File:Crossing the boiling floods of Jhelum River by a bridge of one raw-hide rope, at Uri in Jammu and Kashmir (c. 1903).jpg

Original file(976 × 496 pixels, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)


English: Stereoscopic photograph of two types of rope-bridge across the River Jhelum at Uri in Jammu and Kashmir, taken by James Ricalton in c. 1903, from The Underwood Travel Library: Stereoscopic Views of India. This image is described by Ricalton in 'India Through the Stereoscope' (1907), "Among the Himalayas several kinds of primitive bridges are in use; there are two kinds here before us now. The one we see in use consists of a single strand of raw-hide rope made fast to either shore by an anchorage of stone, and then elevated and supported by a few rude sticks. A saddle or carrier is made from the crotch of a tree inverted over the rope; a loop of rope is attached to each pending arm of the saddle; through these loops the legs of the passenger are thrust, while his hands clutch the projecting top of the saddle. A small pull cord extends from the saddle to a bridge-tender on each side of the river...those huge, ragged strands suspended cross to the right and up the river...are the remains of a former bridge...formed by two heavy cables of twigs or withes, bound and interlaced to a thickness of about five inches; those were held apart and supported by transverse sticks which can be seen still dangling from the unbroken cable. For the foot-way, sections of split timber or bamboo were placed at stepping distances on the cables." This is one of a series of 100 photographs, designed to be viewed through a special binocular viewer, producing a 3D effect. The series was sold together with a book of descriptions and a map with precise locations to enable the 'traveller' to imagine that he was touring around India. Stereoscopic cameras, those with two lenses and the ability to take two photographs at the same time, were introduced in the mid 19th century and revolutionised photography. They cut down exposure time and thus allowed for some movement in the image without blurring as subjects were not required to sit for long periods to produce sharp results.
Date circa 1903
date QS:P,+1903-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P1480,Q5727902
creator QS:P170,Q6142043


Public domain
This work is in the public domain in India because its term of copyright has expired.
  • The Indian Copyright Act applies in India, to works first published in India.
  • According to The Indian Copyright Act, 1957 (Chapter V Section 25), Anonymous works, photographs, cinematographic works, sound recordings, government works, and works of corporate authorship or of international organizations enter the public domain 60 years after the date on which they were first published, counted from the beginning of the following calendar year (ie. as of 2020, works published prior to 1 January 1960 are considered public domain). Posthumous works (other than those above) enter the public domain after 60 years from publication date. Any other kind of work enters the public domain 60 years after the author's death. Text of laws, judicial opinions, and other government reports are free from copyright. Photographs created before 1960 are in the public domain 50 years after creation, as per the Copyright Act 1911.
Flag of India.svg
This file may not be in the public domain outside India. The creator and year of publication are essential information and must be provided. See Wikipedia:Public domain and Wikipedia:Copyrights for more details.

বাংলা | Deutsch | English | français | हिन्दी | italiano | 日本語 | ಕನ್ನಡ | македонски | മലയാളം | मराठी | Nederlands | português do Brasil | sicilianu | தமிழ் | ತುಳು | اردو | +/−

File history

Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

current09:07, 8 January 2015Thumbnail for version as of 09:07, 8 January 2015976 × 496 (246 KB)Co9manUser created page with UploadWizard
The following pages on the English Wikipedia use this file (pages on other projects are not listed):

Global file usage

The following other wikis use this file: