar (2016). The Sacred and the Secular: Aesthetics in Domestic Spaces of Pakistan/Punjab. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 10. ISBN 978-3-643-90836-0. The main grouping is the biradari, which is a very old established norm of people identifying themselves... A larger and also ancient form of grouping is the caste (qaum). The three main ones are Jaats (farmers), Arains (who traditionally were gardeners) and Gujjars (people who tend livestock and sell milk).
  16. ^ Puri, Baij Nath (1986). The History of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 9.
  17. ^ Sharma, Sanjay (2006). "Negotiating Identity and Status". Studies in History. 22 (2): 181–220. doi:10.1177/025764300602200202. ISSN 0257-6430. S2CID 144128358.
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  19. ^ Aygün, Necmettin. "konar-göçer". Cappadocia Journal of History and Social Sciences. Acadimia.Edu/.
  20. ^ a b Singh 2012, pp. 44–
  21. ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2010). "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and Historical Analysis" (PDF). p. 243. Retrieved 11 January 2013. As a result of the merging of the Hephthalites and the Gujars with population from northwestern India, the Rajputs (from Sanskrit "rajputra" – "son of the rajah") formed.
  22. ^ Kulbhushan Warikoo; Sujit Som. Gurjars of Jammu and Kashmir. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya. Dr. B. N. Puri who wrote a thesis Gurjar Pratihar at oxford university states that the Gurjars were local people ..
  23. ^ Sudarśana Śarmā (2002). Tilakamañjarī of Dhanapāla: a critical and cultural study. Parimal Publications. p. 214.
  24. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Achut Dattatrya Pusalker; A. K. Majumdar; Dilip Kumar Ghose; Vishvanath Govind Dighe; Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (1977). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 153.
  25. ^ Warikoo, Kulbhushan; Som, Sujit (2000). Gurjars of Jammu and Kashmir. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya. p. 4. "Gurjar" is a sanskrit word which has been explained thus: Gur+Ujjar;'Gur' means 'enemy' and 'ujjar' means 'destroyer'. The word means "Destroyer of the enemy".
  26. ^ Parishada, Bhāratīya Gurjara (1993). Gurjara aura Unakā Itihāsa meṃ Yogadāna Vishaya para Prathama …, Volume 2. Bharatiya Gurjar Parisha. p. 27. Sanskrit Dictionary Compiled by Pandit Radha Kant (Shakabada 1181) explains: Gurjar=Gur (enemy)+Ujar(destroyer)
  27. ^ a b c Kumar Suresh Singh; B. V. Bhanu; Anthropological Survey of India (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-81-7991-101-3.
  28. ^ Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers. Govternment of Uttar Pradesh. 1993. p. 152.
  29. ^ "Tourist Places". District Administration Meerut. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  30. ^ Agha Humayun Amin (January 2000). "The Delhi Campaign". Defence Journal. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  31. ^ Sen, Geeti; Ashis Banerjee (2001). The Human Landscape. Orient Longman. p. 236. ISBN 978-81-250-2045-5.
  32. ^ Jivanlala (Jeewan Lal), Munshi; Mu‘in al-Din Hasan Khan. "Narrative of Munshi Jeewan Lal". Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007. in Metcalfe, Charles, ed. (1974) [1898]. Two Native Narratives of the Mutiny in Delhi. Seema Publications [original publisher: A. Constable & Co]. pp. 10–27. Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  33. ^ C.R. Bijoy (February 2003). The Adivasis of India – A History of Discrimination, Conflict, and Resistance. PUCL Bulletin. People's Union for Civil Liberties.
  34. ^ Everyday life in South Asia By Diane P. Mines, Sarah Lamb, Published by Indiana University Press, 2002, pp.206
  35. ^ Meena Radhakrishna (16 July 2006). "Dishonoured by history". The Hindu folio: Special issue with the Sunday Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  36. ^ Sharma, R. S. (2003). Early medieval Indian society: a study in feudalisation. Orient Longman Private Limited. p. 207. ISBN 978-81-250-2523-8. Retrieved 30 November 2009. It would be wrong to think that all foreigners were accepted as kshatriya and Rajputs for, in course of time, the Gujar people broke up into brahmans, banias, potters, goldsmiths, not to speak of herdsmen and cultivators (kunbis), who were looked upon as sudras.
  37. ^ Chattar Pal Tanwar (3 August 2003). "Anti-dowry campaign renewed before marriage season". The Tribune, Chandigarh. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  38. ^ Parmindar Singh (29 June 2003). "No band, no dhol, and just 11 baratis". The Tribune, Chandigarh. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  39. ^ J. Kennedy (1907). The child Krishna, Christianity and the Gujars. Royal Asiatic Society.
  40. ^ Taran Singh (1992). Guru Nanak, his mind and art. Bahri Publications. p. 142. ISBN 978-81-7034-066-9.
  41. ^ Daniel Neuman; Shubha Chaudhuri; Komal Kothari (2007). Bards, ballads and boundaries: an ethnographic atlas of music traditions in West Rajasthan. Seagull. ISBN 978-1905422074. Devnarayan is worshipped as an avatar or incarnation of Vishnu. This epic is associated with the Gujar caste
  42. ^ a b Indian studies: past & present, Volume 11. Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers. 1970. p. 385. The Gujars of Punjab, North Gujarat and Western Rajasthan worship Sitala and Bhavani
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  46. ^ "Talks between Rajasthan Government, Gujjars collapse". Zee News. 30 May 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
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  48. ^ "Four dead in Gujjar-police clash in Rajasthan". The Times of India. 29 May 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  49. ^ "Impoverished villagers burn police stations, vehicles in India". Pravda.ru. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
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  53. ^ Manipadma Jena (3 August 2003). "Men without women". The Hindu. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  54. ^ Astrid Lobo Gajiwala (7 February 2005). "Diminishing returns". The National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  55. ^ "Central List of Other Backward Classes: Madhya Pradesh". National Commission for Backward Classes. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
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  57. ^ Thakkar, Jay (2004). Naqsh: The Art of Wood Carving in Traditional Houses of Gujarat, a Focus on Ornamentation. Research Cell. ISBN 9788175252851.
  58. ^ a b c d "CENTRAL LIST OF OBCs FOR THE STATE OF GUJARAT" (PDF). Government of India.
  59. ^ "Buldhana: Castes". Buldhana District Gazetteer. Gazetteers Department, Cultural Affairs Department of Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  60. ^ Panjabi, Kewalram Lalchand (1977). The Indomitable Sardar. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 4. Vallabhbhai Patel belonged to the famous clan of Leva Gujar Patidars who played a notable role in the history of Gujarat. They were Gujars who came from Punjab and had occupied the rich charotar land between Mahi and Tapi rivers.
  61. ^ "Culture and Traditions". Patidar Samaj. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
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Bibliography

Further reading

External links