Giessen, spelled Gießen in German (German pronunciation: [ˈɡiːsn̩] (listen)), is a town in the German federated state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of both the district of Giessen and the administrative region of Giessen. The population is approximately 86,000, with roughly 44,000 university students.
|• Lord mayor||Dietlind Grabe-Bolz (SPD)|
|• Total||72.56 km2 (28.02 sq mi)|
|Elevation||159 m (522 ft)|
|• Density||1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Dialling codes||0641, 06403|
The name comes from Giezzen, as it was first referred to in 1197, which refers to the position of the town between several rivers, lakes and streams. The largest river in Giessen is the Lahn, which divides the town in two parts (west and east), roughly 50 kilometres (31 miles) north of Frankfurt am Main. Giessen is also home to the University of Giessen.
In 1969, the town hosted the ninth Hessentag state festival.
Giessen came into being as a moated castle in 1152 built by Count Wilhelm von Gleiberg, although the history of the community in the northeast and in today's suburb called "Wieseck" dates back to 775. The town became part of Hesse-Marburg in 1567, passing to Hesse-Darmstadt in 1604. The University of Giessen was founded in 1607. Giessen was included within the Grand Duchy of Hesse created in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. After the First World War, it was part of the People's State of Hesse.
During the Second World War, a subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp was in the Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Licher Straße. Heavy bombing destroyed about 75 percent of Gießen in 1944, including most of the town's historic buildings. It became part of the modern state of Hesse after the war.
In 1977, Giessen was merged with the neighbouring city Wetzlar to form the new city of Lahn. However, this attempt to reorganize the administration was reversed in 1979. It was part of the Darmstadt region (regierungsbezirk) between 1945 and 1981, until the Giessen (region) was founded on 1 January 1981.
A U.S. military base was located in Giessen after the Second World War. The U.S. Army Garrison of Gießen had a population of 800 Americans. The base is a converted German Army Air Field which is reflected in some of the buildings including the housing area. A theatre, known as the Keller Theatre, is a converted German Army Officers' Club. As of 28 September 2007, the Giessen Depot and all other U.S. facilities in the greater Giessen area were turned back to local German authorities. The former U.S. Army buildings were used to house refugees after the large intake of 2016.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
Points of interestEdit
- Akademischer Forstgarten Gießen, botanical gardens
- Botanischer Garten Gießen, established in 1609, is the oldest botanical garden in Germany still at its original location.
- Old Cemetery, (German: Alter Friedhof), is the resting place of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and Hugo von Ritgen.
- Liebig-Museum was established in 1920 to honor the chemist Justus von Liebig.
- Mathematikum was established in 2002, offering a wide variety of mathematical hands-on exhibits.
- University of Giessen
- Rubber Island is a residential area near the Lahn River.
Giessen is home to the basketball club Giessen 46ers, five-time champion of the Basketball Bundesliga. Its home games take place at the Sporthalle Gießen-Ost. Also, Giessen has an American football team called Giessen Golden Dragons.
Historical drawing of the Akademischer Forstgarten Gießen, 1877
- Samuel Adler (1809–1891), a noted rabbi in the United States, attended the University of Giessen
- Annika Beck (b. 1994), professional tennis player
- Stefan Bellof (1957–1985), Formula One and Sportscar driver, who was killed during a race held in Spa-Francorchamps
- Christa Blanke (b. 1948), theologist, founder of Animals' Angels e.V.
- Volker Bouffier (b. 1951), politician (CDU)
- Helge Braun (b. 1972), politician (CDU)
- Georg Büchner (1813–1837) studied two years at the University of Gießen
- Daniel Davari (b. 1988), Iranian footballer.
- Walter Dornberger (1895–1980), rocket scientist
- Peter Düttmann (1923-2001), Luftwaffe Ace
- Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt (1635–1709), Electress Palatine, ancestress of most of today's royals
- Charles Friedek (b. 1971), triple jumper, gold medallist at the 1999 World Championships in Athletics
- Adolph Hansen (1851–1920), botanist and professor at University of Giessen
- Fritz Heichelheim (1901–1968), economic historian
- August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-1892), chemist
- Juli, rock band
- Friedrich Kellner (1885–1970), Chief Regional Auditor in Giessen 1948–1950, and Chief Justice Inspector of Laubach, where he wrote his secret WWII diary. The Holocaust Research Unit of Justus Liebig University of Giessen has established the Kellner Project
- Karl Kling (1910-2003), Racing driver and head of Mercedes-Benz Motorsport
- Jonathan Koch (b. 1985), rower
- Harald Lesch (b. 1960), physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, author, television presenter, professor of physics
- Chris Liebing (b. 1968) techno/electronic music producer and DJ
- Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), chemist, professor. The official name of the University of Giessen is now Justus Liebig University
- Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826–1900), founder of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, was born on March 29, 1826 in Giessen
- Sigmund Livingston (1872–1946), American lawyer, founder and first president of the Anti-Defamation League
- Christopher Ludwick (1720–1801) Baker General for the American Revolutionary War Army - Philadelphia
- Wangari Maathai, (1940-2011), Nobel Laureate 2004
- Alfred Milner (1854–1925), British statesman
- Demis Nikolaidis (b. 1973), Greek footballer
- James J. O'Donnell (b. 1950), American scholar and University administrator, born in Giessen
- Albert Osswald (1919-1996), politician
- Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), physicist, professor of physics from 1879 until 1888 at the University of Giessen. He was buried at the "Alte Friedhof", where his tomb can still be found
- Johann Georg Rosenmüller (1736–1815), professor of theology at the university
- Jochen Schropp (b. 1978), German actor and television entertainer
- Til Schweiger (b. 1968), actor, director and producer. Grew up, went to school and started studying in Giessen
- Wilhelm Sievers (1860–1921), geographer, explorer, professor at the university
- Henrietta Skelton (1839/1842–1900), social reformer, writer, organizer, lecturer
- Marie Wittich (1868–1931), opera singer
- Willy Zschietzschmann (1900-1976), Classical archeologist and author
- Ernst Dieffenbach, born Johann Karl Ernst Dieffenbach (27 January 1811 – 1 October 1855), German physician, geologist and naturalist
- Georg Christian Dieffenbach (1822-1901), German poet and theologian
- Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792–1847), German surgeon
- Joseph Dieffenbach (1796–1863), German gardener
Manisch is a dialect of rotwelsch spoken in and around Giessen by people in lower income neighbourhoods, some of which are known as "Eulenkopf", "Gummiinsel", "Heyerweg" and "Margaretenhütte". Approximately 700–750 residents spoke the dialect fluently as of 1976. Although the dialect still influences the Giessen vernacular, it is nearly extinct in terms of fluent speakers.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate).
|Climate data for Giessen|
|Average high °C (°F)||3
|Average low °C (°F)||−1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46
|Source: WeatherOnline |
- "Bevölkerungsstand am 31.12.2019". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). July 2020.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 4. .
- Edward Victor. Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps.
- 1933-1945 Lager G. Tenhumberg Reinhard. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
- Hessian Regional History Information System (LAGIS)
- "USAG Giessen Folds Up Tent". Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- "Gießen: Städtepartnerschaften" [Giessen: Twin towns] (in German). Stadt Gießen. Archived from the original on 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "Netanya - Twin Cities". Netanya Municipality. Archived from the original on 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
- "Twin Towns in Hampshire". Www3.hants.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2009-11-30. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
- Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967.
- Hans-Günter Lerch, "Tschü lowi...Das Manische in Gießen", 1976/2005, pages 16-22.
- "weatheronline.de". WeatherOnline. 2013. Retrieved on July 9, 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Giessen.|
- Giessen travel guide from Wikivoyage
- City Services Giessen (SWG)
- Express Magazine – Current events and news from Giessen