Backgammon is a game of skill.[citation needed] Strategy can give players advantages, but there is also an element of chance.

A game of skill is a game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental or physical skill, rather than chance.[1]

Alternatively, a game of chance is one where its outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, such as dice, spinning tops, playing cards, roulette wheels, or numbered balls drawn from a container.

While a game of chance may have some skill element to it, chance generally plays a greater role in determining its outcome. A game of skill may also may have elements of chance, but skill plays a greater role in determining its outcome.

Some commonly played games of skill include: collectible card games, contract bridge, backgammon and mahjong.[2]

However, most games of skill also involve a degree of chance, due to natural aspects of the environment, a randomizing device (such as dice, playing cards or a coin flip), or guessing due to incomplete information. Some games where skill is a component alongside gambling and strategy such as poker may involve the application of such methods as mathematical probability and game theory, bluffing, and other forms of psychological warfare.

Legal meaningEdit

The distinction between "chance" and "skill" has legal significance in countries where chance games are treated differently from skill games. The legal distinction is often vague and varies widely from one jurisdiction to the next.

On associating Rummy, another game of skills, with gambling in 1968, Supreme Court said, "Rummy requires certain amount of skill because the fall of the cards has to be memorised and the building up of Rummy requires considerable skill in holding and discarding cards. We cannot, therefore, say that the game of Rummy is a game of entire chance. It is mainly and preponderantly a game of skill. The chance in Rummy is of the same character as the chance in a deal at a game of bridge." The decision was challenged in Supreme Court and the final verdict came in August 2015, calling Rummy a game of skills, including web portals like RummyCircle.[3]

In a number of countries like Germany, whether a game is considered of skill has legal implications with respect to whether money bets on the game's outcome are considered gambling or not. For example, poker is legally considered a game of chance in Germany[citation needed] (thus only allowed in casinos), whereas skat is considered a game of skill and competitions with money prizes are allowed.[4] Alternatively, poker has been ruled by a New York judge as a game of skill[5] rather than chance.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dervishi, Kay (2019-06-18). "Other games of chance and skill on Albany's agenda". CSNY. Retrieved 2018-06-25.
  2. ^ David Carter (9 November 2010). Money Games: Profiting from the Convergence of Sports and Entertainment. Stanford University Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 978-0-8047-7679-0.
  3. ^ "Skill Games under Indian laws". RummyCircle. Archived from the original on 2016-08-12.
  4. ^ A. C. Spapens; Toine Spapens; Alan Littler; Cyrille Fijnaut (2008). Crime, Addiction and the Regulation of Gambling. BRILL. p. 143. ISBN 978-90-04-17218-0.
  5. ^ Secret, Mosi (21 August 2012). "Poker, a Game of Skill, Is Not Truly Gambling, a Judge Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-06-25.