GitHub is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git. It is mostly used for computer code. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features.
|Type of business||Subsidiary|
Type of site
|Git-repository hosting service|
|Founded||February 8, 2008(as Logical Awesome LLC)|
|Headquarters||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Key people||P. J. Hyett (COO)|
|Alexa rank||55 (February 2019[update])|
|Registration||Optional (required for creating and joining projects)|
|Users||31 million (October 2018)|
|Launched||April 10, 2008|
GitHub offers plans for enterprise, team, pro and free accounts which are commonly used to host open-source software projects. As of January 2019, GitHub offers unlimited private repositories to all plans, including free accounts.
As of June 2018, GitHub reports having over 28 million users and 57 million repositories (including 28 million public repositories), making it the largest host of source code in the world.
GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, PJ Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008. The company, GitHub, Inc., has existed since 2007 and is located in San Francisco.
On February 24, 2009, GitHub team members announced, in a talk at Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online, GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of which were formed in the previous month alone. At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been merged.
On July 5, 2009, GitHub announced that the site was now harnessed by over 100,000 users. On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Tom Preston-Werner announced that GitHub had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories.
On January 16, 2013, GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million users mark and was then hosting more than 5 million repositories. On December 23, 2013, GitHub announced it had reached 10 million repositories.
In June 2015, GitHub opened an office in Japan that is its first office outside of the U.S.
Acquisition by MicrosoftEdit
On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion, and the deal closed on Oct. 26, 2018. GitHub will continue to operate independently as a community, platform and business. Under Microsoft, the service will be led by Xamarin's Nat Friedman, reporting to Scott Guthrie, executive vice president of Microsoft Cloud and AI. Current CEO Chris Wanstrath will be retained as a "technical fellow", also reporting to Guthrie. Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, and Visual Studio Code, and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).
Some[who?] saw this as a culmination of Microsoft's recent changes in business strategy under CEO Satya Nadella, which has seen a larger focus on the sale of cloud computing services as its main line of business, alongside development of and contributions to open source software (such as Linux), as opposed to the Microsoft Windows operating system. Harvard Business Review argued that Microsoft was intending to acquire GitHub to get access to its userbase, so it can be used as a loss leader to encourage use of its other development products and services.
Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.
GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager" (self-management). Employees can choose to work on projects that interest them (open allocation). However, salaries are set by the chief executive.[needs update]
In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management.
GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided enough revenue to be funded solely by its three founders and start taking on employees. In July 2012, four years after the company was founded, Andreessen Horowitz invested $100 million in venture capital. In July 2015 GitHub raised another $250 million of venture capital in a series B round. Investors were Sequoia Capital, Andreessen Horowitz, Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds. As of August 2016, GitHub was making $140 million in Annual Recurring Revenue.
GitHub's mascot is an anthropomorphized "octocat" with five octopus-like arms. The character was created by graphic designer Simon Oxley as clip art to sell on iStock, a website that enables designers to market royalty-free digital images.
GitHub became interested in Oxley's work after Twitter selected a bird that he designed for their own logo. The illustration GitHub chose was a character that Oxley had named Octopuss. Since GitHub wanted Octopuss for their logo (a use that the iStock license disallows), they negotiated with Oxley to buy exclusive rights to the image.
GitHub renamed Octopuss to Octocat, and trademarked the character along with the new name. Later, GitHub hired illustrator Cameron McEfee to adapt Octocat for different purposes on the website and promotional materials; McEfee and various GitHub users have since created hundreds of variations of the character, which are available on The Octodex.
In March 2014, GitHub programmer Julie Ann Horvath alleged that founder and CEO Tom Preston-Werner and his wife Theresa engaged in a pattern of harassment against her that led to her leaving the company. In April 2014, GitHub released a statement denying Horvath's allegations. However, following an internal investigation, GitHub confirmed the claims. GitHub's CEO Chris Wanstrath wrote on the company blog, "The investigation found Tom Preston-Werner in his capacity as GitHub's CEO acted inappropriately, including confrontational conduct, disregard of workplace complaints, insensitivity to the impact of his spouse's presence in the workplace, and failure to enforce an agreement that his spouse should not work in the office." Preston-Werner then resigned from the company. In 2017 more allegations were made of discriminatory and unsupportive behavior at GitHub by a developer who had been recruited following a commitment by GitHub to improve its diversity and inclusivity.
Development of the GitHub platform began on October 19, 2007. The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett and Scott Chacon after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.
Projects on GitHub can be accessed and manipulated using the standard Git command-line interface and all of the standard Git commands work with it. GitHub also allows registered and non-registered users to browse public repositories on the site. Multiple desktop clients and Git plugins have also been created by GitHub and other third parties that integrate with the platform.
The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.
A user must create an account in order to contribute content to the site, but public repositories can be browsed and downloaded by anyone. With a registered user account, users are able to have discussions, manage repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review changes to code.
The fundamental software that underpins GitHub is Git itself, written by Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux. The additional software that provides the GitHub user interface was written using Ruby on Rails and Erlang by GitHub, Inc. developers Wanstrath, Hyett, and Preston-Werner.
GitHub is mostly used for code.
In addition to source code, GitHub supports the following formats and features:
- Documentation, including automatically rendered README files in a variety of Markdown-like file formats (see README files on GitHub)
- Issue tracking (including feature requests) with labels, milestones, assignees and a search engine
- Pull requests with code review and comments
- Commits history
- Graphs: pulse, contributors, commits, code frequency, punch card, network, members
- Integrations Directory
- Unified and split diffs
- Email notifications
- Option to subscribe someone to notifications by @ mentioning them.
- GitHub Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.
- Nested task-lists within files
- Visualization of geospatial data
- 3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas". The viewer is powered by WebGL and Three.js.
- Photoshop's native PSD format can be previewed and compared to previous versions of the same file.
- PDF document viewer
- Security Alerts of known Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures in different packages
Licensing of repositoriesEdit
GitHub's Terms of Service do not require public software projects hosted on GitHub to meet the Open Source Definition. For that reason, it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of software found on GitHub to read the software license in the repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE", "LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs. The Terms of Service state, "By setting your repositories to be viewed publicly, you agree to allow others to view and fork your repositories."
GitHub Enterprise is similar to GitHub's public service but is designed for use by large-scale enterprise software development teams where the enterprise wishes to host their repositories behind a corporate firewall.
Tom Preston-Werner presented the then-new Gist feature at a punk rock Ruby conference in 2008. Gist builds on the traditional simple concept of a pastebin by adding version control for code snippets, easy forking, and SSL encryption for private pastes. Because each "gist" has its own Git repository, multiple code snippets can be contained in a single paste and they can be pushed and pulled using Git. Further, forked code can be pushed back to the original author in the form of a patch, so gists (pastes) can become more like mini-projects.
GitHub launched a new program called the GitHub Student Developer Pack to give students free access to popular development tools and services. GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine to launch the program.
In 2016 GitHub announced the launch of the GitHub Campus Experts program to train and encourage students to grow technology communities at their universities. The Campus Experts program is open to university students of 18 years and older across the world. GitHub Campus Experts are one of the primary ways that GitHub funds student oriented events and communities, Campus Experts are given access to training, funding, and additional resources to run events and grow their communities. To become a Campus Expert applicants must complete an online training course consisting of multiple modules designed to grow community leadership skills.
GitHub Marketplace serviceEdit
GitHub also provides some software as a service integrations for adding extra features to projects. Those services include:
- Waffle.io: Project management for software teams. Automatically see pull requests, automated builds, reviews, and deployments across all of your repositories in GitHub.
- GitLocalize: Developed for teams that are translating their content from one point to another. GitLocalize automatically syncs with your repository so you can keep your workflow on GitHub. It also keeps you updated on what needs to be translated.
On March 26, 2015, GitHub fell victim to a massive DDoS attack that lasted for more than 118 hours. The attack, which appeared to originate from China, primarily targeted GitHub-hosted user content describing methods of circumventing Internet censorship.
On October 8, 2016, GitHub access was blocked by the Turkish government to prevent email leakage of a hacked account belonging to the country's Energy Minister.
- "About - GitHub". GitHub.
- "Github.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Williams, Alex (July 9, 2012). "GitHub Pours Energies into Enterprise – Raises $100 Million From Power VC Andreessen Horowitz". TechCrunch.
Andreessen Horowitz is investing an eye-popping $100 million into GitHub
- "Why GitHub's pricing model stinks (for us)". LosTechies. November 7, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- "The Problem With Putting All the World's Code in GitHub". Wired. June 29, 2015. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- nat (2019-01-07). "New year, new GitHub: Announcing unlimited free private repos and unified Enterprise offering". The GitHub Blog. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
- "User search". GitHub. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
Showing 28,337,706 available users
- "Celebrating nine years of GitHub with an anniversary sale". github.com. Github. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- "Repository search for public repositories". GitHub. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
Showing 28,177,992 available repository results
- Gousios, Georgios; Vasilescu, Bogdan; Serebrenik, Alexander; Zaidman, Andy. "Lean GHTorrent: GitHub Data on Demand" (PDF). The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology & †Eindhoven University of Technology: 1. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
During recent years, GITHUB (2008) has become the largest code host in the world.
- Neumann, Alexander. "GitHub populärer als SourceForge und Google Code". heise Developer.
- Dascalescu, Dan (November 3, 2009). "The PITA Threshold: GitHub vs. CPAN". Dan Dascalescu's Wiki.
- "One Million Repositories, Git Official Blog". July 25, 2010.
- "Those are some big numbers, Git Official Blog". April 20, 2011.
- "Github Has Surpassed Sourceforge and Google Code in Popularity".
During the period Black Duck examined, Github had 1,153,059 commits, Sourceforge had 624,989, Google Code and 287,901 and CodePlex had 49,839.
- Levine, Peter (July 9, 2012). "Software Eats Software Development".
- "Code-sharing site Github turns five and hits 3.5 million users, 6 million repositories". TheNextWeb.com. April 11, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- "10 Million Repositories". GitHub.com. December 23, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- "GitHub Expands To Japan, Its First Office Outside The U.S." TechCrunch. June 4, 2015.
- "GitHub raises $250 million in new funding, now valued at $2 billion". Fortune. July 29, 2015.
- "Forbes Cloud 100". Forbes. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "GitHub Survived the Biggest DDoS Attack Ever Recorded". Wired.com. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "Microsoft confirms it will acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion". VentureBeat. June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Friedman, Nat (October 26, 2018). "Pull request successfully merged. Starting build…". The GitHub Blog. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Hughes, Matthew (June 19, 2018). "GitHub's free education bundle is now available to all schools". The Next Web. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "GitHub Education is a free software development package for schools". Engadget. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Microsoft has acquired GitHub for $7.5B in stock". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "Microsoft confirms it will acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion". The Verge. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Warren, Tom. "Here's what GitHub developers really think about Microsoft's acquisition". The Verge. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Merriman, Chris. "Microsoft has snapped up GitHub and the internet has feelings | TheINQUIRER". The Inquirer. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Horwitz, Josh. "GitHub users are already fuming about the company's sale to Microsoft". Quartz. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "Why Microsoft Is Willing to Pay So Much for GitHub". Harvard Business Review. June 6, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "10 reasons why teams are switching from GitHub to Bitbucket after Microsoft acquisition". Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Tung, Liam. "GitHub rivals gain from Microsoft acquisition but it's no mass exodus, yet". ZDNet. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- "If Microsoft buying GitHub freaks you out, here are your best alternatives". TechRepublic. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "GitHub Importer". SourceForge. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Tomayko, Ryan (April 2, 2012). "Show How, Don't Tell What - A Management Style". Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Hardy, Quentin. "Dreams of 'Open' Everything". New York Times.
- Evelyn, Rusli (July 17, 2014). "Harassment claims make startup GitHub grow up". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- Michael, Carney (June 20, 2013). "GitHub CEO explains why the company took so damn long to raise venture capital". PandoDaily. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Lardinois, Frederic. "GitHub Raises $250M Series B Round To Take Risks". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- Plassnig, Moritz. "GitHub is making $140M in ARR". Medium. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "GitHub Octodex FAQ". github.com. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
- Jaramillo, Tony (November 24, 2014). "From Sticker to Sculpture: The making of the Octocat figurine". The GitHub Blog. GitHub. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- DeAmicis, Carmel (July 8, 2013). "Original GitHub Octocat designer Simon Oxley on his famous creation: "I don't remember drawing it"". PandoDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- Campbell-Dollaghan, Kelsey (April 26, 2013). "Meet the Accidental Designer of the GitHub and Twitter Logos". Co.Design. Fast Company. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- McEfee, Cameron (May 12, 2016). "The Octocat—a nerdy household name". CameronMcEfee.com. Cameron McEfee. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- Goldman, David. "What IS that thing behind Satya Nadella in the GitHub photo?". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 19, 2018.
- Biddle, Sam; Tiku, Nitasha (17 March 2014). "Meet the Married Duo Behind Tech's Biggest New Harassment Scandal". Vallywag. Gawker. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- Miller, Claire Cain (April 21, 2014). "GitHub Founder Resigns After Investigation". Bits. The New York Times.
- Wilhelm, Alex (April 21, 2014). "GitHub Denies Allegations Of "Gender-Based Harassment," Co-Founder Preston-Werner Resigns". TechCrunch.
- "Follow up to the investigation results". April 28, 2014.
- Ehmke, Coraline Ada blog. "Antisocial Coding: My Year at GitHub,". Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- Weis, Kristina (February 10, 2014). "GitHub CEO and Co-Founder Chris Wanstrath Keynoting Esri's DevSummit!".
in 2007 they began working on GitHub as a side project
- Preston-Werner, Tom (October 19, 2008). "GitHub Turns One!". GitHub. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
- Wanstrath, Chris (December 7, 2009). "The ﬁrst commit was on a Friday night in October, around 10 pm". Retrieved November 4, 2017.
- Catone, Josh (July 24, 2008). "GitHub Gist is Pastie on Steroids".
GitHub hosts about 10,000 projects and officially launched in April of this year after a beta period of a few months.
- "Interview with Chris Wanstrath". Doeswhat.com. March 6, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Integrations Directory". GitHub. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- "Mention @somebody. They're notified". GitHub. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- "Github Help / Categories / Writing on GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved April 30, 2016.
- "GitHub Pages".
- Weinhoffer, Eric (April 9, 2013). "GitHub Now Supports STL File Viewing".
- "GitHub Terms of Service - User Documentation". Help.github.com. February 11, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Introducing GitHub Enterprise". GitHub. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- Preston-Werner, Tom (July 20, 2008). God's memory leak - a scientific treatment. RubyFringe. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
He previewed the upcoming git feature gist
- Lardinois, Frederic (October 7, 2014). "GitHub Partners With Digital Ocean, Unreal Engine, Others To Give Students Free Access To Developer Tools". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- "GitHub Campus Experts - Technology leadership at your school". The GitHub Blog. 2016-06-25. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
- "GitHub Campus Experts". GitHub Education. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
- "Russia Blacklists, Blocks GitHub Over Pages That Refer To Suicide".
- McMillan, Robert. "Russia's Creeping Descent Into Internet Censorship". WIRED. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- "GitHub, Vimeo and 30 more sites blocked in India over content from ISIS". thenextweb.com. The Next Web. December 31, 2014.
- "Large Scale DDoS Attack on github.com". github.com. GitHub. March 27, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- "Last night, GitHub was hit with massive denial-of-service attack from China". theverge.com. The Verge. March 27, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
- "U.S. Coding Website GitHub Hit With Cyberattack". wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. March 29, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- "Massive denial-of-service attack on GitHub tied to Chinese government". arstechnica.com. Ars Technica. March 31, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- "Turkey blocked GitHub and Dropbox to hide leaks – reports".