Ghaziabad (Hindi pronunciation: [ɣaːziːaːbaːd̪]) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi.[2] It is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad district and is the largest city in western Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 2,358,525.[1] Well connected by roads and railways, it is a major rail junction for North India.[3][4] It is sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of Uttar Pradesh" because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh.[5] Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world.[6][7] Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east.[8]

Ghaziabad
Crossings Republik, a township in Ghaziabad on NH 24
Crossings Republik, a township in Ghaziabad on NH 24
Nickname(s): 
Gateway of Uttar Pradesh
Map of Ghaziabad
Map of Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Map of Ghaziabad
Map of Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Map of Ghaziabad
Map of Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictGhaziabad District
Founded byWazir Ghazi-ud-Din
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation
 • MayorAsha Sharma (BJP)
Area
 • Total133.3 km2 (51.5 sq mi)
Elevation
214 m (702 ft)
Population
 (2011 census provisional data)[1]
 • Total2,658,525
 • Density20,000/km2 (52,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Ghazi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu, English, Punjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
201 XXX
Telephone code91-120
Vehicle registrationUP-14
Websiteghaziabad.nic.in

HistoryEdit

Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km north of Mohan Nagar, have shown that civilization existed there as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, "Loni" is named after Lavanasura.[9]

The city and its surrounding region have historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battlefield, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign.[9][10] During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803.[9]

The city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Ghazi-ud-Din who served as a wazir in the court of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and named it as "Ghaziuddinnagar" after his own name.[11] The name "Ghaziuddinnagar" was shortened to its present form, i.e. "Ghaziabad" with the opening of the Railways in 1864.[12][13][14][15] During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.[13]

Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Syed Ahmad Khan.[16] The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year.[17] With the completion of the Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.[18]

Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr, remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj.[19]

Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[12]

Industrial growthEdit

Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab.[20] John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India's largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of 'National Abrasives' at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of 'Dyer Meakins' in 1947.[21] Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949.[22] This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India's most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.[23]

In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, many steel-manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics Limited[24] Over the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. (estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).[25]

DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 2,358,525, of which males were 1,256,783 and females were 1,101,742. The literacy rate was 93.81%.[1] Ghaziabad is a subcategory B1 district of category B i.e. having socioeconomic parameters below the national average.[26] It is the second largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur.[27]

By estimate, Brahmin, Tyagis Brahmin have 500000 and 150000 votes respectively.[28] Ghaziabad is dominated by Gauda Brahmins having subcastes like Tyagi Gaur and Adi Gaur. Gauda Brahmins are biggest landholding caste in Ghaziabad following by Gujjars. Gujjars have close to 80,000 votes, Yadavs about 70,000 votes and Thakurs has a little over 60,000 votes.[29]Gujjars are the second dominating and landholding caste in Ghaziabad mostly consitituted in Loni assembly segment.Gauda Brahmins present in every assembly segment dominating in Sahibabad, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad . Muslims too have significant population mostly in Dholana assembly segment.

Combined population of Gauda Brahmins (Brahmin, Tyagis Brahmin) constitutes 6.5 Lakhs votes in Ghaziabad.

ReligionEdit

Religion in Ghaziabad[30]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
72.93%
Muslim
25.35%
Sikhism
0.49%
Christianity
0.41%
Others
0.39%

Hinduism is the most popular religion in Ghaziabad with 72.93% followers, followed by 25.35% Muslim followers, 0.41 Christian followers, and 0.49% Sikh followers who make up the smallest percentage of followers in the city. There are around 0.07 Buddhist, 0.35% Jain followers which are minorities. There are many religious sites in Ghaziabad such as the ISKCON Temple for Hindus, Jama Masjid for Muslims, Holy Trinity Church for Christians, and Shri Guru Singh Sabha Gurudwara for Sikhs.

ClimateEdit

As it is connected to the national capital, its temperature and rainfall are similar to Delhi. Rajasthan's dust storms and snowfall in the Himalayas, Kumaon and Garhwal hills name their impact in the weather regularly. The monsoon arrives in the district during the end of the June or the first week of July and normally it rains until October. As in other districts of northern India mainly three seasons - summer, winter and rainy - prevail here, but sometimes due to severe snowfall in the Himalayas and Kumaon Hills, adverse weather can also be seen. Due to a number of Construction and Highway Projects causing cutting Down Hundreds of old Trees rapidly, The Pollution and rising Temperature problems have increased significantly.

Climate data for Ghaziabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
(70)
23
(73)
29
(84)
38
(100)
40
(104)
38
(100)
34
(93)
33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
28
(82)
23
(73)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
8
(46)
19
(66)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
18
(0.7)
23
(0.9)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
69
(2.7)
234
(9.2)
245
(9.6)
103
(4.1)
23
(0.9)
8
(0.3)
16
(0.6)
812
(31.9)
Source: Ghaziabad Weather

EconomyEdit

Real estate hubEdit

A proposal has been made to widen National Highway 24 (NH-24) from four to fourteen lanes on the stretch between the Ghaziabad-Delhi border and Dasna. Many residential and commercial projects are being built along the highway.[31] Some major developers which have invested heavily on NH-24 are GAURS, Mahagun, Antriksh, Crossings Republik, Ansal, Wave City, Gulshan Homz, SG Estates etc. In tune with Indian Government's Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban), there is VVIP niwas Grih Awas Yojana, under which Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Lower Income Group (LIG) people can avail their dream homes at concessional rates.[32] Places on NH-24 and National Highway 58 are flourishing as residential options to the capital because of their proximity to Delhi.[33]

TransportEdit

Delhi Metro

The Delhi Metro extends to New Bus Adda station which is situated at the Old Ghaziabad GT Road. At present, it serves the areas of Shalimar Garden, Rajendra Nagar and other neighbouring colonies. This line will be extended to New Bus Stand, Ghaziabad by 2016-17. Work for the same completed in March 2019. Hindon River Station which serves Raj Nagar Extension and Mohan Nagar Station. Another station exists at Vaishali, which serves that area as well as Vasundhara and Indirapuram, and there is also a station at Kaushambi.[34]


 
Residential apartments near Vaishali Metro Station, Ghaziabad

Air

Hindon Domestic Airport is the airport serving Ghaziabad which will begin operation in October 2019. The closest international airport is the Indira Gandhi International Airport.

SportsEdit

The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Ghaziabad.

International Cricket Stadium is under construction at Raj Nagar Extension and will complete by 2021.

InstitutesEdit

People from GhaziabadEdit

Arts, entertainment and televisionEdit

BusinessEdit

Politics and governmentEdit

SportsEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  6. ^ "Business:". 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011.
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  12. ^ a b "history1". nagarnigamghaziabad.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  13. ^ a b Roy, Debashish (14 August 2011). "Ghaziabad has a long way to go to become a part of NCR backbone". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
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  16. ^ Azimabadi, Badr (2007). Great Personalities in Islam. Daryaganj, Delhi: Adam Publishers. p. 218.
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  23. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 92. ISBN 8170222508.
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  26. ^ "Meeting of Empowered Committee" (PDF). Minutes of the Meeting Report. Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
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  32. ^ {{Wave City |url=https://www.pmawasyojna.com/ghaziabad/wave-city-dream-homes.php
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit