Gdov (Russian: Гдов; Estonian: Oudova) is a town and the administrative center of Gdovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the river Gdovka, just 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) from its outflow into Lake Peipus. Population: 4,379 (2010 Census);[4] 5,171 (2002 Census);[11] 6,009 (1989 Census).[12]

Gdov

Гдов
Gdov Centre.jpg
Coat of arms of Gdov
Coat of arms
Location of Gdov
Gdov is located in Russia
Gdov
Gdov
Location of Gdov
Gdov is located in Pskov Oblast
Gdov
Gdov
Gdov (Pskov Oblast)
Coordinates: 58°44′N 27°50′E / 58.733°N 27.833°E / 58.733; 27.833Coordinates: 58°44′N 27°50′E / 58.733°N 27.833°E / 58.733; 27.833
CountryRussia
Federal subjectPskov Oblast[1]
Administrative districtGdovsky District[1]
First mentionedbeginning of
the 14th century[2]
Town status since1780[3]
Elevation
40 m (130 ft)
Population
 • Total4,379
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
3,460 (-21%)
 • Capital ofGdovsky District[6]
 • Municipal districtGdovsky Municipal District[7]
 • Urban settlementGdov Urban Settlement[7]
 • Capital ofGdovsky Municipal District[8], Gdov Urban Settlement[7]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
181600
Dialing code(s)+7 81131
OKTMO ID58608101001
10 rubles (2007). Ancient Towns Of Russia Coin Series

HistoryEdit

It was first mentioned in the beginning of the 14th century, as an outpost guarding the city of Pskov.[2] Between 1431 and 1434, Pskovians built a fortress there,[2] the remains of which can still be seen. It was attacked on numerous occasions by Swedes and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[2] (e.g., during the Russo–Swedish War (1590–1595) and the Ingrian War), captured by Swedes in 1614, but was finally returned to Russia in 1617 according to the Treaty of Stolbovo.[13]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Gdov was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate).[14] Gdov was mentioned as one of the towns into which the governorate was divided.[14] In 1780, Gdov was granted town status;[3] its coat of arms was granted on May 28, 1781.[2] Between 1874 and 1912, Gdov issued Zemstvo stamps. The first stamp, worth two kopecks, appeared on April 16, 1874. Stamp production ceased, however, with the coming of World War I. In 1919, Gdov was an area where important events of the Russian Civil War and the Estonian War of Independence were taking place. Originally, the area east of Lake Peipus was under control of the revolutionary government. On May 15, 1919, the detachment under command of Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz (subordinate to General Aleksandr Rodzyanko) captured Gdov and the whole uyezd thus came under control by the White Army troops of Nikolai Yudenich. In November 1919, the Red Army recaptured Gdov.[15]

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds and governorates were abolished and Gdovsky District, with the administrative center in Gdov, was established as a part of Luga Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.[16][17] It included parts of former Gdovsky Uyezd.[17] On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were also abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast.[16] Between March 22, 1935 and September 19, 1940, Gdovsky District was a part of the restored Pskov Okrug of Leningrad Oblast,[16] one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union.

Between July 19, 1941 and February 4, 1944, Gdov was occupied by German troops and Waffen SS units from occupied Estonia. During the war two-thirds of Gdov population died. The town was seriously damaged during the war, of 640 buildings that existed by 1941 all but 34 were destroyed. Most of the devastation was made just before the Nazi retreat, on January 28, 1944, when 37-th SS police battalion formed in Tartu[18] set wooden buildings on fire and set explosives into those of stone. Among the perished historical constructions was the unique ensemble of two XV and XVI-century churches that has survived the Bolshevik anti-religion campaigns[19][20].

On August 23, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Pskov Oblast.[17] The town was reconstructed during 1950-1960-ties and continued to expand until the economic and demographic collapse of early 1990-ties. In 1993 the exact copy of St. Dmitry Solounskiy church was built in its original location within Gdov kremlin, financed exclusively by crowdfunding[21].

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Gdov serves as the administrative center of Gdovsky District,[6] to which it is directly subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Gdov, together with sixty-two rural localities, is incorporated within Gdovsky Municipal District as Gdov Urban Settlement.[7]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

The economy of Gdov is based on food and timber industries.[22]

TransportationEdit

 
St. Dmitry Solounskiy cathedral in Gdov (1993)
 
Gdov railway station

A railway line via Gdov that connected Narva and Pskov was built before WWI. Later a new line from Gdov to Slantsy and Veimarn was constructed and used for passenger and cargo connections to Leningrad. During the WWII the Gdov-Pskov stretch was destroyed, thus making Gdov the terminal station. There was one pair of passenger trains daily servicing St.Petersburg-Gdov route. In the mid-2010-tiess tghe passenger traffic between Slantsy and Gdov has been discontinued due to commercial reasons.

During 1950-1980-ties an unpaved airfield in Gdov[23] was used for commuter air transit to the neighbouring town of Slantsy, Pskov and Tartu aboard An-2 passenger biplane.

Gdov is connected by paved roads with Pskov, Kingisepp via Slantsy, and Plyussa. There are daily bus services to Pskov, Slantsy, Saint-Petersburg, and neighbouring villages.

In the mouth of the Gdovka there is a harbour for the fishermen's and leisure boats. However, due to lack of customs and borderguard offices sailing to Estonia is not possible.

Military installationsEdit

During World War II Gdov briefly hosted the headquarters of the Chudskoye Lake Flotilla (1941).[24]

Russian Airforce base, Smuravyevo, now abandoned, was located northeast of the town.

Restricted accessEdit

Gdov is included into border security zone, intended to protect the borders of Russia from unwanted activity.[25] Visits to the zone or transit through it are subject to the Frontier Regime Regulations set by the FSB that stipulate cases where permits are required or where holding a passport is enough.[26] Permits may be obtained electronically via e-mail, four weeks ahead of the planned journey.[27]

CultureEdit

 
Carl Marx street, Gdov downtown
 
The wall of the Gdov Kremlin

Gdov contains two cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally twelve objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[28] The federal monuments are archaeological sites. Gdov has a kremlin, an ancient fortress built in the 14th century. Only fragments of the original fortress walls have survived. The St. Dimitry Solounskiy Cathedral was destroyed in 1944 and reconstructed in 1993.

The only state museum in the district is the Gdov Museum of Regional History. It was founded in 1919, destroyed during the German occupation of Gdov, and re-created after World War II. The museum hosts historical and local interest collections.[29]

Famous PeopleEdit

  • Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski (Russian: Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский). He was a Russian botanist, the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology.

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Law #833-oz stipulates that the borders of the administrative districts are identical to the borders of the municipal districts. The Law #420-oz, which describes the borders and the composition of the municipal districts, lists the town of Gdov as a part of Gdovsky District.
  2. ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 105–106. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b "Гдов (Gdov)" (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ http://pskovstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/pskovstat/resources/c39d2d0044e056b18eafaede4cdebdf4/nas180322_1.htm; archive date: 1 February 2019; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20190201224034/http://pskovstat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/pskovstat/resources/c39d2d0044e056b18eafaede4cdebdf4/nas180322_1.htm.
  6. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 58 208», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 58 208, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  7. ^ a b c d Law #420-oz
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 58 608». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 58 608. ).
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. ^ Столбовский мир 1617 (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  14. ^ a b Указ об учреждении губерний и о росписании к ним городов (in Russian)
  15. ^ Ратьковский, И.С.; Ходяков М. В. (2001). История Советской России (in Russian). Лань. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  16. ^ a b c Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast, pp. 11–13
  17. ^ a b c Гдовский район (август 1927 г. - август 1944 г.) (in Russian). Справочник истории административно-территориального деления Ленинградской области. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  18. ^ Chuev, Sergeĭ Gennadʹevich. (2004). Проклятые солдаты [The Damned Soldiers: Traitors Serving to the Third Reich]. Moskva: Яуза. ISBN 5-699-05970-9. OCLC 56389355.
  19. ^ Зотов, Георгий (July 1, 2020). "Город мертвых церквей. Это забытое преступление – одно из тысяч в России". aif.ru. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  20. ^ "Вперед, за Ленинград! Как освободили от фашистов Гдов". histrf.ru (in Russian). Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  21. ^ Зотов, Георгий (July 1, 2020). "Город мертвых церквей. Это забытое преступление – одно из тысяч в России". aif.ru. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  22. ^ Экономика (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
  23. ^ https://maps.aopa.ru/#lon/27.829245/lat/58.735135/z/15/bl/gs/type/1/p/292/mode/r/ll/a
  24. ^ "Chudskaya Lake Flotilla". Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  25. ^ "Приказ Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации от 29.12.2016 № 802 "О пределах пограничной зоны на территории Псковской области"". pravo.gov.ru. Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  26. ^ "Приказ Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации от 07.08.2017 № 454 "Об утверждении Правил пограничного режима"". pravo.gov.ru. Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  27. ^ "Выдача пропусков в погранзону изменится с 1 января | Официальный портал государственных органов Псковской области". www.pskov.ru. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  28. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
  29. ^ Гдовский музей истории края (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.

SourcesEdit

  • Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №833-оз от 5 февраля 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Псковской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №20, 10 февраля 2009 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #833-oz of February 5, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №420-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области», в ред. Закона №1542-ОЗ от 5 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Псковской области "Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41–43, №44–46, №49–51, 4 марта 2005 г., 5 марта 2005 г., 11 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #420-oz of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast, as amended by the Law #1542-OZ of June 5, 2015 On Amending the Law of Pskov Oblast "On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Архивный отдел Псковского облисполкома. Государственный архив Псковской области. "Административно-территориальное деление Псковской области (1917–1988 гг.). Справочник". (Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast (1917–1988). Reference.) Книга I. Лениздат, 1988

External linksEdit