Foreign relations of Ireland

The foreign relations of Ireland are substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United States and United Kingdom are also important to the state. It is one of the group of smaller nations in the EU, and has traditionally followed a non-aligned foreign policy. Ireland has historically tended towards independence in foreign military policy, thus it is not a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and has a longstanding policy of military neutrality. According to the Irish Defence Forces, the neutrality policy has helped them to be successful in their contributions to United Nations peace-keeping missions since 1960 (in the Congo Crisis) and subsequently in Cyprus, Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1]

Main relationshipsEdit

ChinaEdit

 
Embassy of Ireland in Beijing

Ireland's official relationship with the People's Republic of China began on 22 June 1979.[2] Following his visit to China in 1999, former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern authorised the establishment of an Asia Strategy.[3] The aim of this Strategy was to ensure that the Irish Government and Irish enterprise work coherently to enhance the important relationships between Ireland and Asia.[3] In recent years due to the rapid expansion of the Chinese economy, China is becoming a key trade partner of Ireland, with over $6bn worth of bilateral trade between the two countries in 2010. In July 2013, the Irish Tánaiste and Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade were invited to China by the Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi on a trade mission to boost both investment and political ties between the two countries.[4]

Ireland has raised its concerns in the area of human rights with China on a number of occasions. On 12 May 2007, during a visit to Beijing, former Taoiseach Brian Cowen (then Minister for Finance) discussed human rights issues with Chinese Foreign Minister Li Zhaoxing.[5] Former Tánaiste Mary Coughlan also raised human rights issues and concerns with visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Zeng Peiyan.[5] Ireland also participates in the EU-China Human Rights Dialogue.

Concerning the Taiwan issue, Ireland follows a One-China policy. In 2007, the former Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dermot Ahern summarised the Irish position as follows:[6]

Although Taiwan continues to exercise autonomy and to term itself The Republic of China, this is not recognised in international law. Taiwan’s official status is that of a Province of China...Ireland recognises the Government of the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China. Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan and there is no inter-Governmental contact between the two sides. A Taipei Representative Office, established in Dublin in 1988, has a representative function in relation to economic and cultural promotion, but no diplomatic or political status.

The former Minister's emphasis on the One China policy and to the Taiwan issue being best settled through dialogue "between the parties concerned" was consistent with Beijing's wish that the Taiwan issue be regarded as a domestic one between Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Straits.

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Ireland, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[7][8]

United KingdomEdit

 
Embassy of Ireland in London

Since at least the 1600s Ireland has had political connections with the United Kingdom, with the whole island becoming a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. From the time of Ireland declaring itself independent from the United Kingdom in 1937, the two countries have been involved in a dispute over the status of Northern Ireland. Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland formerly claimed Northern Ireland as a part of the "national territory", though in practice the Irish government did recognise the UK's jurisdiction over the region.
From the onset of the Troubles in 1969, the two governments sought to bring the violence to an end. The Sunningdale Agreement of 1973 and the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985 were important steps in this process. In 1998, both states signed the Good Friday Agreement and now co-operate closely to find a solution to the region's problems. Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland were amended as part of this agreement, the territorial claim being replaced with a statement of aspiration to unite the people of the island of Ireland. As part of the Good Friday Agreement, the states also ended their dispute over their respective names: Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Each agreed to accept and use the others' correct name.

When the Troubles were raging in Northern Ireland, the Irish Government sought, with mixed success, to prevent the import of weapons and ammunition through its territory by illegal paramilitary organisations for use in their conflict with the security forces in Northern Ireland. In 1973 three ships of the Irish Naval Service intercepted a ship carrying weapons from Libya which were probably destined for Irish Republican paramilitaries.[9] Law enforcement acts such as these additionally improved relations with the government of the United Kingdom. However, the independent judiciary blocked a number of attempts to extradite suspects between 1970 and 1998 on the basis that their crime might have been 'political' and thus contrary to international law at the time.

Ireland is one of the parties to the Rockall continental shelf dispute that also involves Denmark, Iceland, and the United Kingdom. Ireland and the United Kingdom have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area. However, neither have concluded similar agreements with Iceland or Denmark (on behalf of the Faroe Islands) and the matter remains under negotiation. Iceland now claims[10] a substantial area of the continental shelf to the west of Ireland, to a point 49°48'N 19°00'W, which is further south than Ireland.

The controversial Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in north-western England has also been a contentious issue between the two governments. The Irish government has sought the closure of the plant, taking a case against the UK government under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. However, the European Court of Justice found that the case should have been dealt with under EU law.[11] In 2006, however, both countries came to a friendly agreement which enabled both the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the Garda Síochána (Irish Police Force) access to the site to conduct investigations.[12]

United StatesEdit

 
Embassy of Ireland to the US, in Washington, D.C.

The United States recognised the Irish Free State on 28 June 1924 with diplomatic relations being established on 7 October 1924. In 1927, the United States opened an American Legation in Dublin.[13] Due to the ancestral ties between the two countries, Ireland and the US have a strong relationship, both politically and economically, with the US being Ireland's biggest trading partner since 2000.[14] Ireland also receives more foreign direct investment from the US than many larger nations, with investments in Ireland equal to France and Germany combined and, in 2012, more than all of developing Asia put together.[15]

The use of Shannon Airport as a stop-over point for US forces en route to Iraq has caused domestic controversy in Ireland. Opponents of this policy brought an unsuccessful High Court case against the government in 2003, arguing that this use of Irish airspace violated Irish neutrality.[16] Restrictions such as carrying no arms, ammunition, or explosives, and that the flights in question did not form part of military exercises or operations were put in place to defend Irish neutrality, however allegations have been made against the Central Intelligence Agency that the airport has been used between 30 and 50 times for illegal extraordinary rendition flights to the U.S without the knowledge of the Irish Government, despite diplomatic assurances by the US that Irish airspace would not be used for transport of detainees.[17][18]

In July 2006, the former Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dermot Ahern voiced concern over the 2006 Lebanon War.[19] A shipment of bombs being sent to Israel by the United States was banned using Irish airspace or airfields.[20]

In 1995 a decision was made by the U.S. government to appoint a Special Envoy to Northern Ireland to help with the Northern Ireland peace process. During the 2008 presidential campaign in the United States, however, Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama was reported as having questioned the necessity to keep a US Special Envoy for Northern Ireland. His remarks caused uproar within the Republican Party, with Senator John McCain questioning his leadership abilities and his commitment to the ongoing peace process in Northern Ireland.[21]

As of 2017, Daniel Mulhall is the Irish ambassador to the United States while the position of U.S. ambassador to Ireland is vacant.

AfricaEdit

  No formal diplomatic relations
Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria
  • Ireland is represented in Algeria through its embassy in Bern (Switzerland).
  • Algeria is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  • There are 1,047 Algerians living in Ireland.[22]
  Angola
  • Ireland is represented in Angola through its embassy in Maputo (Mozambique).
  • Angola is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  • Between 2006 and 2010 Angola received almost €7.6 million from the government of Ireland through Irish Aid.[23]
  Benin N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Benin.
  Botswana
  Burkina Faso
  Burundi 2004
  Cameroon 2007
  • Ireland is represented in Cameroon through its embassy in Abuja (Nigeria).
  • Cameroon is represented in Ireland through an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Cape Verde N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Cape Verde.
  Central African Republic 2018 Ireland and the Central African Republic established diplomatic relations on 26 June 2018.[27]
  Chad
  Comoros N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with the Comoros.
  Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Ireland is represented in the Democratic Republic of Congo through its embassy in Pretoria (South Africa).
  • Democratic Republic of Congo received €7.4 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • There are 1,770 citizens from between both the Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo living in Ireland. The exact number from each is uncertain due to the fact Congo with no distinction was used solely in census reports.[22]
  Republic of the Congo
  • Ireland is represented in the Republic of Congo through its permanent mission to the United Nations in New York (United States).
  • There are 1,770 citizens from between both the Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo living in Ireland. The exact number from each is uncertain due to the fact Congo with no distinction was used solely in census reports.[22]
  Djibouti
  Egypt 1975
  • Ireland has an embassy in Cairo and an honorary consulate in Alexandria.[31]
  • Egypt has an embassy in Dublin, the first embassy of an Arab country in Ireland.[32]
  • There are 1,055 Egyptians living in Ireland.[22]
  Equatorial Guinea N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Equatorial Guinea.
  Eritrea 2002
  Ethiopia 1994 See Ethiopia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Dublin.
  • In 2011, Ethiopia received €36.4 million in aid from Ireland.[29]
  • In November 2014 the President of Ireland Michael D. Higgins visited Ethiopia on a state visit to celebrate 20 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries. During this visit a bilateral transport agreement was signed which paved the way for Ethiopian Airlines to commence direct flights to Dublin from Addis Ababa, the first between Ireland and Sub-Saharan Africa.[33]
  Gabon
  Gambia
  Ghana
  • Ireland is represented in Ghana through its embassy in Abuja (Nigeria). Ireland also maintains a visa applications centre in Accra.
  • Ghana is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  • There are 1,158 Ghanaians living in Ireland.[22]
  Guinea
  Guinea Bissau
  Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivorie)
  Kenya 1979
  • Ireland has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Kenya received €9.3 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • There are approximately 2,000 Irish citizens living in Kenya.[37]
  Lesotho 1975
  • Ireland is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa after closing its embassy in Maseru in 2014.
  • Lesotho has an embassy in Dublin.
  • In June 2006 the President of Ireland, Mary McAleese made a state visit to the country.[38]
  • Lesotho received €11.3 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  Liberia 2004
  Libya 1977
  • Ireland is represented in Libya through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Libya is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).

Under Muammar Gaddafi, the prime governor of Libya from 1969 to 2011, relations between both countries were strained due to Gaddaffi's support of the Irish Republican Army. Gaddafi was sympathetic to their cause and also wanted revenge for the US Air Force's bombing attacks on Tripoli and Benghazi in 1986. Between 1984 and 1987 Libya sent the IRA about 1,000 AK47 assault rifles and six tonnes of Semtex explosive alongside other weapons. This shipment ensured The Troubles could continue for many more years, mainly until the Good Friday Agreement of 1998 ended the conflict.[40]

  Madagascar N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Madagascar.
  Malawi 2002
  • Ireland has an embassy in Lilongwe and an honorary consulate in Blantyre.[41]
  • Malawi has an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  • Malawi received €17.5 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • In 2014 the President of Ireland, Michael D. Higgins, made a state visit to Malawi.[42]
  Mali N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Mali.
  Mauritania N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Mauritania.
  Mauritius
  • Ireland is represented in Mauritius through its embassy in Pretoria, (South Africa).
  • Mauritius is represented in Ireland through its high commission in London (United Kingdom).
  • There are 2,844 citizens of Mauritius living in Ireland.[43]

Following the murder of Irish tourist Michaela McAreavey on the island in January 2011, several Irish business's proposed a boycott of the island due to the questionable trial in which all 3 suspects were acquitted.[44] Another source of discontent was the investigation by the Mauritian authorities. The Major Crime Investigation Team (MCIT), who were in charge, admitted they failed to interview fellow guests at the hotel who were staying close to the room in which the murder occurred. They also failed to preserve the crime scene and did not provide any solid DNA evidence against the accused.[45] As a result, the Irish ambassador to Mauritius conveyed in person to the Prime Minister of Mauritius, Navin Ramgoolam, a formal government to government protest over what happened.[46][47]

  Morocco 1975

In November 2012 Morocco recalled its ambassador to Ireland temporarily due to the fact the leader of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mohamed Abdelaziz, met with top Irish officials, including the President of Ireland Michael D. Higgins and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Eamon Gilmore. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims sovereignty over Western Sahara, a disputed territory that Morocco also claims to own.[48]

  Mozambique 1996
  • Ireland has an embassy in Maputo.[49]
  • Mozambique is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  • Mozambique received €42.2 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  Namibia 1994

Following Namibia's Independence from South Africa in 1990, Ireland sent 50 Garda officers as well as 20 military observers to the country as part of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group. This group as sent to monitor the peace process and elections taking place there at the time.[50]

  Niger
  Nigeria
  Rwanda
  São Tomé & Príncipe N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with São Tomé and Príncipe.
  Senegal
  Seychelles 1999
  Sierra Leone
  • Ireland has an embassy in Freetown since 2014.
  • Sierra Leone is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom) and an honorary consulate in Muine Bheag in Co. Carlow.
  • Sierra Leone received €9.1 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • Between 2005 and 2014 Ireland provided over €88 million in assistance to projects in Sierra Leone.[53]
  Somalia
  South Africa 1993

A principled stand against apartheid by Ireland came to prevent the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. As a result, Ireland was the only EU country that did not have full diplomatic relations with South Africa until 1993, when an exchange of ambassadors was agreed with the De Klerk administration in anticipation of the ending of apartheid.

  South Sudan N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with South Sudan.
  Sudan 1984
  • Ireland is represented in Sudan through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt) and an honorary consulate in Khartoum.[49]
  • Sudan has an embassy in Dublin.
  • Sudan received €9.6 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • There are 1,470 Sudanese living in Ireland.[22]
  Swaziland N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Swaziland.
  Tanzania 1979
  Togo 2018 Ireland and Togo established diplomatic relations on 27 June 2018.[58]
  Tunisia
  • Ireland is represented in Tunisia through its embassy in Madrid (Spain) and an honorary consulate in Tunis.
  • Tunisia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom) and an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Uganda 1994
  • Ireland has an embassy in Kampala.
  • Uganda is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom) and an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  • In 2011 Uganda received €42.7 million from Ireland through a variety of aid programmes.[29]
  • Irish people are one of the few citizens that do not need a visa to travel to Uganda.[59]

It was found in November 2012 that €4 million worth of Irish foreign aid was misappropriated by senior officials of the country. Instead of going towards aiding the development of the country, this money was redirected into the personal account of the prime minister of Uganda. The Irish government then halted all aid payments towards Uganda until the money was recouped, which eventually occurred in January 2013.[60]

  Zambia 1965 See Ireland–Zambia relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Lusaka.
  • Zambia is represented in Ireland through its high commission in London (United Kingdom).
  • Zambia benefits greatly from Irish Aid programs, in 2010 the country received €20.58 million in total from the country.[29]
  Zimbabwe 1984
  • Ireland is represented in Zimbabwe through an honorary consulate in Harare.[61]
  • Zimbabwe is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  • Zimbabwe received €7.6 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • There are 1,537 Zimbabweans living in Ireland.[22]

AmericasEdit

  No formal diplomatic relations
Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Antigua and Barbuda 2000
  Argentina 1947 See Argentina-Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
  • Argentina has an embassy in Dublin.
  • In 2012 the Irish president Michael D. Higgins became the third Irish President in succession to visit Argentina on a state visit.
  • In March 2008, a new visa programme between the two countries allowing young people from each country to work in the other for up to 9 months was announced.[63]
  • See Also: Irish Argentine
  Bahamas 2007
  • Ireland is represented in The Bahamas through its embassy in Ottawa (Canada) and an honorary consulate in Nassau.[64]
  • The Bahamas are represented in Ireland through their High Commission in London, (United Kingdom).
  Barbados 2001
  Belize
  • Although diplomatic relations with Belize are maintained through Ireland's Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York, (United States), Ireland is represented in Belize consularly through its embassy in Mexico City (Mexico).[66]
  • Belize is represented in Ireland through an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Bolivia
  • Ireland is represented in Bolivia through its embassy in Buenos Aires, (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in La Paz, Bolivia.
  • Bolivia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, (United Kingdom).
  • In November 2015 the President of Bolivia Evo Morales made a state visit to Ireland, a first such visit between the two countries.[67]
  Brazil 1975 See Brazil–Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Brasília and an honorary consulate in São Paulo.
  • Brazil has an embassy in Dublin and an honorary consulate in Cork.
  • There are 8,704 Brazilians living in Ireland.[43]
  • Ireland is the fourth most popular country in the world for Brazilian students studying abroad.[68]
  • See also: Irish Brazilian
  Canada 1929 See Canada–Ireland relations
  Chile 1992 See also: Chile–Ireland relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Dublin.[70]
  • Ireland has an embassy in Santiago.[71]
  • A special visa program allowing young people from both countries to work in the other country for up to a year was announced in 2016.[72]
  • See also: Irish Chilean
  Colombia 1999 See Colombia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Bogotá.[73]
  • Colombia has an embassy in Dublin.[74]
  • Colombia received over €1 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  Costa Rica
  Cuba 1999
  • Ireland is accredited to Cuba through its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.[75]
  • Cuba has an embassy in Dublin.
  • A large number of Irish people migrated to Cuba in the 19th century.
  • The Irish Republican political party, Sinn Féin is also known to have close political links to the Cuban government. In 2015 Sinn Féin party leader, Gerry Adams made an official visit to the country.[77]
  Dominica
  Dominican Republic 2009
  • Ireland is represented in the Dominican Republic through its embassy in Washington, D.C..
  • The Dominican Republic is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  Ecuador 1999
  El Salvador 2000
  Grenada N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Grenada.
  Guatemala
  • Ireland is accredited to Guatemala through its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico and through its honorary consulate in Guatemala City.
  • Guatemala is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  Guyana
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 February 2000.[79]
  • Ireland has an honorary consulate in Georgetown, Guyana.
  • Guyana is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  Haiti
  Honduras
  Jamaica 1997
  Mexico 1975 See Ireland–Mexico relations
  Nicaragua
  Panama
  Paraguay
  Peru
  • Ireland is accredited to Peru through its embassy in Mexico City (Mexico),[75] and an honorary consulate in Lima.
  • Peru has an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Saint Kitts & Nevis N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Saint Kitts and Nevis.
  Saint Lucia
  Saint Vincent & the Grenadines 2015
  Suriname N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Suriname.
  Trinidad and Tobago
  • Ireland is represented in Trinidad & Tobago through Ireland's Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York (United States) and an honorary consulate in Port of Spain, Trinidad.
  • Trinidad & Tobago is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  United States 1924 See above and Ireland–United States relations
  Uruguay 1996
  Venezuela 1980

AsiaEdit

  No formal diplomatic relations
Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Afghanistan
  Armenia 1996
  • Ireland recognised Armenia's independence in December 1991.
  • Armenia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom) and an honorary consulate in Dublin.[91]
  • Ireland is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[92]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Azerbaijan 1996
  Bahrain 1974
  Bangladesh
  Bhutan N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with Bhutan.
  Brunei Darussalam
  • Ireland is represented in Brunei Darussalam through its embassy in Hanoi (Vietnam).
  • Brunei Darussalam is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  Cambodia
  • Ireland is represented in Cambodia through its embassy in Singapore.
  • Cambodia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  China 1979 See above and China–Ireland relations
  Georgia 1996
  • Ireland is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria).
  • Georgia has an embassy in Dublin.

Ireland supports EU initiatives to promote peace between Georgia and Russia. Ireland recognises Georgian sovereignty over the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Ireland condemned the decision of Russia to recognise South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states.[96] The separatist Parliament of Abkhazia expressly called on Ireland to recognise Abkhaz independence, drawing parallels between Ireland's own historic struggle for independence and international recognition with its own, the Abkhaz Parliament's statement recalling that:[97]

"Just like Ireland, Abkhazia has finally acquired long-awaited independence and recognition at the cost of enormous efforts...[Ireland] was de facto independent for a long time, but remained unrecognised. Ireland was the only unrecognised country in Europe until the world's largest country recognised a free parliament of Ireland. And that country was Russia".

The parallel the Abkhaz Parliament referred to stems from the fact that the breakaway and largely unrecognised Irish Republic (1919–22), enjoyed some form of recognition from the RSFSR.[citation needed]

  India 1947 See India–Ireland relations
  Indonesia 1984
  Iran
  • Ireland is represented in Iran through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey) and an honorary consulate in Tehran. The Irish embassy in Iran was closed in 2012 for cost reasons.[98]
  • Iran has an embassy in Dublin.
  • After the conclusion of the Iran–Iraq War in 1988, Ireland sent 177 personnel to supervise the ceasefire as part of the United Nations led UNIIMOG.[99]
  Iraq
  Israel 1975 See Ireland–Israel relations

In 2010, the Israel Defense Forces forcibly boarded an Irish aid ship destined for the Gaza Strip which resulted in worsened relations, Israel's Mossad was also involved in the counterfeiting of five Irish passports used in an assassination, and 2 members of the Israeli ambassador's security staff in Dublin were subsequently deported.[102] In 2010, there were numerous protests at the Israeli embassy in Ireland over the treatment of Palestinians.[103]

  Japan March 1957 See Ireland–Japan relations
  Jordan
  Kuwait
  Kyrgyzstan
  • Ireland is represented in Kyrgyzstan through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  Laos
  Lebanon
  • Ireland is represented in Lebanon through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt) and an honorary consulate in Beirut.
  • Lebanon is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).

From 1978 to 2001, a battalion of 580 Irish troops was deployed in Lebanon, rotating every 6 months, as part of the United Nations led force UNIFIL. In all, 30,000 Irish soldiers served in Lebanon over the 23 years. Over the course of this mission 48 Irish soldiers died in Lebanon.[107]

  Malaysia 1974
  Maldives
  Mongolia 1998
  Myanmar 2004
  Nepal
  North Korea 2003
  Oman
  Pakistan See Ireland–Pakistan relations
  • Ireland is represented in Pakistan through its embassy in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and an honorary consulate in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Dublin.
  • There are 6,847 Pakistanis living in Ireland.[56]
  • Pakistan received over €1.5 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  Palestine
  • Ireland has a representative office in Ramallah.[111]
  • The Palestinian Authority has a general delegation in Dublin,[112] upgraded to mission status is 2011.[113]
  • In 2011, Foreign Minister Eamon Gilmore spoke at the United Nations in favour of Palestine's application for membership.[114]
  • Palestine received €5.4 million in Irish aid in 2011.[29]
  Philippines 1986 See Ireland–Philippines relations
  • Diplomatic relations officially began in 1986 and have become more intense over the years as increasing numbers of Filipinos have migrated to Ireland.
  • Ireland is represented in The Philippines through its embassy in Singapore and an honorary consulate in Manila.
  • The Philippines are represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom) and an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  • There are 12,791 Filipinos living in Ireland.[56]
  Qatar
  Saudi Arabia
  Singapore 1974
  • Ireland is represented in Singapore through its embassy in Singapore.
  • Singapore is represented in Ireland through its honorary consulate in Dublin.
  South Korea 1983-10-04 The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Ireland started on 4 October 1983.[115]
  Sri Lanka
  • Ireland is represented in Sri Lanka through its embassy in New Delhi (India) and an honorary consulate in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Ireland through an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Syria
  Tajikistan
  • Ireland is represented in Tajikistan through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  Thailand
  Timor Leste 2003
  • Ireland is represented in Timor Leste through its embassy in Singapore (Singapore).
  • Timor Leste has an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  • Timor Leste received €3.4 million in aid from Ireland in 2011.[29]
  • Since 2003 Timor Leste is one of 9 priority countries receiving Irish Aid assistance.[118]
  Turkey 1972 See Ireland–Turkey relations
  Turkmenistan
  • Ireland is represented in Turkmenistan through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  United Arab Emirates 1974
  Uzbekistan
  • Ireland is represented in Uzbekistan through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • Uzbekistan is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).
  Vietnam 1996
  Yemen

EuropeEdit

Ireland is consistently the most pro-European of EU member states, with 77% of the population approving of EU membership according to a Eurobarometer poll in 2006.[123] Ireland was a founding member of the euro single currency. In May 2004, Ireland was one of only three countries to open its borders to workers from the 10 new member states. EU issues important to Ireland include the Common Agricultural Policy, corporation tax harmonisation and the EU Constitution. The Irish electorate declined to ratify the Treaty of Lisbon in 2008. A second referendum in October 2009 passed the bill, allowing the treaty to be ratified before it was ratified legal guarantees on issues such as the right of Ireland to remain militarily neutral (and not engage in any kind of "European army"), the right of the state to maintain its low levels of corporation tax and that the treaty would not change the right to life article in the Irish constitution making abortion illegal and an act of murder under Irish constitutional law.[citation needed]

As of 2013, Paschal Donohoe is Minister of State for European Affairs at the Department of Foreign Affairs. Ireland has held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union on seven occasions (in 1975, 1979, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2004 and 2013).

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Albania 1995
  Andorra 1995
  • Although Ireland is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Madrid, (Spain) all consular queries are with regard to Andorra are dealt with through Ireland's consulate general in Barcelona.[124]
  • Andorra is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[93]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Austria 1951
  Belarus 1992
  Belgium
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2003
  Bulgaria 1990
  Croatia 1995 See Croatia-Ireland relations
  Cyprus 1984 See Cyprus-Ireland relations
  Czech Republic 1929
  Denmark 1962 See Denmark-Ireland relations
  Estonia 1991
  Finland 1961
  France 1922 See France–Ireland relations
  Germany 1922 See Germany–Ireland relations
  Greece 1975 See Greece–Ireland relations
  Guernsey
  • Ireland has signed several tax treaties with the Guernsey.[142] The treaties provide a mechanism for inter-governmental sharing of information about offshore assets, and avoidance of dual-taxation.[143]
  Holy See 1929 See Holy See – Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy to the Holy See.
  • The Holy See has an embassy in Dublin.
  • In November 2011 Ireland closed its embassy in the Vatican over the Irish Church's handling of sex abuse cases and accusations that the Vatican had encouraged secrecy and obstructed investigations into these matters.[144] The embassy was reopened in January 2014, a sign of thawing relations between the two jurisdictions.[145]
  • The majority of Irish people are Roman Catholic.
  Hungary 1976
  Iceland 11 March 1948 See Iceland–Ireland relations
  Italy 1922
  Jersey
  • Ireland has signed several tax treaties with Jersey.[142] The treaties provide a mechanism for inter-governmental sharing of information about offshore assets, and avoidance of dual-taxation.[143]
  Kazakhstan 1992
  Kosovo 2008 See Ireland–Kosovo relations
  Latvia 1991
  Liechtenstein 1992
  Lithuania 1991
  Luxembourg 1925
  Malta 1990
  Isle of Man See Ireland-Isle of Man relations
  • Ireland has signed several tax agreements with the Isle of Man.[161] The agreements provide a mechanism for inter-governmental sharing of information about offshore assets, and avoidance of dual-taxation.
  • Ireland and the Isle of Man have collaborated on preparing reports and jointly opposing the Sellafield nuclear plant to the UK government.[162]
  Moldova 1999
  Monaco
  • Although Ireland has an honorary consulate in Monaco, Ireland is represented through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Monaco has an honorary consulate in Dublin.
  Montenegro 2006
  • Ireland is represented in Montenegro through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Montenegro declared its independence from Serbia on 3 June 2006 and Ireland recognised it on 20 June 2006.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Netherlands 1922
  North Macedonia 1994
  Norway 1949
  Poland 1976 See Ireland–Poland relations
  Portugal 1942
  Romania 1990 See Ireland–Romania relations
  Russia 1973 See Ireland–Russia relations
  San Marino 1995
  • Ireland is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • San Marino has an honorary consulate in Limerick.
  Serbia 1977
  Slovakia 1993

In 2010 Slovak airport security planted actual explosives in the luggage of unsuspecting passengers as part of a security exercise. As result of additional mistakes, the explosives were flown to Dublin, Ireland causing international controversy.[176] Prime Minister Fico refused to dismiss the interior minister after the incident.

  Slovenia 1991
  Spain 1924 See Ireland–Spain relations
  Sweden
  Switzerland 1934
  • Ireland has an embassy in Bern and an honorary consulate in Zurich.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Dublin.
  • As of 2010 there are 1,449 Swiss people living in Ireland.[182]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Ukraine 1992
  United Kingdom See Above and Ireland–United Kingdom relations

OceaniaEdit

  No formal diplomatic relations
Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia See Australia–Ireland relations
  Federated States of Micronesia 2004
  Fiji 2002
  Kiribati
  Marshall Islands N/A Ireland does not maintain diplomatic relations with the Marshall Islands.
  Nauru
  New Zealand See Ireland–New Zealand relations
  Palau
  Papua New Guinea
  • Ireland is represented in Papua New Guinea through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  Samoa
  Solomon Islands
  • Ireland is represented in the Solomon Islands through its embassy in Canberra (Australia).
  Tonga 2000 Ireland and Tonga established diplomatic relations in 2000.[192]
  Tuvalu
  Vanuatu

OverviewEdit

 
  Diplomatic relations, accredited ambassador from Ireland and/or the respective state
  Diplomatic relations maintained through the Irish UN mission in New York
  Diplomatic relations, no ambassador accredited
  non-diplomatic representation

As of 2008 Ireland maintains diplomatic relations with 173 states (including the Republic of Kosovo), the Holy See and the European Union.[195]

Ireland has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

United NationsEdit

The United Nations was founded in 1945, but Ireland's membership was blocked by the Soviet Union until 1955,[197] "partly because of Dublin's neutrality" during the Second World War.[198] Since 2017, the Irish ambassador to the UN Office at Geneva has been Michael Gaffey.[199] Ireland has been elected to the UN Security Council as a non-permanent member on three occasions — in 1962, in 1981–1982 and most recently in 2001–2002.[200]

Ireland is a member state of the International Criminal Court, having signed the Rome Statute in 1998 and ratified it in 2002.[201]

Irish Aid, the Government of Ireland's programme of assistance to developing countries financed the redesign of the UNV Online Volunteering service website in 2008 and supported its operations from 2007 to 2010, which led to a significant growth in the number of online volunteers and the tasks they completed.[202]

In 2017, Ireland signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[203]

Peacekeeping missionsEdit

Ireland has a long history of participation in UN peacekeeping efforts starting in 1958, just three years after joining the UN. As of August 2018, 90 members of the Irish Defence Forces had been killed on peacekeeping missions.[204]

List of major peacekeeping operations:[205]

As well as these missions, Irish personnel have served as observers in Central America, Russia, Cambodia, Afghanistan, Namibia, Western Sahara, Kuwait and South Africa.[206]

Ireland and the Commonwealth of NationsEdit

Ireland was a member state of the British Commonwealth from 1922 until 1949, initially as a Dominion called the Irish Free State from 1922 until 1937, when Ireland adopted a new constitution and changed the name of the state to "Ireland". Although the king was removed from the Constitution in 1936, a republic was only formally declared from 18 April 1949. Under the rules at the time, a republic could not be a member state of the Commonwealth. This was changed a week later with the adoption of the London Declaration.

Since 1998, some people in Ireland have advocated joining the Commonwealth of Nations, most notably Éamon Ó Cuív and Mary Kenny.[207][208]

International organisationsEdit

Ireland is a member of or otherwise participates in the following international organisations:[209]

Foreign aidEdit

Ireland's aid program was founded in 1974, and in 2017 its budget amounted to €651 million.[210] The government had previously set a target of reaching the Millennium Development Goal of 0.7% of Gross National Product in aid by 2012, which was not met as aid was reduced as a result of the Irish financial crisis.[211] Irish development aid is concentrated on eight priority countries: Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Zambia, Uganda, Vietnam and East Timor.[212] In 2006, Malawi was announced as the ninth priority country, with a tenth country to follow.[213]

Human rightsEdit

There have been no serious civil, human or social rights abuses/problems in the State, according to Amnesty International and the U.S. State Department.[214][215] The country consistently comes among the top nations in terms of freedom and rights ratings.

Index Ranking (Most Recent) Result
Freedom in the World – Political Rights 1st (Joint) 1 ("Free")
Freedom in the World – Civil Liberties 1st (Joint) 1 ("Free")
Index of Economic Freedom 9th 76.9 ("Mostly Free")
Worldwide Press Freedom Index Ranking 15th −4.00 ("Free")
Global Peace Index 6th (Joint) 1.33 ("More Peaceful")
Democracy Index 12th 8.79 ("Full Democracy")
International Property Rights Index 13th (Joint) 7.9
Corruption Perceptions Index 16th (Joint) 7.7
Failed States Index 170th (7th from the bottom) 26.5 ("Sustainable")

See alsoEdit

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External linksEdit

  • Department of Foreign Affairs official site
    • Irish Treaty Series "All treaties published in the Irish Treaty Series since 2002 are available in pdf format on this site. A limited number of selected treaties published in earlier years is also available"