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The German Navy (German: Deutsche Marine or simply German: Marinelisten (help·info)) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr ("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces. The German Navy was originally known as the Bundesmarine ("Federal Navy") from 1956 to 1995, when Deutsche Marine ("German Navy") became the official name with respect to the 1990 incorporation of the East German Volksmarine ("People's Navy"). It is deeply integrated into the NATO alliance. Its primary mission is protection of Germany's territorial waters and maritime infrastructure as well as sea lines of communication. Apart from this, the German Navy participates in peacekeeping operations, and renders humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. They also participate in Anti-Piracy operations.
|Founded||2 January 1956|
|Size||16,286 personnel (31 December 2018)|
|Headquarters of the German Navy||Rostock (Navy Command)|
|Motto(s)||Wir. Dienen. Deutschland.|
(We. Serve. Germany.)
|Colors||Black, White, Gold|
|March||"Gruß an Kiel"|
|Inspector of the Navy||Vice Admiral Andreas Krause|
|Deputy Inspector of the Navy||Vice Admiral Rainer Brinkmann|
|Chief of Staff||Rear Admiral Thorsten Kähler|
The German Navy traces its roots back to the Reichsflotte (Imperial Fleet) of the revolutionary era of 1848–52. The Reichsflotte was the first German navy to sail under the black-red-gold flag. Founded on 14 June 1848 by the orders of the democratically elected Frankfurt Parliament, the Reichsflotte's brief existence ended with the failure of the revolution and it was disbanded on 2 April 1852; thus, the modern day navy celebrates its birthday on 14 June.
Between May 1945 and 1956, the German Mine Sweeping Administration and its successor organizations, made up of former members of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine ("War Navy"), became something of a transition stage for the navy, allowing the future Marine to draw on recently experienced personnel upon its formation. Also, from 1949-52 the US Navy had maintained the Naval Historical Team in Bremerhaven. This group of former Kriegsmarine officers acting as historical and tactical consultants to the Americans, was significant in establishing a German element in the NATO senior naval staff. In 1956, with West Germany's accession to NATO, the Bundesmarine ("Federal Navy"), as the navy was known colloquially, was formally established. In the same year the East German Volkspolizei See (literally "People's Police Sea") became the Volksmarine ("People's Navy"). During the Cold War all of the German Navy's combat vessels were assigned to NATO's Allied Forces Baltic Approaches's naval command NAVBALTAP.
With the accession of East Germany to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 the Volksmarine along with the whole National People's Army (Nationale Volksarmee, NVA) became part of the Bundeswehr. Since 1995 the name German Navy is used in international context, while the official name since 1956 remains Marine without any additions. As of 31 December 2018, the strength of the navy is 16,286 men and women.
A number of naval forces have operated in different periods. See
- Preußische Marine (Prussian Navy), 1701–1867
- Reichsflotte (Fleet of the Realm), 1848–52
- North German Federal Navy, 1867–71
- Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine), 1871–1919
- Reichsmarine, 1919–35
- Kriegsmarine, 1935–45
- German Mine Sweeping Administration, 1945–48
- Volksmarine the navy of East Germany (GDR) 1956–90
- Marine, 1956–present (Bundesmarine, colloquially)
German warships permanently participate in all four NATO Maritime Groups. The German Navy is also engaged in operations against international terrorism such as Operation Enduring Freedom and NATO Operation Active Endeavour.
Presently the largest operation the German Navy is participating in is UNIFIL off the coast of Lebanon. The German contribution to this operation is two frigates, four fast attack craft, and two auxiliary vessels. The naval component of UNIFIL has been under German command.
The navy is operating a number of development and testing installations as part of an inter-service and international network. Among these is the Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters (COE CSW), an affiliated centre of Allied Command Transformation. The COE CSW was established in April 2007 and officially accredited by NATO on 26 May 2009. It is co-located with the staff of the German Flotilla 1 in Kiel whose Commander is double-hatted as Director, COE CSW.
Ships and submarinesEdit
In total, there are about 65 commissioned ships in the German Navy, including; 10 frigates, 5 corvettes, 3 minesweepers, 10 minehunters, 6 submarines, 11 replenishment ships and 20 miscellaneous auxiliary vessels. The displacement of the navy is 220,000 tonnes. In addition, the German Navy and the Royal Danish Navy are in cooperation in the "Ark Project". This agreement made the Ark Project responsible for the strategic sealift of German armed forces where the full-time charter of three roll-on-roll-off cargo and troop ships are ready for deployments. In addition, these ships are also kept available for the use of the other European NATO countries.
A total of five Joint Support Ships, two JSS800 and three JSS400, were planned during the 1995–2010 period but the programme appears now to have been abandoned, not having been mentioned in two recent defence reviews. The larger ships would have been tasked for strategic troop transport and amphibious operations, and were to displace 27,000 to 30,000 tons for 800 soldiers. The German Navy will use the Joint Support Ship HNLMS Karel Doorman (A833) of the Royal Netherlands Navy as part of the integration of the German Navy Marines (Seebatallion) in the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps as of 2016.
The naval air arm of the German Navy is called the Marinefliegerkommando. The Marinefliegerkommando operate 55 aircraft.
|Camcopter S-100||Austria||UAV||ISR||6 on order.|
|Dornier Do 228||Germany||Propeller||Pollution control||1996||2|
|Lockheed P-3C Orion – CUP||USA||Propeller||MPA||2006||8||Former Royal Netherlands Navy|
|NH90 Sea Lion||Germany||Rotorcraft||SAR / Transport||2018||2||16 on order, replacing Westland Sea King Mk.41|
|Westland Lynx Mk.88||UK||Rotorcraft||ASW||1981||22|
|Westland Sea King Mk.41||UK||Rotorcraft||SAR / Transport||1975||21||Being replaced by NH90 Sea Lion|
- 1st Corvette Squadron (1. Korvettengeschwader), Warnemünde
- 1st Submarine Squadron (1. Ubootgeschwader), Eckernförde
- Submarine Training Centre (Ausbildungszentrum Unterseeboote), Eckernförde
- 3rd Minesweeping Squadron (3. Minensuchgeschwader), Kiel
- 5th Minesweeping Squadron (5. Minensuchgeschwader), Kiel
- 7th Fast Patrol Boat Squadron (7. Schnellbootgeschwader), Warnemünde
- Naval Force Protection Battalion, (Seebataillon), Eckernförde
- Naval Special Forces Command, (Kommando Spezialkräfte Marine), Eckernförde
- Naval Base Command Kiel (Marinestützpunktkommando Kiel)
- Naval Base Command Eckernförde
- Naval Base Command Warnemünde
- HQ 2nd Flotilla
- 2nd Frigate Squadron (2. Fregattengeschwader), Wilhelmshaven
- 4th Frigate Squadron (4. Fregattengeschwader), Wilhelmshaven
- Auxiliary Squadron (Trossgeschwader), Wilhelmshaven
- Naval Base Command Wilhelmshaven
- Naval Aviation Command (Marinefliegerkommando), Nordholz
- Naval Air Wing 3 (Marinefliegergeschwader 3), Nordholz
- Naval Air Wing 5 (Marinefliegergeschwader 5), Nordholz
- Naval Support Command (Marineunterstützungskommando — MUKdo)
- Naval Medical Institute (Schiffahrtsmedizinisches Institut), Kiel
- Naval Academy (Marineschule Mürwik), Flensburg
- Petty Officer School (Marineunteroffiziersschule), Plön
- Engineering School (Marinetechnikschule), Parow, near Stralsund
- Naval Operations School (Marineoperationsschule), Bremerhaven
- Naval Damage Control Training Centre (Ausbildungszentrum für Schiffssicherung), Neustadt in Holstein
|NATO code||OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D)||Student officer|
||Enlisted rank plus a star|
indicating cadet's career
|Kapitän zur See||Fregatten-
- Seekadett – Officer Cadet
- Fähnrich zur See – Midshipman
- Oberfähnrich zur See – Midshipman / Ensign
- Leutnant zur See – Ensign / Lieutenant Junior Grade / Sublieutenant
- Oberleutnant zur See – Lieutenant Junior Grade / Sublieutenant
- Kapitänleutnant – Lieutenant / Lieutenant Commander
- Stabskapitänleutnant – senior to Kapitänleutnant, same pay grade as Korvettenkapitän, for specialist officers only
- Korvettenkapitän – Corvette Captain
- Fregattenkapitän – Frigate Captain
- Kapitän zur See – Ship-of-the-line Captain
- Flottillenadmiral – Rear Admiral lower half
- Konteradmiral – Rear Admiral upper half / Counter Admiral
- Vizeadmiral – Vice Admiral
Petty officers and enlisted seamenEdit
||No equivalent |
|Oberfähnrich zur See||Fähnrich zur See||Seekadett|
- Matrose – Seaman Recruit
- Gefreiter – Seaman Apprentice
- Gefreiter-UA – Seaman Apprentice E2 – Petty Officer 2nd Class Candidate
- Gefreiter-BA – Seaman Apprentice E2 – Petty Officer 1st Class Candidate
- Gefreiter-OA – Seaman Apprentice E2 – Officer Candidate
- Obergefreiter – Seaman
- Hauptgefreiter – Seaman
- Stabsgefreiter – Petty Officer 3rd Class
- Oberstabsgefreiter – Petty Officer 3rd Class
- Maat – Petty Officer 2nd Class
- Maat-BA – Petty Officer 2nd Class – Probationary Petty Officer 1st Class
- Obermaat – Petty Officer 2nd Class
- Bootsmann – Petty Officer 1st Class
- Oberbootsmann – Petty Officer 1st Class
- Hauptbootsmann – Chief Petty Officer
- Stabsbootsmann – Senior Chief Petty Officer
- Oberstabsbootsmann – Master Chief Petty Officer, Command/Fleet/Force Master Chief Petty Officer
Radio and communication stationsEdit
- A first batch of four frigates of the F125 class (Baden-Württemberg class) specialised for persistent stabilization missions is planned to replace all eight Bremen class guided-missile frigates. Each F125 will have two crews. They were to enter service in 2016, due to design & quality problems delayed into 2019.
- Six large surface combat ships are planned under the name 'Mehrzweckkampfschiff 180' (MKS 180), a multi-mission destroyer.
- Two more Type 212A submarines will be procured within the next decade.
- Five additional Braunschweig class corvettes will be procured from 2019–2023.
- 18 NH90 NFH Helicopters ordered to replace Lynx in ASW/AsuW role, originally ordered by the German Army as NH90 TTH variant.
- Medium Sized Helicopters are planned to replace the current 22 Sea King helicopters of Naval Air Wing 5 in SAR & ship-based Transport Role (VertRep)
- The Saab Skeldar has been ordered as a testbed for a future maritime UAV for the Braunschweig class corvette.
- Integration of the German Navy Marines (Seebatallion) in the Netherlands Marine Corps and use of the Amphibious ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy such as the Joint Support Ship HNLMS Karel Doorman (A833) as of 2016.
- In May 2013 it was announced by both ministers of Defence that the German and Dutch Navy had agreed to integrate submarine operations, training, and design for future replacements.
- MKS-180 Frigate project, 4 - 6 planned, primarily for ASW role and provided with AAW/ASuW suite for self-defence, introduction into service planned for 2025 - 2027.
- 2 Combat Support Ships planned to replace Rhone-Class ships, introduction into service planned for 2025.
Further reading (COE CSW)Edit
- Jan Wiedemann: COE CSW celebrates fifth anniversary; in: NAVAL FORCES III/2014 p. 90 f.
- Hans-Joachim Stricker: Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters COE CSW – Das COE als Ausdruck unserer besonderen nationalen Fähigkeiten im Bündnis; in: Marineforum 6-2007 p. 3 f.
- Fritz-Rudolf Weber: Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters – Think Tank für die NATO; in: Marineforum 1/2-2010 p. 11 ff.
- Hans Georg Buss, Stefan Riewesell: Maritime C-IED and Harbour Protection: A Joint Effort; in: The Transformer Fall 2013 Vol 9 Issue 2 p. 18
- Rahn, Werner. "German Navies from 1848 to 2016: Their Development and Courses from Confrontation to Cooperation." Naval War College Review 70.4 (2017). online
- "Die Stärke der Streitkräfte [Personnel strength of German Armed Forces]". 23 January 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Bilanz und Ausblick". Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
- Deutsche Marine – press release: Neues Nato-Expertenzentrum an der Kieler Förde nimmt Fahrt auf; Faermann, 2009
- "The ships chartered for the ARK Project". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- "The ARK project". Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- "Inspekteur der Marine : Zielvorstellung Marine 2025+" (PDF). Geopowers.com. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
- Nachrichtenfernsehen, n-tv. "Marine stellt U36 in Dienst: Bundeswehr bekommt neue U-Boote". n-tv.de. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
- "Koalition will Boote kaufen: Bundeswehr soll fünf neue Korvetten bekommen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 2016-10-14. ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
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