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English: The ancient and medieval Indian schools of philosophy call epistemology as Pramanas.

Different schools consider different number of epistemic means to correct knowledge, between one of Charvaka school to six of Advaita Vedanta: Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference), Upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), Arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and Śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).

To verify the interconnection and maps above: [1] Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723943, page 134-146; [2] Karl Potter (2004), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Indian metaphysics and epistemology, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803091, pages 222-238; [3] John A Grimes (2006), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, pages 237-240

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