Ezra Pound

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement, and a fascist collaborator in Italy during World War II. His works include Ripostes (1912), Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920), and the c. 23,000-line, 800-page epic poem The Cantos (1917–1968).[a]

photograph of Ezra H. Pound
Ezra Pound photographed in 1913 by Alvin Langdon Coburn

Pound's contribution to poetry began with his role in developing Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing precision and economy of language. Working in London in the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, he helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost, and Ernest Hemingway. He was responsible for the 1914 serialization of Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the 1915 publication of Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", and the serialization from 1918 of Joyce's Ulysses. Hemingway wrote in 1932 that, for poets born in the late 19th or early 20th century, not to be influenced by Pound would be like passing through a great blizzard and not feeling its cold.[b]

Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound blamed the war on finance capitalism, which he called "usury".[2] He moved to Italy in 1924 and through the 1930s and 1940s promoted an economic theory known as social credit, wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley, embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, and expressed support for Adolf Hitler. During World War II and the Holocaust in Italy, he made hundreds of paid radio broadcasts for the Italian government, including in German-occupied Italy, attacking the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and, above all, Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason. He spent months in a U.S. military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in an outdoor steel cage. Deemed unfit to stand trial, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D.C., for over 12 years.

While in custody in Italy, Pound began work on sections of The Cantos that were published as The Pisan Cantos (1948), for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize for Poetry in 1949 by the Library of Congress, causing enormous controversy. After a campaign by his fellow writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and lived in Italy until his death in 1972. His political views have ensured that his life and work remain controversial.

Early life (1885–1908)Edit

Background and early educationEdit

 
Thaddeus Pound, Pound's grandfather, in the late 1880s

Pound was born in a two-story clapboard house in Hailey, Idaho Territory, the only child of Homer Loomis Pound (1858–1942) and Isabel Weston (1860–1948). His father had worked in Hailey since 1883 as registrar of the General Land Office.[3] Both parents' ancestors had emigrated from England in the 17th century. On his mother's side, Pound was descended from William Wadsworth, a Puritan who emigrated to Boston on the Lion in 1632. Captain Joseph Wadsworth helped to write the Connecticut constitution.[4] The Wadsworths married into the Westons of New York; Harding Weston and Mary Parker were Pound's maternal grandparents.[5] After serving in the military, Harding remained unemployed, so his brother Ezra Weston and Ezra's wife, Frances Amelia Wessells Freer (Aunt Frank), looked after his wife and daughter, Isabel, Pound's mother.[6]

On Pound's father's side, the immigrant ancestor was John Pound, a Quaker who arrived from England around 1650.[5] Ezra's paternal grandmother, Susan Angevine Loomis,[7] married Thaddeus Coleman Pound, a Republican Congressman and the 10th Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin, who made and lost a fortune in the lumber business. Their son Homer, Pound's father, worked for Thaddeus in the lumber business until Thaddeus secured him the appointment as registrar of the Hailey land office.[8] Homer and Isabel married the following year, in 1884.[5]

 
In his Cheltenham Military Academy uniform with his mother, 1898

Isabel Pound was unhappy in Hailey and took Ezra with her to New York in 1887 when he was 18 months old.[9] Her husband followed and in 1889 found a job as an assayer at the Philadelphia Mint. After a move to Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, the family bought a six-bedroom house in 1893 at 166 Fernbrook Avenue, Wyncote.[5] Pound's education began in dame schools: Miss Elliott's school in Jenkintown in 1892 and the Heathcock family's Chelten Hills School in Wyncote in 1893.[5] Known as "Ra Pound" (pronounced "Ray"), he attended Wyncote Public School from September 1894.[10] His first publication was on 7 November 1896 in the Jenkintown Times-Chronicle ("by E. L. Pound, Wyncote, aged 11 years"), a limerick about William Jennings Bryan, who had just lost the 1896 presidential election.[c]

In 1897, aged 12, he transferred to Cheltenham Military Academy (CMA), where he wore an American Civil War-style uniform and was taught drilling and how to shoot.[12] The following year he made his first trip overseas, a three-month tour with his mother and Aunt Frank, who took him to England, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and Morocco.[13] He attended CMA until 1900, at times as a boarder, but it seems he did not graduate.[14][d]

Later educationEdit

In 1901 Pound was admitted, aged 15, to the University of Pennsylvania's College of Liberal Arts.[16] Years later he said his aim was to avoid drill at the military academy.[17] His one distinction in first year was in geometry,[18] but otherwise his grades were mostly poor, including in his major, Latin; he achieved a B in English composition and a pass in English literature.[19] In his second year he switched from the degree course to "non-degree special student status", he said "to avoid irrelevant subjects".[20][e] He was not elected to a fraternity at Penn, but it seemed not to bother him.[22]

His parents and Aunt Frank took him on another three-month European tour in 1902, and the following year he transferred to Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, possibly because of his grades.[23] Again he was not invited to join a fraternity, but this time he had hoped to do so, according to letters home. By April 1904 he regarded the move to Hamilton as a mistake.[24] Signed up for the Latin–Scientific course, he appears to have avoided some classes; his transcript is short of credits.[23] He studied the Provençal dialect and read Dante and Anglo-Saxon poetry, including Beowulf and The Seafarer.[25]

After graduating from Hamilton in 1905 with a PhB, he returned to Penn, where he fell in love with Hilda Doolittle (later known as the poet H.D.), then at Bryn Mawr College.[26] He hand-bound 25 of his poems for her as Hilda's Book.[27][g] In 1906 he was awarded an MA in Romance languages,[32] then registered to write a PhD thesis on the jesters in Lope de Vega's plays.[32] A two-year Harrison fellowship[33] covered his tuition and a $500 travel grant allowed him to return to Europe.[32] He spent three weeks in libraries in Madrid, including in the royal palace; on 31 May 1906 he was standing outside the palace during the attempted assassination of King Alfonso and left the city for fear of being identified with the anarchists.[34] After Spain he visited Paris and London, returning to the United States in July 1906, where in September his first essay, "Raphaelite Latin", was published in the Book News Monthly.[35] He took courses in English in 1907, where he fell out with just about everyone, including the department head, Felix Schelling, with silly remarks during lectures and by winding an enormous tin watch very slowly while Schelling spoke.[36] In the spring of 1907 he learned that his fellowship would not be renewed.[33] Schelling told him he was wasting everyone's time, and he left without finishing his doctorate.[37]

TeachingEdit

In Durance

I am homesick after mine own kind,
Oh I know that there are folk about me, friendly faces,
But I am homesick after mine own kind.

— Written in Crawfordsville, Indiana, 1907[38]

From September 1907 Pound taught French and Spanish at Wabash College, a Presbyterian college with 345 students in Crawfordsville, Indiana,[39] which he called "the sixth circle of hell".[40] He was dismissed after a few months. Smoking was forbidden, but he would smoke cigarillos in his room in the same corridor as the president's office.[41] One former student remembered him as a breath of fresh air; another said he was "exhibitionist, egotistic, self-centered and self-indulgent".[42] He was asked to leave the college in January 1908 (salary paid until the end of the academic year) when his landladies, Ida and Belle Hall, found a woman in his room.[43] Shocked at having been fired,[44] he left for Europe soon after, sailing from New York in March on the RMS Slavonia.[45]

London (1908–1920)Edit

A Lume SpentoEdit

Pound arrived in Gibraltar on 23 March 1908, where he earned $15 a day working as a guide for an American family there and in Spain.[46] After stops in Seville, Grenada, and Genoa, by the end of April he was in Venice, living over a bakery near the San Vio bridge.[47] In the summer he decided to self-publish his first collection of poetry, the 72-page A Lume Spento ("With Tapers Quenched"), 150 copies of which were printed in July 1908.[48] The title is from the third canto of Dante's Purgatorio, alluding to the death of Manfred, King of Sicily. Pound dedicated the book, which contained 44 poems, to the Philadelphia artist William Brooke Smith, a friend from university who had recently died of tuberculosis.[49]

In The Pisan Cantos he records that he considered throwing the proofs into the Grand Canal, abandoning the book and poetry altogether: "by the soap-smooth stone posts where San Vio / meets with il Canal Grande / between Salviati and the house that was of Don Carlos / shd/I chuck the lot into the tide-water? / le bozze "A Lume Spento"/ / and by the column of Todero / shd/I shift to the other side / or wait 24 hours".[50]

Move to LondonEdit

 
48 Langham Street, Fitzrovia, London W1

In August 1908 Pound moved to London, carrying 60 copies of A Lume Spento.[51] English poets such as Maurice Hewlett, Rudyard Kipling, and Alfred Tennyson had made a particular kind of Victorian verse—stirring, pompous, and propagandistic—popular. According to modernist scholar James Knapp, Pound rejected the idea of poetry as "versified moral essay"; he wanted to focus on the individual experience, the concrete rather than the abstract.[52]

Pound at first stayed in a boarding house at 8 Duchess Street, near the British Museum Reading Room; he had met the landlady during his travels in Europe in 1906.[53] He soon moved to Islington (cheaper at 12s 6d a week board and lodging), but his father sent him ₤4 and he was able to move back into central London, to 48 Langham Street, near Great Titchfield Street.[54] The house sat across an alley from the Yorkshire Grey pub, which made an appearance in The Pisan Cantos, "concerning the landlady's doings / with a lodger unnamed / az waz near Gt Tichfield St. next door to the pub".[55]

Pound persuaded the bookseller Elkin Mathews on Vigo Street to display A Lume Spento, and in an unsigned article on 26 November 1908, Pound reviewed it himself in the Evening Standard: "The unseizable magic of poetry is in this queer paper book; and words are no good in describing it."[56] The following month he self-published a second collection, A Quinzaine for this Yule.[57] It was his first book to have commercial success, and Elkin Matthews had another 100 copies printed.[58] In January and February 1909, after the death of John Churton Collins left a vacancy, Pound lectured for an hour a week in the evenings on "The Development of Literature in Southern Europe" at the Regent Street Polytechnic.[59][h] Mornings might be spent in the British Museum Reading Room, followed by lunch at the Vienna Café on Oxford Street.[61] Ford Madox Ford described Pound as "approach[ing] with the step of a dancer, making passes with a cane at an imaginary opponent":

He would wear trousers made of green billiard cloth, a pink coat, a blue shirt, a tie hand-painted by a Japanese friend, an immense sombrero, a flaming beard cut to a point, and a single, large blue earring."[62]

Meeting Dorothy Shakespear, PersonaeEdit

 
Pound married Dorothy Shakespear in 1914.

At a literary salon in 1909, Pound met the novelist Olivia Shakespear and was introduced to her daughter, Dorothy, who became Pound's wife in 1914. The critic Iris Barry described Dorothy as "carrying herself delicately with the air, always, of a young Victorian lady out skating, and a profile as clear and lovely as that of a porcelain Kuan-yin".[63] "Listen to it—Ezra! Ezra! And a third time—Ezra!", she wrote in her diary on 16 February 1909.[64]

Pound met the cream of London's literary circle, including George Bernard Shaw, Hilaire Belloc, Ernest Rhys, T. E. Hulme, and F. S. Flint.[65] Through the Shakespears, he was introduced to the poet W. B. Yeats, Olivia Shakespear's former lover. He had already sent Yeats a copy of A Lume Spento, and Yeats had apparently found it "charming".[66] Pound wrote to William Carlos Williams on 3 February 1909: "Am by way of falling into the crowd that does things here. London, deah old Lundon, is the place for poesy."[67] According to Richard Aldington, London found Pound amusing. The newspapers interviewed him,[68] and he was mentioned in Punch magazine, which on 23 June 1909 described "Mr. Ezekiel Ton" as "the most remarkable thing in poetry since Robert Browning ... [blending] the imagery of the unfettered West, the vocabulary of Wardour Street, and the sinister abandon of Borgiac Italy".[69]

Erat Hora

"Thank you, whatever comes." And then she turned
And, as the ray of sun on hanging flowers
Fades when the wind hath lifted them aside,
Went swiftly from me. Nay, whatever comes
One hour was sunlit and the most high gods
May not make boast of any better thing
Than to have watched that hour as it passed.

— Personae: The Collected Poems of Ezra Pound (later edition, 1926)[70]

In April 1909 Elkin Mathews published Personae of Ezra Pound (half the poems were from A Lume Spento)[58] and in September a further 27 poems as Exultations of Ezra Pound.[71] Edward Thomas described Personae in English Review as "full of human passion and natural magic".[72] Rupert Brooke complained in the Cambridge Review that Pound had fallen under the influence of Walt Whitman, writing in "unmetrical sprawling lengths that, in his hands, have nothing to commend them". But he did acknowledge that Pound had "great talents".[73]

In or around September, Pound moved into new rooms at Church Walk, off Kensington High Street, where he lived most of the time until 1914.[74] He visited a friend, Walter Rummel, in Paris in March 1910 and was introduced to the American heiress and pianist Margaret Lanier Cravens. Although they had only just met, she offered to become a patron to the tune of $1,000 a year, and from then until her death in 1912 she apparently sent him money regularly.[75]

The Spirit of Romance, Canzoni, the New AgeEdit

In June 1910 Pound returned for eight months to the United States; his arrival coincided with the publication in London of his first book of literary criticism, The Spirit of Romance, based on his lecture notes from the polytechnic.[76] Patria Mia, his essays on the United States, were written at this time. He loved New York but felt alienated by the commercialism and the newcomers from Eastern and Southern Europe who were displacing the white Anglo-Saxon Protestants.[77] He found the New York Public Library Main Branch, recently built, especially offensive.[78] It was during this period that his antisemitism became apparent; he referred in Patria Mia to the "detestable qualities" of Jews.[79] Pound persuaded his parents to finance his passage back to Europe, and on 22 February 1911 he sailed from New York on the R.M.S. Mauretania. It was nearly 30 years—April 1939—before he visited the U.S. again.[80]

 
Tooks Court, London EC4, location of the New Age office[81]

After spending three days in London he went to Paris,[82] where he worked on a new collection of poetry, Canzoni (1911), panned by the Westminster Gazette as "affectation combined with pedantry".[83] He wrote that its "stilted language" had Ford Madox Ford rolling on the floor with laughter.[84] When he returned to London in August, A. R. Orage, editor of the socialist (Fabian) journal the New Age, hired him to write a weekly column.[85] Orage appears in The Cantos: "but the lot of 'em, Yeats, Possum and Wyndham / had no ground beneath 'em. / Orage had." (Possum is T. S. Eliot.)[86] Pound contributed to the New Age from 30 November 1911 to 13 January 1921,[87] attending editorial meetings in the basement of a grimy ABC tearoom in Chancery Lane.[88] There and at other meetings he met Arnold Bennett, Cecil Chesterton, Beatrice Hastings, S. G. Hobson, T. E. Hulme, Katherine Mansfield, and H. G. Wells.[87]

In the New Age office in 1918, Pound met C. H. Douglas, a British engineer who was developing his economic theory of social credit, which Pound found attractive.[89] Douglas reportedly believed that Jews were a problem and needed to abandon the Messianic view of themselves as the "dominating race".[90] According to Colin Holmes, the New Age itself published antisemitic material.[91] It was within this environment, not in Italy, according to Tim Redman, that Pound first encountered antisemitic ideas about "usury".[87] "In Douglas's program," Christopher Hitchens wrote in 2008, "Pound had found his true muse: a blend of folkloric Celtic twilight with a paranoid hatred of the money economy and a dire suspicion about an ancient faith."[92]

Imagism, Poetry magazine, RipostesEdit

 
10 Church Walk, Kensington, London W8. Pound lived on the first floor (far left) in 1909–1910 and 1911–1914.[i]

Hilda Doolittle arrived in London from Philadelphia in May 1911 with the poet Frances Gregg and Gregg's mother; when they returned in September, Doolittle stayed on. Pound introduced her to his friends, including Richard Aldington, who became her husband in 1913. Before that, the three of them lived in Church Walk, Kensington—Pound at no. 10, Aldington at no. 8, and Doolittle at no. 6—and worked daily in the British Museum Reading Room.[74]

At the British Museum Laurence Binyon introduced Pound to the East Asian artistic and literary concepts Pound used in his later poetry, including Japanese ukiyo-e prints.[96] The visitors' book first shows Pound in the Prints and Drawings Students' Room (known as the Print Room)[97] on 9 February 1909, and later in 1912 and 1913, with Dorothy Shakespear, examining Chinese and Japanese art.[98] Pound was working at the time on the poems that became Ripostes (1912), trying to move away from his earlier work.[84] "I hadn't in 1910 made a language," he wrote years later. "I don't mean a language to use, but even a language to think in."[j]

In August 1912 Harriet Monroe hired Pound as foreign correspondent of Poetry: A Magazine of Verse, a new magazine in Chicago.[100] The first edition, in October, featured two of his own poems, "To Whistler, American" and "Middle Aged". Also that month Stephen Swift and Co. in London published Ripostes of Ezra Pound, a collection of 25 poems, including a contentious translation of the 8th-century Old English poem The Seafarer,[101] that demonstrate his shift toward minimalist language.[102]

 
First edition of Poetry, October 1912

Ripostes also contains five poems by T. E. Hulme,[103] and a mention of Les Imagistes: "As for the future, Les Imagistes, the descendants of the forgotten school of 1909, have that in their keeping."[104] While in the British Museum tearoom one afternoon with Doolittle and Aldington, Pound edited one of Doolittle's poems and wrote "H.D. Imagiste" underneath;[105] he described this later as the founding of a movement in poetry, Imagisme.[106][k] They agreed, Pound wrote, on three principles:

1. Direct treatment of the "thing" whether subjective or objective.

2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.

3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of a metronome.[108]

Poetry published Pound's "A Few Don'ts by an Imagist" in March 1913. Superfluous words, particularly adjectives, should be avoided, as well as expressions like "dim lands of peace", which Pound thought dulled the image by mixing the abstract with the concrete. He wrote that the natural object was always the "adequate symbol"; poets should "go in fear of abstractions".[109] He wanted Imagisme "to stand for hard light, clear edges".[110]

In a Station of the Metro

The apparition    of these faces    in the crowd:
Petals    on a wet, black   bough.

— Poetry (April 1913)[111]

An example of Imagist poetry is Pound's "In a Station of the Metro", published in Poetry in April 1913 and inspired by an experience on the Paris Underground. "I got out of a train at, I think, La Concorde," he wrote in "How I began" in T. P.'s Weekly on 6 June 1913, "and in the jostle I saw a beautiful face, and then, turning suddenly, another and another, and then a beautiful child's face, and then another beautiful face. All that day I tried to find words for what this made me feel. ... I could get nothing but spots of colour." A year later he reduced it to its essence in the style of a Japanese haiku.[112]

James Joyce, marriageEdit

 
James Joyce, c. 1918

In the summer of 1913 Pound became literary editor of The Egoist, a journal founded by the suffragette Dora Marsden.[113] At the suggestion of W. B. Yeats, Pound encouraged James Joyce in December that year to submit his work.[114] The previous month Yeats, whose eyesight was failing, had rented Stone Cottage in Coleman's Hatch, Sussex, inviting Pound to accompany him as his secretary, and it was during this visit that Yeats introduced Pound to Joyce's Chamber Music and his "I hear an Army Charging Upon the Land".[115] This was the first of three winters Pound and Yeats spent at Stone Cottage, including two with Dorothy after she and Ezra married in 1914.[116] The Cantos records a visit: "so that I recalled the noise in the chimney / as it were the wind in the chimney / but was in reality Uncle William / downstairs composing / that had made a great Peeeeacock / in the proide ov his oiye."[117][l]

In his reply to Pound, Joyce gave permission to use "I hear an Army" and enclosed Dubliners and the first chapter of his novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.[115] Pound wrote to Joyce that the novel was "damn fine stuff".[118] Harriet Shaw Weaver accepted it for The Egoist, which serialized it from 2 February 1914, despite the printers objecting to words like "fart" and "ballocks", and fearing prosecution over Stephen Dedalus's thoughts about prostitutes. On the basis of the serialization, the publisher that had rejected Dubliners reconsidered. Joyce wrote to Yeats: "I can never thank you enough for having brought me into relation with your friend Ezra Pound who is indeed a miracle worker."[119]

Ezra and Dorothy were married on 18 April 1914 at the Shakespears' parish church in Kensingston,[120] despite opposition from her parents, who worried about Ezra's income.[121] At the time he was earning ₤200 a year; Dorothy's father, Henry Hope Shakespear, had him prepare a financial statement.[122] Dorothy's annual income was £50 and £150 from her family. Her parents eventually consented, perhaps out of fear that no other suitor was in sight. Ezra's concession to marry in church helped. Afterward he and Dorothy moved into an apartment with no bathroom at 5 Holland Place Chambers, Kensington, with the newly wed H.D. and Aldington living next door.[121]

Des Imagistes, Blast, dispute with Amy LowellEdit

Around this time, Pound's articles in the New Age began to make him unpopular, to the alarm of Orage.[123] Samuel Putnam knew Pound in Paris in the 1920s and described him as stubborn, contrary, cantankerous, bossy, touchy, and "devoid of humor"; he was "an American small-towner", in Putnam's view. His attitude caused him trouble in both London and Paris.[124] English women, with their "preponderantly derivative" minds, were inferior to American women who had minds of their own, he wrote in the New Age. The English sense of what was right was based on respect for property, not morality. "[P]erched on the rotten shell of a crumbling empire", London had lost its energy. England's best authors—Conrad, Hudson, James, and Yeats—were not English. English writers and critics were ignorant, he wrote in 1913.[125]

The appearance of Des Imagistes, An Anthology (1914), edited by Pound, "confirmed the importance" of Imagism, according to Ira Nadel.[126] It was published in the American magazine The Glebe in February 1914 and the following month as a book.[127] Compiled at Stone Cottage,[128] it included ten poems by Richard Aldington, seven by H. D., followed by F. S. Flint, Skipwith Cannell, Amy Lowell, William Carlos Williams, James Joyce ("I Hear an Army", not an example of Imagism), six by Pound, then Ford Madox Hueffer, Allen Upward and John Cournos.[129][m]

Shortly after its publication, an advertisement in The Egoist for Wyndham Lewis's new magazine, Blast (published only twice, in 1914 and 1915), promised it would cover "Cubism, Futurism, Imagisme and all Vital Forms of Modern Art". Pound extended Imagisme to art, naming it Vorticism: "The image is a radiant node or cluster ... a VORTEX, from which, and through which, and into which, ideas are constantly rushing."[131] "All experience rushes into this vortex," he wrote in Blast in June 1914. "All the energized past ... RACE, RACE-MEMORY, instinct charging the PLACID, NON-ENERGIZED FUTURE."[132] The Times announced Lewis's new Rebel Arts Centre for Vorticist art at 38 Great Ormond Street.[133]

The publication of Blast was celebrated at a dinner in the summer of 1914 attended by New England poet Amy Lowell (who won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1926), then in London to meet the Imagists. But H.D. and Aldington were moving away from Pound's understanding of the movement, as he aligned himself with Lewis's ideas.[134] Lowell agreed to finance an annual anthology of Imagist poets, but she insisted on democracy; according to Aldington, she "proposed a Boston Tea Party for Ezra" and an end to his despotic rule.[135] Upset at Lowell—he said she wanted to turn the movement into a "democratic beergarden"[136]—Pound began to call Imagisme "Amygism", and in July 1914 he declared the movement dead and asked the group not to call themselves Imagists. They refused, not accepting that it was Pound's invention, and Lowell eventually Anglicized the term.[137]

World War I, meeting Eliot, Cathay, translationsEdit

When war was declared in August 1914, opportunities for writers were immediately reduced; poems were now expected to be patriotic.[138] Pound earned ₤42 over the next year, apparently five times less than the year before.[139]

On 22 September 1914 T. S. Eliot traveled from Merton College, Oxford, with an introduction from Conrad Aiken, to have Pound read Eliot's unpublished "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock".[140] Pound wrote to Harriet Monroe, editor of Poetry, on 30 September to say that Eliot—who was at Oxford on a fellowship from Harvard—had "sent in the best poem I have yet had or seen from an American". He continued: "[Eliot] has actually trained himself and modernized himself on his own. The rest of the promising young have done one or the other but never both (most of the swine neither)."[141] Monroe was apparently disappointed when she read Prufrock, but she published it anyway, in June 1915.[142]

The River Merchant's Wife:
A Letter

At fourteen I married My Lord you.
I never laughed, being bashful.
Lowering my head, I looked at the wall.
Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back.

At fifteen, I stopped scowling,
I desired my dust to be mingled with yours
Forever and forever and forever.
Why should I climb the look out?

— "The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter", Cathay (1915)[143]

Pound's collection Cathay, published in April 1915, contains 25 examples of classical Chinese poetry translated into English by Pound based on the notes of Ernest Fenollosa, an American professor who had studied Chinese poetry under Japanese scholars. In 1913 his widow, Mary McNeill Fenollosa, had given her husband's notes to Pound[144] after Laurence Binyon introduced them.[145] Michael Alexander saw this as the most attractive of Pound's work.[146] According to Chinese critic Wai-lim Yip, Pound was "able to get into the central consciousness of the original author by what we may perhaps call a kind of clairvoyance".[147] English professor Steven Yao argued that Cathay is a "major feat" and shows that translation does not need a thorough knowledge of the source language.[n]

Pound's translations from Old English, Latin, Italian, French, and Chinese were highly disputed. According to Alexander, they made him more unpopular in some circles than the treason charge.[150] Robert Graves wrote in 1955: "[Pound] knew little Latin, yet he translated Propertius; and less Greek, but he translated Alcaeus; and still less Anglo-Saxon, yet he translated The Seafarer. I once asked Arthur Waley how much Chinese Pound knew; Waley shook his head despondently."[151]

Pound was devastated when Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, from whom he had commissioned a sculpture of himself two years earlier, was killed in the trenches in June 1915. In response, he published Gaudier-Brzeska: A Memoir (1916), writing "A great spirit has been among us, and a great artist has gone."[152] Two months before he died, Gaudier-Brzeska had written to Pound to say that he kept Cathay in his pocket "to put courage in my fellows".[153]

Canto I, resignation from PoetryEdit

After the publication of Cathay, Pound mentioned that he was working on a long poem; in September 1915 he described it as a "cryselephantine poem of immeasurable length which will occupy me for the next four decades unless it becomes a bore".[154] In February 1916, when Pound was 30, the poet Carl Sandburg paid tribute to him in Poetry magazine. Pound "stains darkly and touches softly", he wrote:

 
Pound by E. O. Hoppé on the cover of Pavannes and Divisions (1918)

All talk on modern poetry, by people who know, ends with dragging in Ezra Pound somewhere. He may be named only to be cursed as wanton and mocker, poseur, trifler and vagrant. Or he may be classed as filling a niche today like that of Keats in a preceding epoch. The point is, he will be mentioned. ...

In the cool and purple meantime, Pound goes ahead producing new poems having the slogan, "Guts and Efficiency," emblazoned above his daily program of work. His genius runs to various schools and styles. He acquires traits and then throws them away. One characteristic is that he has no characteristics. He is a new roamer of the beautiful, a new fetcher of wild shapes, in each new handful of writings offered us.[155]

In June, July, and August 1917 Pound had the first three cantos published in Poetry.[156][157] He was now a regular contributor to three literary magazines. From 1917 he wrote music reviews for the New Age as William Atheling and art reviews as B. H. Dias.[158] In May 1917 Margaret Anderson hired him as foreign editor of the Little Review.[159] He also wrote weekly pieces for The Egoist and the Little Review; many of the latter complained about provincialism, which included the ringing of church bells.[160] (When Pound lived near St Mary Abbots church in Kensington, he had "engaged in a fierce, guerrilla warfare of letters" about the bells with the vicar, Reverend R. E. Pennefather, according to Richard Aldington.)[161] The volume of writing exhausted him.[162]

And the days are not full enough

And the days are not full enough
And the nights are not full enough
And life slips by like a field mouse
                Not shaking the grass.

Personae (1926)[163]

A suspicion arose in June 1918 that Pound himself had written an article in The Egoist praising his own work, and it was clear from the response that he had acquired enemies. The poet F. S. Flint told The Egoist's editor that "we are all tired of Mr. Pound". British literary circles were "tired of his antics" and of him "puffing and swelling himself and his friends", Flint wrote. "His work has deteriorated from book to book; his manners have become more and more offensive; and we wish he would go back to America."[164]

In the autumn of 1917 Pound grew more depressed. The October issue of the Little Review was seized when the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice applied the Comstock Laws to an article Wyndham Lewis had written, describing it as lewd and indecent. Around the same time, T. E. Hulme was killed by shell-fire in Flanders, and Yeats married Georgie Hyde-Lees.[165] In 1918, after a bout of illness which was presumably the Spanish flu,[166] Pound decided to stop writing for the Little Review; he had asked the publisher for a raise to hire a typist, the 23-year-old Iseult Gonne, causing rumors that they were having an affair, but he was turned down.[167]

The March 1919 issue of Poetry published Pound's Poems from the Propertius Series,[168] which appeared to be a translation of the Latin poet Sextus Propertius. In his next poetry collection in 1921, he renamed it Homage to Sextus Propertius in response to the criticism. Harriet Monroe, editor of Poetry, published a letter in April 1919 from a professor of Latin, W. G. Hale, who found "about three-score errors" in the text; he said Pound was "incredibly ignorant of Latin", that "much of what he makes his author say is unintelligible", and that "If Mr. Pound were a professor of Latin, there would be nothing left for him but suicide" (adding "I do not counsel this").[169] Pound replied to Monroe: "Cat-piss and porcupines!! The thing is no more a translation than my 'Altaforte' is a translation, or than Fitzgerald's Omar is a translation." His letter ended "In final commiseration". Monroe interpreted his silence after that as his resignation from Poetry magazine.[170]

Hugh Selwyn MauberleyEdit

Hugh Selwyn Mauberley
Pound reading Mauberley, Washington, D.C., June 1958

HESE fought, in any case
and some believing, pro domo, in any case ...


Some quick to arm,
some for adventure,
some from fear of weakness,
some from fear of censure,
some for love of slaughter, in imagination,
learning later ...
 
some in fear, learning love of slaughter;
Died some pro patria, non dulce non et decor ...

— Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920)[171]

By 1919 Pound felt there was no reason to stay in England. He had become "violently hostile" to England, according to Richard Aldington,[172] feeling he was being "frozen out of everything" except the New Age,[173] and concluding that the British were insensitive to "mental agility in any and every form".[174] He had "muffed his changes of becoming literary director of London—to which he undoubtedly aspired," Aldington wrote in 1941, "by his own enormous conceit, folly, and bad manners."[175]

Published by John Rodker's The Ovid Press in June 1920,[176] Pound's poem Hugh Selwyn Mauberley marked his farewell to London, and by December the Pounds were subletting their apartment and preparing to move to France.[177] Consisting of 18 short parts, Mauberley describes a poet whose life has become sterile and meaningless. It begins with a satirical analysis of the London literary scene before turning to social criticism, economics, and the war. Here the word usury first appears in his work. Just as Eliot denied he was Prufrock, Pound denied he was Mauberley.[178] The critic F. R. Leavis, then director of studies in English at Downing College, Cambridge, wrote in 1932 that Mauberley is "great poetry, at once traditional and original. Mr. Pound's standing as a poet rests on it, and rests securely."[179]

On 13 January 1921 Orage wrote in the New Age: "Mr. Pound has shaken the dust of London from his feet with not too emphatic a gesture of disgust, but, at least, without gratitude to this country. ... [He] has been an exhilarating influence for culture in England; he has left his mark upon more than one of the arts, upon literature, music, poetry and sculpture; and quite a number of men and movements owe their initiation to his self-sacrificing stimulus ..."[180]

With all this, however, Mr. Pound, like so many others who have striven for advancement of intelligence and culture in England, has made more enemies than friends, and far more powerful enemies than friends. Much of the Press has been deliberately closed by cabal to him; his books have for some time been ignored or written down; and he himself has been compelled to live on much less than would support a navvy. His fate, as I have said, is not unusual ... Taken by and large, England hates men of culture until they are dead.[180][o]

Paris (1921–1924)Edit

Meeting Hemingway, editing The Waste LandEdit

 
Pound's passport photograph, c. 1919[182]

The Pounds settled in Paris around April 1921 and in December moved to an inexpensive ground-floor apartment at 70 bis Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs.[183] Pound became friendly with Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, Tristan Tzara, and others of the Dada and Surrealist movements, as well as Basil Bunting.[184] He was introduced to Gertude Stein, who lived in Paris. She wrote years later that she liked him but did not find him amusing; he was "a village explainer, excellent if you were a village, but if you were not, not".[185]

Ernest Hemingway, then aged 22, moved to Paris in December 1921 with his wife, Hadley Richardson, and letters of introduction from Sherwood Anderson.[186] In February 1922 the Hemingways visited the Pounds for tea.[187] Although Pound was 14 years older, the men became friends, living on the same street for a time and touring Italy together in 1923. Hemingway assumed the status of pupil and asked Pound to blue-ink his short stories.[188] Pound introduced Hemingway to his contacts, including Lewis, Ford, John Peale Bishop, Malcolm Cowley, and Derek Patmore, while Hemingway tried to teach Pound to box.[189]

Unlike Hemingway, Pound was not a drinker and preferred to spend time in salons[190] or building furniture for his apartment and bookshelves for Sylvia Beach's Shakespeare and Company bookstore. In 1921 Pound's collection Poems 1918–1921 was published. The following year Eliot sent him the manuscript of The Waste Land, then arrived in Paris to edit it with Pound, who blue-inked it with comments like "make up yr. mind ..." and "georgian",[191] and reduced it by about half. Eliot wrote in 1946: "I should like to think that the manuscript, with the suppressed passages, had disappeared irrecoverably; yet, on the other hand, I should wish the blue pencilling on it to be preserved as irrefutable evidence of Pound's critical genius."[192] Eliot's dedication in The Waste Land was "For Ezra Pound il miglior fabbro (the "better craftsman", from Canto 26 of Dante's Purgatorio).[193]

Meeting Olga Rudge, restarting The CantosEdit

Pound was 36 when he met the 26-year-old American violinist Olga Rudge in Paris in the summer of 1922.[194] They were introduced at a salon hosted by the American heiress Natalie Barney at her 300-year-old house at 20 Rue Jacob, near the Boulevard Saint-Germain.[195] The two moved in different social circles: Rudge was the daughter of a wealthy Youngstown, Ohio, steel family, living in her mother's Parisian apartment on the Right Bank, socializing with aristocrats, while Pound's friends were mostly impoverished writers of the Left Bank.[196]

In 1922 Pound abandoned most of his earlier drafts of The Cantos and began again.[197] The first three cantos had been published in Poetry magazine in June, July, and August 1917.[156] Belonging to the so-called "Ur-Cantos", these became "Canto I" of the new work.[198] The "Malatesta Cantos (Cantos IX to XII of a Long Poem)" appeared in The Criterion in July 1923,[199] and "Two Cantos" (Canto XIII and part of Canto XII) were published in The Transatlantic Review in January 1924.[200] In January 1925 Mountain Press published A Draft of XVI Cantos for the Beginning of a Poem of Some Length.[201]

Italy (1924–1945)Edit

Birth of the childrenEdit

The Pounds were unhappy in Paris. Dorothy complained about the winters and Ezra's health was poor.[202] At one dinner in the Place de l'Odéon, a Surrealist guest high on drugs had tried to stab Pound in the back; Robert McAlmon had wrestled with the attacker, and the guests had managed to leave before the police arrived.[203] For Pound the event underlined that their time in France was over.[204] They decided to move to a quieter place, leaving in October 1924 for the seaside town of Rapallo in northern Italy.[205] Hemingway wrote in a letter that Pound had "indulged in a small nervous breakdown" during the packing, leading to two days at the American Hospital of Paris.[206] During this period the Pounds lived on Dorothy's income, supplemented by dividends from stock she had invested in.[207]

 
Olga Rudge's home in Venice, from 1928, at Calle Querini 252

Pregnant by Pound, Olga Rudge followed the couple to Italy, and in July 1925 she gave birth to a daughter, Maria, in a hospital in Bressanone, Tyrol. Rudge and Pound placed the baby with a German-speaking peasant woman in Gais, South Tyrol, whose own child had died and who agreed to raise Maria for 200 lire a month.[208] Pound reportedly believed that artists ought not to have children, because in his view motherhood ruined women. According to Hadley Richardson, he took her aside before she and Hemingway left Paris for Toronto to have their child, telling her: "Well, I might as well say goodbye to you here and now because [the baby] is going to change you completely."[209]

At the end of December 1925 Dorothy went on holiday to Egypt, returning on 1 March, and in early June Ezra realized she was pregnant.[210] That month they left Rapallo for Paris for the premiere of Le Testament de Villon without mentioning the pregnancy to Ezra's parents, although Dorothy's mother knew about it. They stayed on in Paris; Dorothy wanted the baby to be born at the American hospital. Hemingway drove her there for the birth of a son, Omar, on 10 September 1926. Ezra signed the birth certificate the following day at the town hall and wrote to his father, "next generation (male) arrived. Both D & it appear to be doing well."[211]

Dorothy took Omar to England, where she stayed for a year and thereafter visited him every summer. He was sent to live at first in Felpham, Sussex, with a former superintendent of Norland College, which trains nannies,[212] and later became a boarder at Charterhouse.[213] During the summers, when Dorothy was in England, Ezra would spend the time with Olga,[214] whose father helped her buy a house in Venice in 1928.[215] The arrangement meant that the children were raised very differently. Maria (later known as Mary) had a single pair of shoes, and books about Jesus and the saints, while Omar was raised to be an English gentleman.[216]

The Exile, Dial poetry awardEdit

 
Pound in 1920 by E. O. Hoppe

In 1925 a new literary magazine, This Quarter, dedicated its first issue to Pound, including tributes from Hemingway and Joyce.[217] In Hemingway's contribution, "Homage to Ezra", he wrote that Pound "devotes perhaps one fifth of his working time to writing poetry and in this twenty per cent of effort writes a large and distinguished share of the really great poetry that has been written by any American living or dead—or any Englishman living or dead or any Irishman who ever wrote English."[218]

With the rest of his time he tries to advance the fortunes, both material and artistic, of his friends. He defends them when they are attacked, he gets them into magazines and out of jail. He loans them money. He sells their pictures. He arranges concerts for them. He writes articles about them. He introduces them to wealthy women. He gets publishers to take their books. He sits up all night with them when they claim to be dying and he witnesses their wills. He advances them hospital expenses and dissuades them from suicide. And in the end a few of them refrain from knifing him at the first opportunity.[218]

Against this, Richard Aldington told Amy Lowell that year that Pound had been almost forgotten in England: "as the rest of us go up, he goes down", he wrote.[219] Pound published Cantos XVII–XIX in the winter editions of This Quarter. In March 1927 he launched his own literary magazine, The Exile, but only four issues were published. It did well in the first year, with contributions from Hemingway, E. E. Cummings, Basil Bunting, Yeats, William Carlos Williams, and Robert McAlmon; some of the poorest work in the magazine consisted of Pound's rambling editorials on Confucianism or in praise of Lenin, according to biographer J. J. Wilhelm.[220] He continued to work on Fenollosa's manuscripts, and won the 1927 Dial poetry award for his translation of the Confucian classic Great Learning (transliterated as Ta Hio).[221] That year his parents, Homer and Isabel, visited him in Rapallo, seeing him for the first time since 1914. By then Homer had retired, so they decided to move to Rapallo themselves. They took a small house, Villa Raggio, on a hill above the town.[222]

Antisemitism, social creditEdit

Pound's antisemitism can be traced to at least 1910, when he wrote in Patria Mia, his essays for the New Age: "The Jew alone can retain his detestable qualities, despite climatic conditions." (The sentence was removed from the 1950 edition.)[79] In 1922 he disliked that so many Jews were contributing to The Dial,[223] and in the 1930s, according to Frances Steloff, he refused to enter her Gotham Book Mart in New York because she was Jewish, even though she had promoted his work.[224] When he read his poetry at Harvard in 1939, he apparently included antisemitic poems in the program because he believed there were Jews in the audience.[225]

A friend of Pound's, the writer Lina Caico, wrote to him in March 1937 asking him to use his musical contacts to help a German-Jewish pianist in Berlin who did not have enough money to live on because of the Nuremberg Laws. Normally willing to help fellow artists, Pound replied (at length): "You hit a nice sore spot ... Let her try Rothschild and some of the bastards who are murdering 10 million anglo saxons in England."[226] He nevertheless denied being an antisemite; he said he liked Spinoza, Montaigne, and Alexander del Mar. "What I am driving at", he wrote to Jackson Mac Low, "is that some kike might manage to pin an antisem label on me IF he neglected the mass of my writing."[227]

Pound came to believe that World War I had been caused by finance capitalism, which he called "usury",[2] and that the Jews had been to blame. He believed the solution lay in C. H. Douglas's idea of social credit.[89] Pound several times used the term Leihkapital (loan capital), equating it with Jews.[228] Hitler had used the same term in Mein Kampf (1926).[229][p] "Your enemy is Das Leihkapital," Pound wrote in a 1942 radio script aimed at the UK, "international, wandering Loan Capital. Your enemy is not Germany, your enemy is money on loan. And it would be better to be infected with typhus, and dysentery, and Bright's disease, than to be infected with this blindness which prevents you from understanding HOW you are undermined ... The big Jew is so bound up with this Leihkapital that no one is able to unscramble that omelet."[231] According to English professor Robert Casillo, by identifying loan capital and Jews as the enemy—an identification common in fascist thinking—Pound "diverts hostility away from other forms of capitalist exploitation and dominance and directs the proletariat against its supposedly true enemies". The argument ran that without "usury" and Jews, there would be no class conflict.[232]

In addition to presenting his economic ideas in hundreds of articles and in The Cantos, Pound wrote over 1,000 letters a year throughout the 1930s.[233] From 1932 he wrote 180 articles for The New English Weekly, a social-credit journal founded by A. R. Orage, and 60 for Il Mare, a Rapallo newspaper.[234] He wrote to Bill Bird about a conspiracy theory that the press in Paris was controlled by the Comité des forges. He also came under the influence of Charles Maurras, who led the far-right Action Française.[235] From around 1932 he began using a dating system that counted Benito Mussolini's March on Rome in October 1922 as year zero.[236]

Meeting MussoliniEdit

In December 1932 Pound requested a meeting with Mussolini after being hired to work on a film script about Italian fascism. He had asked to see him before—Olga Rudge had played privately for Mussolini on 19 February 1927—but this time he was given an audience.[237] They met on 30 January 1933 at the Palazzo Venezia in Rome, the day Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany.[238]

When Pound handed Mussolini a copy of A Draft of XXX Cantos, Mussolini reportedly said of a passage Pound highlighted that it was not English. Pound said: "No, it's my idea of the way a continental Jew would speak English", to which Mussolini replied "How entertaining" (divertente).[239] Pound also tried to discuss an 18-point draft of his economic theories.[239] (Daniel Swift writes that this story has been "told and retold, and in each version, the details shift".)[240] Pound recorded the meeting in "Canto XLI".[241] "XI of our era"—1933, 11 years after the March on Rome—is an example of his new dating system.[236]

Canto XLI

"MA QVESTO,"
said the Boss, "è divertente."
catching the point before the aesthetes had got
there;
Having drained off the muck by Vada
From the marshes, by Circeo, where no one else wd. have
drained it.
Waited 2000 years, ate grain from the marshes:
Water supply for ten million, another one million "vani"
that is rooms for people to live in.
XI of our era.

— On meeting Mussolini[241]

Pound wrote to C. H. Douglas that he had "never met anyone who seemed to get my ideas so quickly as the boss".[242] The meeting left him feeling that he had become a person of influence, Redman writes, someone who had been consulted by a head of state.[243] When he returned to Rapallo, he was greeted at the station by the town band.[239]

Immediately after the meeting he began writing The ABC of Economics and Jefferson and/or Mussolini: L'Idea Statale Fascism as I Have Seen It (1935). The latter was ready by the end of February,[244] although he had trouble finding a publisher. In 1942 he told Italy's Royal Finance Office that he had written the book for propaganda purposes in Italy's interests.[245] He also wrote articles praising Mussolini and fascism for T. S. Eliot's The Criterion in July 1933, the New York World Telegram in November 1933, The Chicago Tribune on 9 April 1934,[246] and in 65 articles for the British-Italian Bulletin, published by the Italian Embassy in London.[247]

World War IIEdit

Pound's antisemitism deepened with the introduction in Italy of the racial laws in 1938,[q] preceded by the publication in July that year of the Manifesto of Race. Numerous restrictions were introduced against Jews, who were required to register. Foreign Jews were stripped of their Italian citizenship, and on 18 September 1938 Mussolini declared Judaism "an irreconcilable enemy of fascism".[249]

When Olivia Shakespear died in October 1938 in London, Dorothy asked Ezra to organize the funeral, where he saw their 12-year-old son, Omar, for the first time in eight years. He visited Eliot and Wyndham Lewis, who produced a famous portrait of Pound reclining.[250] In April 1939 Pound sailed for New York, believing he could stop America's involvement in World War II, happy to answer reporters' questions about Mussolini while he lounged on the deck of the ship in a tweed jacket.[251] In Washington, D.C. he met senators and congressmen but was disappointed by the response.[252] He also had lunch with the Polish ambassador, warning him not to trust the English or Winston Churchill.[253] In June he received an honorary doctorate from Hamilton College.[254]

When war broke out in September 1939, Pound began a letter-writing campaign to the politicians he had petitioned six months earlier.[255] To his American publisher James Laughlin, he wrote that "Roosevelt represents Jewry" and signed off with "Heil Hitler".[256] He began calling Roosevelt "Jewsfeldt" or "Stinky Rooosenstein".[257] In The Japan Times he wrote: "Democracy is now currently defined in Europe as a 'country run by Jews,'"[257] and discussed the "essential fairness of Hitler's war aims".[258] In Meridiano di Roma, he compared Hitler and Mussolini to Confucius.[258] In Oswald Mosley's newspaper, Action, he wrote that the English were "a slave race governed by the House of Rothschild since Waterloo".[257] By May 1940, according to the historian Matthew Feldman, the British government regarded Pound as "a principal supplier of information to the BUF [British Union of Fascists] from abroad".[259]

Radio broadcastsEdit

Radio broadcast
You let in the Jew and the Jew rotted your Empire, and you yourselves are (doomed) by the Jew.

— Ezra Pound, Radio Rome, 15 March 1942[260]

Between 23 January 1941[261] and 28 March 1945, Pound recorded or composed hundreds of broadcasts for Italian radio, mostly for EIAR (Radio Rome) and later for a radio station in the Salò Republic, the Nazi puppet state in northern and central Italy.[262] Broadcast in English, and sometimes in Italian, German, and French,[263] the EIAR program was transmitted to England, central Europe, and the United States.[264]

According to Feldman, the Pound archives at Yale contain receipts for 195 payments from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture from 22 April 1941 to 26 January 1944. Over 33 months, Pound received 250,000 lire (then equivalent to $12,500; $185,000 as of 2013).[265] Styling himself "Dr Ezra Pound" (his only doctorate was the honorary one from Hamilton College),[266] he attacked the United States, Roosevelt, Roosevelt's family, Churchill, and the Jews. He praised Hitler, recommended eugenics to "conserve the best of the race",[267] and referred to Jews as "filth".[268] The broadcasts were monitored by the United States Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service, and on 26 July 1943 the United States District Court for the District of Columbia indicted Pound in absentia for treason.[269]

 
Italian Social Republic, September 1943 – May 1945

On 9–10 September 1943, the German Wehrmacht occupied northern and central Italy. Hitler appointed Mussolini head of a fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic or Salò Republic.[270] Pound called it the "Republic of Utopia".[271] SS officers began concentrating Jews in transit camps before deporting them to Auschwitz-Birkenau.[272][r] Of the first group of 1,034 Jews to arrive in Auschwitz from Rome on 23 October 1943, 839 were gassed.[274]

In Rome when the German occupation began, Pound borrowed hiking boots and headed north to Gais, on foot and by train, to visit his daughter, a journey of about 450 miles (720 km).[275] It was apparently during this visit that he first told her he had a wife in Rapallo and son in England.[276] On or around 23 November 1943, he met Fernando Mezzasoma, the new Minister of Popular Culture, in Salò. Pound wrote to Dorothy from Salò asking if she could obtain a radio confiscated from the Jews to give to Rudge, so that Rudge could help with his work.[277]

From 1 December 1943 Pound began writing scripts for the state's new radio station.[278] The following day he suggested to Alessandro Pavolini, secretary of the Republican Fascist Party, that book stores be legally obliged to showcase certain books, including The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903), a hoax document purporting to be a Jewish plan to dominate the world. "The arrest of Jews will create a wave of useless mercy," Pound wrote, "thus the need to disseminate the Protocols. The intellectuals are capable of a passion more durable than emotional, but they need to understand the reasons for a conflict."[279] On 26 January 1945, in a script called "Corpses of Course" for the program Jerry's Front Calling, Pound wrote: "Why shouldn't there be one grand beano; wiping out Sieff and Kuhn and Loeb and Guggenheim and Stinkenfinger and the rest of the nazal bleaters?"[280]

Arrest for treasonEdit

Canto LXXIV

THE enormous tragedy of the dream in the peasant's bent
shoulders
Manes! Manes was tanned and stuffed,
Thus Ben and la Clara a Milano
by the heels at Milano
That maggots shd/ eat the dead bullock
DIGONOS, Δίγονος, but the twice crucified
where in history will you find it?
yet say this to the Possum: a bang, not a whimper,
with a bang not with a whimper,
To build the city of Dioce whose terraces are the colour of stars.

— Pound, The Pisan Cantos (1948)[281]

In May 1944 the German military, trying to secure the coast against the Allies, forced the Pounds to evacuate their seafront apartment in Rapallo. From then until the end of the war, the couple lived with Rudge in her home above Rapallo at Sant' Ambrogio.[282] There were food shortages, no coffee, and no newspapers, telephones, or letters.[283] According to Rudge, Ezra and Dorothy would spend their nights listening to the BBC.[284] In addition to the radio scripts, Pound was writing for the newspaper Il Popolo di Alessandria. He wanted to write for the more reputable Corriere della Sera in Milan, but the editor regarded Pound's Italian as "incomprehensible", according to Moody.[285]

Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, were shot by Italian partisans on 28 April 1945. Their bodies were displayed in the Piazzale Loreto in Milan, then left hanging upside down.[286] "Thus Ben and la Clara a Milano / by the heels at Milano".[287] On 3 May armed partisans arrived at Rudge's home to find Pound alone. He stuffed a copy of the Confucian text Four Books and a Chinese–English dictionary in his pocket before being taken to their headquarters in Zoagli,[288] then at his request to the U.S. Counter Intelligence Corps headquarters in Genoa, where he was interrogated by FBI agent Frank L. Amprin.[289]

Pound asked to send a cable to President Truman to help negotiate peace with Japan. He wanted to make a final broadcast called "Ashes of Europe Calling", in which he would recommend peace with Japan, American management of Italy, the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, and leniency toward Germany. His requests were denied and the script was forwarded to J. Edgar Hoover.[290] A few days later, Amprin removed over 7,000 letters, articles, and other documents from Rudge's home as evidence.[291] On 8 May, the day Germany surrendered, Pound gave the Americans a further statement:

Taken at the Army Disciplinary Training Center
Pound spent three weeks in the reinforced cage on the far left.[292]
 
Toilet paper showing start of Canto LXXIV[293]

I am not anti-Semitic, and I distinguish between the Jewish usurer and the Jew who does an honest day's work for a living.

Hitler and Mussolini were simple men from the country. I think that Hitler was a Saint, and wanted nothing for himself. I think that he was fooled into anti-Semitism and it ruined him. That was his mistake. When you see the "mess" that Italy gets into by bumping off Mussolini, you will see why someone could believe in some of his efforts.[294]

Later that day he told an American reporter, Edd Johnson, that Hitler was "a Jeanne d'Arc ... Like many martyrs, he held extreme views". Mussolini was "a very human, imperfect character who lost his head".[295] On 24 May he was transferred to the United States Army Disciplinary Training Center north of Pisa, where he was placed in one of the camp's 6-by-6-foot (1.8 by 1.8 m) outdoor steel cages, with tar paper covers, lit up at night by floodlights. Engineers reinforced his cage with heavier steel the night before he arrived in case fascist sympathizers tried to break him out.[296]

Pound lived in isolation in the heat, sleeping on the concrete, denied exercise and communication. After three weeks, he stopped eating.[296] He recorded what seemed to be a breakdown in "Canto LXXX", where Odysseus is saved from drowning by Leucothea: "hast'ou swum in a sea of air strip / through an aeon of nothingness, / when the raft broke and the waters went over me".[297] Medical staff moved him out of the cage the following week. On 14 and 15 June he was examined by psychiatrists, after which he was transferred to his own tent.[298] He began to write, drafting what became known as The Pisan Cantos.[299] The existence of two sheets of toilet paper showing the first ten lines of "Canto LXXIV" in pencil suggests he started it while in the cage.[300]

United States (1945–1958)Edit

St. Elizabeths HospitalEdit

Pound arrived back in Washington, D.C. on 18 November 1945, two days before the start of the Nuremberg trials.[301] Lt. Col. P. V. Holder, one of the escorting officers, wrote in an affidavit that Pound was "an intellectual 'crackpot'" who intended to conduct his own defense.[302] Dorothy would not allow it; Pound wrote in a letter: "Tell Omar I favour a defender who has written a life of J. Adams and translated Confucius. Otherwise how CAN he know what it is about?"[303] He was arraigned on 27 November on charges of treason,[s] and on 4 December he was placed in a locked room in the psychiatric ward of Gallinger Hospital.[305] Three court-appointed psychiatrists, including Winfred Overholser, superintendent of St. Elizabeths Hospital, decided that he was mentally unfit to stand trial. They found him "abnormally grandiose ... expansive and exuberant in manner, exhibiting pressure of speech, discursiveness and distractibility."[306] A fourth psychiatrist appointed by Pound's lawyer thought he was a psychopath,[307] as did a team of six psychiatrists later at St. Elizabeths.[308]

 
St. Elizabeths Hospital Center Building, Anacostia, Washington, D.C., 2006

On 21 December 1945, as case no. 58,102, he was transferred to Howard Hall, St. Elizabeths' maximum security ward, where he was held in a single cell with peepholes.[309] Visitors were admitted to the waiting room for 15 minutes at a time, while patients wandered around screaming.[310] The following January he told a psychiatrist the attendants had been kidding him about a magazine article. It may have been one that called him America's "Haw-Haw"; on 3 January the American-born William Joyce, known as Lord Haw Haw, was hanged in England for his war-time broadcasts on behalf of Germany.[311]

A hearing on 13 February 1946 concluded that Pound was of "unsound mind"; he shouted in court: "I never did believe in Fascism, God damn it; I am opposed to Fascism."[312] His lawyer, Julien Cornell, requested his release at a hearing in January 1947.[313] As a compromise, Overholser moved him to the more comfortable Cedar Ward on the third floor of the east wing of St. Elizabeths' Center Building.[314] In early 1948 he was moved again, this time to a larger room in Chestnut Ward.[315] Tytell writes that Pound was in his element in Chestnut Ward.[316] At last provided for, he was allowed to read, write, and receive visitors, including Dorothy for several hours a day.[317] (In October 1946 Dorothy had been placed in charge of his "person and property".)[318] His room had a typewriter, floor-to-ceiling book shelves, and bits of paper hanging on string from the ceiling with ideas for The Cantos.[319] He had turned a small alcove on the ward into his living room, where he entertained friends and literary figures.[317] Visitors included Conrad Aiken, Elizabeth Bishop, E. E. Cummings, Guy Davenport, T. S. Eliot, Achilles Fang, Edith Hamilton, Hugh Kenner, Robert Lowell, Archibald MacLeish, Marshall McLuhan, H. L. Mencken, Marianne Moore, Norman Holmes Pearson, Allen Tate, Stephen Spender, and William Carlos Williams.[320] It reached the point where he refused to discuss any attempt to have him released.[321]

The Pisan Cantos, Bollingen PrizeEdit

Canto LXXX

as the young lizard extends his leopard spots
along the grass-blade seeking the green midge half an ant-size
and the Serpentine will look just the same
and the gulls be as neat on the pond
and the sunken garden unchanged
and God knows what else is left of our London
                         my London, your London
and if her green elegance
remains on this side of my rain ditch
puss lizard will lunch on some other T-bone

sunset grand couturier.

— Pound, The Pisan Cantos (1948)[322]

James Laughlin of New Directions had The Pisan Cantos ready for publication in 1946 and gave Pound an advance copy,[323] but Laughlin held back, waiting for an appropriate time to publish. A group of Pound's friends—T. S. Eliot, E. E. Cummings, W. H. Auden, Allen Tate, and Joseph Cornell—met Laughlin in June 1948 to discuss how to get Pound released. They planned to have him awarded the first Bollingen Prize, a new national poetry award with $1,000 prize money donated by the Mellon family.[324]

The awards committee consisted of 15 fellows of the Library of Congress, including several of Pound's supporters, such as Eliot, Tate, Conrad Aiken, Katherine Anne Porter, and Theodore Spencer.[t] The idea was that the Justice Department would be in an untenable position if Pound won a major award and was not released.[324] Laughlin published The Pisan Cantos on 20 July 1948,[326] and the following February the prize went to Pound.[327][u] There were two dissenting voices, Katherine Garrison Chapin and Karl Shapiro; the latter said he could not vote for an antisemite because he was Jewish himself.[329] Pound had apparently prepared a statement—"No comment from the Bug House"—but decided instead to stay silent.[330]

There was uproar.[331] The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette quoted critics who said that poetry cannot "convert words into maggots that eat at human dignity and still be good poetry".[332] Robert Hillyer, a Pulitzer Prize winner and president of the Poetry Society of America, attacked the committee in The Saturday Review of Literature,[333] telling journalists that he "never saw anything to admire, not one line, in Pound".[334] Congressman Jacob K. Javits demanded an investigation into the awards committee. It was the last time the Library of Congress administered the prize.[329]

Mullins and KasperEdit

In hospital Pound would often decline to talk to psychiatrists with names he deemed Jewish (he called psychiatrists "kikiatrists"),[335] and he apparently told Charles Olson: "I was a Zionist in Italy, but now I'm for pogroms, after what I've experienced in here (SLiz)."[336] He advised visitors to read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and any visitor he happened not to like he referred to as Jewish.[337] In November 1953 he wrote to Olivia Rossetti Agresti that Hitler was "bit by dirty Jew mania for World Domination, as yu used to point out/ this WORST of German diseases was got from yr/ idiolized and filthy biblical bastards. Adolf clear on the baccilus of kikism/ that is on nearly all the other poisons.[sic] but failed to get a vaccine against that."[338]

According to Eric Ormsby, "[t]o the end Pound remained an anti-Semite, but now he added black Americans and civil rights protesters to his roster of well-nurtured hatreds."[339] He struck up a friendship with Eustace Mullins, believed to be associated with the Aryan League of America, and author of the 1961 biography This Difficult Individual, Ezra Pound.[340] Even more damaging was his friendship with John Kasper, a Ku Klux Klan member who, after Brown v. Board of Education (a 1954 United States Supreme Court decision mandating the racial desegregation of public schools), set up a Citizens' Council chapter, the Seaboard White Citizens' Council in Washington.[341] Members had to be white, supportive of racial segregation, and believers in the divinity of Jesus.[342] Kasper had admired Pound at university, and after he wrote to Pound in 1950, the two became friends.[343] In 1953 Kasper opened a bookstore, "Make it New", at 169 Bleecker Street, Greenwich Village, New York,[344] specializing in far-right material and displaying Pound's work in the window.[345] Kasper and another Pound admirer, T. David Horton, set up a publishing imprint, Square Dollar Series, which—with Pound's cooperation—reprinted Pound's books and others he approved of.[346]

It became increasingly clear that Pound was schooling Kasper in his pro-segregation activism.[347] In January and February 1957 the New York Herald Tribune ran a series of articles about their relationship, after which the FBI began photographing Pound's visitors.[348] One article alleged that some of Kasper's pamphlets had, as John Tytell put it, "a distinctly Poundian ring" to them.[349][v] Kasper was jailed in 1956 after a speech he made in Clinton, Tennessee, caused a riot,[351] and he was questioned about the 1957 bombing of the Hattie Cotton School in Nashville.[352] After Pound was discharged from hospital in 1958, the men kept in touch; Pound wrote to Kasper on 17 April 1959: "Antisemitism is a card in the enemy program, don't play it. ... They RELY ON YOUR PLAYING IT."[353]

New Times articlesEdit

Between late 1955 and early 1957,[354] Pound wrote at least 80 unsigned or pseudonymous articles—"often ugly", Swift notes—for the New Times of Melbourne, a newspaper connected to the social-credit movement. Noel Stock, one of Pound's correspondents and early biographers, worked for the paper and published Pound's articles there.[355] A 24-year-old radio reporter at the time, Stock first wrote to Pound in hospital after reading The Pisan Cantos.[356]

In the New Times in April 1956, Pound wrote: "Our Victorian forebears would have been greatly scandalized at the idea that one might not be free to study inherited racial characteristics," and "Some races are retentive, mainly of the least desirable bits of their barbaric past." There was a "Jewish-Communist plot", which he compared to syphilis. Equality was dismissed as "anti-biological nonsense".[357] "There were no gas ovens in Italy", he wrote in April 1956; a month later he referred to the "fuss about Hitler".[358] On 10 August 1956: "It is perfectly well known that the fuss about 'de-segregation' in the United States has been started by Jews." Instead, America needed "race pride".[357] Using pseudonyms, he sent his articles directly to Stock, so that the newspaper's editor may not have realized they had all been written by Pound. Stock sent Pound copies of the published articles, which he would distribute to his followers.[359] He contributed similar material to other publications, including Edge,[360] which Stock founded in October 1956.[361] Stock called Edge the magazine of the "international Poundian underground".[356]

ReleaseEdit

Pound's friends continued to try to get him out of St. Elizabeths. In 1948, in an effort to present his radio broadcasts as harmless, Olga Rudge self-published six of them (on cultural topics only) as If This Be Treason.[362] She visited him twice, in 1952 and 1955, but could not convince him to be more assertive about his release.[363] In 1950 she had written to Hemingway to complain that Pound's friends had not done enough. Hemingway and Rudge did not like each other.[364] He told Dorothy in 1951 that "the person who makes least sense ...in all this is Olga Rudge".[365] In what John Cohassey called a "controlled, teeth-gritting response", Hemingway replied to Rudge that he would pardon Pound if he could, but that Pound had "made the rather serious mistake of being a traitor to his country, and temporarily he must lie in the bed he made". He ended by saying "To be even more blunt, I have always loved Dorothy, and still do."[366]

Four years later, shortly after he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, Hemingway told Time magazine: "I believe this would be a good year to release poets."[367] The poet Archibald MacLeish asked him in June 1957 to write a letter on Pound's behalf. Hemingway believed Pound would not stop making inappropriate statements and friendships, but he signed MacLeish's letter anyway and pledged $1,500 to be handed to Pound upon his release.[368] In an interview for the Paris Review in early 1958, Hemingway said that Pound should be released and Kasper jailed.[369]

Several publications began campaigning in 1957. Le Figaro published an appeal titled "The Lunatic at St Elizabeths". The New Republic, Esquire, and The Nation followed suit. The Nation argued that Pound was a "sick and vicious old man", but that he had rights.[370] In 1958 MacLeish hired Thurman Arnold, a prestigious lawyer who ended up charging no fee, to file a motion to dismiss the 1945 indictment. Overholser, the hospital's superintendent, supported the application with an affidavit stating Pound was permanently and incurably insane, and that confinement served no therapeutic purpose.[371] The motion was heard on 18 April 1958 by Chief Judge Bolitha Laws, who had committed Pound to St. Elizabeths in 1945. The Justice Department did not oppose the motion,[372] and Pound was discharged on 7 May.[373]

Italy (1958–1972)Edit

DepressionEdit

External image
Ezra Pound, 30 June 1958, photographed by Richard Avedon at the home of William Carlos Williams, Rutherford, New Jersey.[374]
"The photograph has a legend behind it. Avedon, they say, stepped up close and raised the camera, and said, 'You know I'm Jewish?' and before Pound could reply he clicked the shutter and froze him like this."

— Daniel Swift, The Bughouse, 2018.[375]

Pound and Dorothy arrived in Naples on the Christoforo Columbo on 9 July 1958, where Pound was photographed giving a fascist salute to the waiting press.[376] When asked when he had been released from the mental hospital, he replied: "I never was. When I left the hospital I was still in America, and all America is an insane asylum."[377] They were accompanied by a young teacher Pound had met in hospital, Marcella Spann, ostensibly acting as his secretary.[378] The group disembarked at Genoa and three days later arrived at Schloss Brunnenburg, near Merano in South Tyrol, to live with Mary,[379] where Pound met his grandson and granddaughter for the first time.[380]

The women soon fell out; "Canto CXIII" alluded to it: "Pride, jealousy and possessiveness / 3 pains of hell." In the same poem Pound wrote about Spann: "The long flank, the firm breast / and to know beauty and death and despair / And to think that what has been shall be, / flowing, ever unstill."[381] Dorothy had usually ignored his affairs, but she used her legal power over his royalties to make sure Spann was seen off, sent back to the United States.[382]

By December 1959 Pound was mired in depression.[383] According to the writer Michael Reck, who visited him several times at St. Elizabeths,[384] Pound was a changed man; he said little and called his work "worthless".[385] In a 1960 interview in Rome with Donald Hall for Paris Review, he said: "You—find me—in fragments." He paced up and down during the three days it took to complete the interview, never finishing a sentence, bursting with energy one minute, then sagging, and at one point seemed about to collapse. Hall said it was clear that he "doubted the value of everything he had done in his life".[386]

 
In 1958 Ezra and Dorothy lived with Mary at Schloss Brunnenburg.

Those close to him thought he was suffering from dementia, and in mid-1960 he spent time in a clinic when his weight dropped. He picked up again, but by early 1961 he had a urinary tract infection. Dorothy felt unable to look after him, so he went to live with Olga Rudge in Rapallo, then Venice; Dorothy mostly stayed in London after that with Omar.[387] In 1961 Pound attended a meeting in Rome in honor of Oswald Mosley, who was visiting Italy.[388][w] His health continued to decline, and his friends were dying: Wyndham Lewis in 1957, Ernest Hemingway in 1961 (Hemingway shot himself), E. E. Cummings in 1962, William Carlos Williams in 1963, T. S. Eliot in 1965.[391] In 1963 he told an interviewer, Grazia Levi: "I spoil everything I touch. ... All my life I believed I knew nothing, yes, knew nothing. And so words became devoid of meaning."[392] He attended Eliot's funeral in London and visited W. B. Yeats' widow in Dublin (Yeats died in 1939).

In 1966 he was admitted to the Genoa School of Medicine's psychiatric hospital for an evaluation after prostate surgery. His notes said he had psychomotor retardation, insomnia, depression, and he believed he had been "contaminated by microbes".[393] According to a psychiatrist who treated him, Pound had previously been treated with electroconvulsive therapy. This time he was given imipramine and responded well. The doctors diagnosed bipolar disorder.[394] Two years later he attended the opening of an exhibition in New York featuring his blue-inked version of Eliot's The Waste Land.[395] He went on to Hamilton College and received a standing ovation.[396]

Meeting with Ginsberg, Reck, and RussellEdit

 
Pound in Venice, 1963

In the restaurant of the Pensione Cici in Venice in 1967,[384] Pound told Allen Ginsberg, the writer Michael Reck, and Peter Russell that his poems were "a lot of double talk" and made no sense, and that his writing was "a mess", "stupid and ignorant all the way through". Reck wrote about the meeting in Evergreen Review the following year. "At seventy I realized that instead of being a lunatic, I was a moron," Pound reportedly said.[397]

Pound offered a carefully worded rejection of his antisemitism, according to Reck. When Ginsberg reassured Pound that he had "shown us the way", he is said to have replied: "Any good I've done has been spoiled by bad intentions—the preoccupation with irrelevant and stupid things." Reck continued: "Then very slowly, with emphasis, surely conscious of Ginsberg's being Jewish: 'But the worst mistake I made was that stupid, suburban prejudice of anti-Semitism.'"[398][x]

DeathEdit

 
Pound's grave on the Isola di San Michele

Shortly before his death in 1972, an American Academy of Arts and Sciences committee, which included Pound's publisher James Laughlin, proposed that Pound be awarded the Emerson-Thoreau Medal. After a storm of protest, the academy's council opposed it by 13 to 9. Two weeks before he died, he read for a gathering of friends at a café: "re USURY / I was out of focus, taking a symptom for a cause. / The cause is AVARICE."[401]

On his 87th birthday, on 30 October 1972, he was too weak to leave his bedroom. The next night he was admitted to the Civil Hospital of Venice, where he died in his sleep on 1 November of septic shock caused by complications from an intestinal blockage, with Olga Rudge at his side.[402] Alerted by telegram, Dorothy Pound, who was living in an old people's home near Cambridge, England, requested a Protestant funeral in Venice. Telegrams were sent via U.S. embassies in Rome and London, and the American Consulate in Milan, but Rudge would not change the plans she had already made for the morning of 3 November. Omar Pound flew to Venice as soon as he could, with Peter du Sautoy of Faber & Faber, but he arrived too late.[403] Four gondoliers dressed in black rowed Pound's body to the island cemetery Isola di San Michele, where after a Protestant service he was buried, near Diaghilev and Stravinsky, with other non-Italian Christians.[404] Dorothy Pound died in England the following year, aged 87. Olga Rudge died in 1996, aged 100, and was buried next to Pound.[395]

Critical receptionEdit

OverviewEdit

According to Samuel Putnam, critics who respected Pound's poetry were less likely to respect his prose or work as a critic; in fact, they had no respect at all for the latter. Pound's thinking seemed muddled. Richard Aldington told Putnam: "[D]on't you realize that Ezra could no more have a thought than you or I could have a child?"[406]

Critics generally agree that Pound was a strong yet subtle lyricist, particularly in his early poetry, such as "The River Merchant's Wife".[407] According to the Pound scholar Hugh Witemeyer, a modern style is evident as early as Ripostes.[408] Drawing on literature from a variety of disciplines, Pound layered often confusing juxtapositions, yet led the reader to a conclusion, believing the thoughtful reader would uncover the symbolism and structure.[409] Ignoring Victorian and Edwardian grammar and structure, he created a unique form of speech, employing odd words and jargon, avoiding verbs, and using rhetorical devices such as parataxis.[410]

Pound's relationship to music is essential to his poetry. Although he was tone deaf and said he had the voice of a "tree toad"—Michael Ingham describes Pound's voice as "raucous, nasal [and] scratchy"—he is on a short list, according to Ingham, of poets possessed of a sense of sound, an "ear" for words, imbuing his poetry with melopoeia. His study of troubadour poetry—words written to be sung—led him to think modern poetry should be written similarly.[411] He wrote in 1910 that "[r]hythm is the hardest quality of a man's style to counterfeit".[412]

The CantosEdit

Canto CXVI

I have brought the great ball of crystal;
Who can lift it?
Can you enter the great acorn of light?
But the beauty is not the madness
Tho' my errors and wrecks lie about me.
And I am not a demigod,
I cannot make it cohere.
If love be not in the house there is nothing.

— Pound, Drafts and Fragments of Cantos CX–CXVII (1969)[413][y]

Twice the length of Paradise Lost and 50 times longer than The Waste Land, The Cantos (1917–1968)—around 23,000 lines on 800 pages—is Pound's life's work. The final complete section is Canto CXVI (116).[a] Pound told his father in April 1927 that it was composed in the form of a fugue: "Rather like or unlike subject and response and counter subject in fugue: A.A. Live man goes down into world of Dead. C.B. The 'repeat in history'. B.C. The 'magic moment' or moment of metamorphosis, bust thru from quotidien into 'divine or permanent world.' Gods., etc."[416]

Alluding to figures from American, European, and Oriental art, history, myth and literature, The Cantos is also autobiographical.[417] Carroll F. Terrell writes that it is a great religious poem, describing humanity's "progress from the darkness of hell to the light of paradise". It is a "relevation of how divinity is manifested in the universe ... the kind of intelligence that makes the cherrystone become a cherry tree."[418] The poet Allen Tate argued in 1949 that it is "about nothing at all ... a voice but no subject".[419] The lack of form is a common criticism.[420] Pound wrote in the final complete canto, "Canto CXVI", that he could not "make it cohere",[421] although a few lines later, referring to the universe or humanity's place within it: "it coheres all right / even if my notes do not cohere."[422]

The work contains antisemitic passages,[423] including in Canto XCI, published in Section: Rock-Drill, 85–95 de los cantares (1956): "Democracies electing their sewage / till there is no clear thought about holiness / a dung flow from 1913 / and, in this, their kikery functioned, Marx, Freud / and the american beaneries / Filth under filth, / Maritain, Hutchins, / or as Benda remarked: 'La trahison."[424]

Rehabilitation efforts, scholarshipEdit

 
Pound in 1963

After the Bollingen Prize in 1949, Pound's friends made every effort to rehabiliate him.[425] James Laughlin's New Directions Publishing published his Selected Poems, with an introduction by Eliot, and a censored selection of The Cantos. Ralph Fletcher Seymour published Patria Mia (written around 1912) to show that Pound was an American patriot.[426] In advertisements, magazine articles, and critical introductions, Pound's friends and publishers attributed his antisemitism and fascism to mental illness.[427]

Literary scholar Betsy Erkkila writes that no one was more important to Pound's rehabilitation than Hugh Kenner, who visited him many times in hospital.[428] Kenner's The Poetry of Ezra Pound appeared in 1951. New Directions and Faber & Faber published Ezra Pound: Translations in 1953, introduced by Kenner, and the following year Literary Essays of Ezra Pound, introduced by Eliot.[426] The first PhD dissertation on Pound appeared in 1948, and by 1970 there were around ten a year. Kenner's The Pound Era (1971) effectively equated Pound with modernism.[428] Pound scholar Leon Surette regards Kenner's approach as hagiographic.[429] He includes in this approach Caroll F. Terrell's Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship,[429] founded in 1972 and edited by Kenner and Eva Hesse,[428] and Terrell's two-volume A Companion to the Cantos of Ezra Pound (1980–1984).[429] In 1971 Terrell founded the National Poetry Foundation to focus on Pound and organized conferences on Pound in 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990.[430]

Following Eustace Mullins' biography, This Difficult Individual, Ezra Pound (1961), was Life of Ezra Pound (1970) by Noel Stock. A former reporter, Stock was one of the publishers of Pound's newspaper articles in the 1950s, including his antisemitism.[431] Ronald Bush's The Genesis of Ezra Pound's Cantos (1976) became the first critical study of The Cantos.[432] Several significant biographies appeared in the 1980s: J. J. Wilhelm's three-volume work (1985–1994), beginning with The American Roots of Ezra Pound; John Tytell's Ezra Pound: The Solitary Volcano (1987); and Humphrey Carpenter's 1005-page A Serious Character (1988). A. David Moody's three-volume Ezra Pound: Poet (2007–2015), combines biography with literary criticism.[433]

Studies that examine Pound's relationships with the far right include Robert Casillo's The Genealogy of Demons (1988); Tim Redman's Ezra Pound and Italian Fascism (1999); Leon Surette's Pound in Purgatory (1999);[434] Matthew Feldman's Ezra Pound's Fascist Propaganda, 1935–45 (2013); and Alec Marsh's John Kasper and Ezra Pound (2015).

LegacyEdit

 
Ezra Pound in marble by Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (1914)

Much of Pound's legacy lies in his advancement of the careers of some of the best-known modernist writers of the early 20th century, particulary between 1910 and 1925.[435] In addition to T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, Ernest Hemingway, and Conrad Aiken, he befriended and helped Marianne Moore, Louis Zukofsky, Jacob Epstein, Basil Bunting, E. E. Cummings, Margaret Anderson, George Oppen, H.D., Richard Aldington, Charles Olson, and Ford Madox Ford.[436]

Beyond this, his legacy is mixed. According to Ira Nadel, Pound "overturned poetic meter, literary style, and the state of the long poem". Nadel cited the importance of Pound's editing of The Waste Land, the publication of Ulysses, and the development of Imagism.[193] Hugh Witemeyer argued that Imagism was "probably the most important single movement" in 20th-century English-language poetry, because it affected all the leading poets of Pound's generation and the two generations after him.[437] According to Hugh Kenner in 1951, although no great contemporary writer was less read than Pound, there was no one who could "over and over again appeal more surely, through sheer beauty of language" to people who would otherwise rather talk about poets than read them.[438]

Against this, Robert Conquest argued in 1979 that critics were responsible for having promoted Pound despite his "minimal talent", which was "grossly exaggerated".[439] "This is an accusation less against the fantastic arrogance of Pound", he wrote, "than against the narrow-minded obscurantism of the departments of English and the critical establishment who have set up a system of apologetics which the slyest Jesuit of the seventeenth century would have baulked at."[440]

The outrage over Pound's collaboration was so deep that it dominated the discussion. "A greater calamity cannot befall the art", Arthur Miller wrote in December 1945, "than that Ezra Pound, the Mussolini mouthpiece, should be welcomed back as an arbiter of American letters ..."[441] Over the decades, Redman writes, critics have argued that Pound was not really a poet or not really a fascist, or that he was a fascist but his poetry is not fascistic, or that there was an evil Pound who was a fascist and a good Pound who was not.[442] The American poet Elizabeth Bishop, 1956 Pulitzer Prize winner and one of Pound's hospital visitors—he called her "Liz Bish"—reflected the ambivalence in her poem "Visits to St. Elizabeths" (1957).[443] "This is the time / of the tragic man / that lies in the house of Bedlam." As the poem progresses, the tragic man, never named, becomes the talkative man; the honored man; the old, brave man; the cranky man; the cruel man; the busy man; the tedious man; the poet, the man; and, finally, the wretched man.[444]

Selected worksEdit

  • (1908). A Lume Spento. Venice: A. Antonini (poems, privately printed).
  • (1908). A Quinzaine for This Yule. London: Pollock (poems, privately printed); and Elkin Mathews.
  • (1909). Personae. London: Elkin Mathews (poems).
  • (1909). Exultations. London: Elkin Mathews (poems).
  • (1910). The Spirit of Romance. London: J. M. Dent & Sons (prose).
  • (1910). Provenca. Boston: Small, Maynard and Company (poems).
  • (1911). Canzoni. London: Elkin Mathews (poems)
  • (1912). The Sonnets and Ballate of Guido Cavalcanti Boston: Small, Maynard and Company (translations; cheaper edition destroyed by fire, London: Swift & Co).
  • (1912). Ripostes. S. Swift, London, (poems; first mention of Imagism)
  • (1915). Cathay. Elkin Mathews (poems; translations)
  • (1916). Gaudier-Brzeska. A Memoir. London: John Lane (prose).
  • (1916). Certain Noble Plays of Japan: From the Manuscripts of Ernest Fenollosa, chosen by Ezra Pound.
  • (1916) with Ernest Fenollosa. "Noh", or, Accomplishment: A Study of the Classical Stage of Japan. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • (1916). Lustra. London: Elkin Mathews (poems).
  • (1917). Twelve Dialogues of Fontenelle (translations).
  • (1917). Lustra. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (poems, with the first "Three Cantos").
  • (1918). Pavannes and Divisions New York: Alfred A. Knopf (prose).
  • (1918). Quia Pauper Amavi London: Egoist Press (poems).
  • (1919). The Fourth Canto. London: Ovid Press (poem).
  • (1920). Hugh Selwyn Mauberley. London: Ovid Press (poem).
  • (1920). Umbra. London: Elkin Mathews (poems and translations).
  • (1920) with Ernest Fenollosa. Instigations: Together with an Essay on the Chinese Written Character. New York: Boni & Liveright (prose).
  • (1921). Poems, 1918–1921. New York: Boni & Liveright.
  • (1922). Remy de Gourmont: The Natural Philosophy of Love. New York: Boni & Liveright (translation).
  • (1923). Indiscretions, or, Une revue des deux mondes. Paris: Three Mountains Press.
  • (1924) as William Atheling. Antheil and the Treatise on Harmony. Paris (essays).
  • (1925). A Draft of XVI Cantos. Paris: Three Mountains Press. The first collection of The Cantos.
  • (1926). Personae: The Collected Poems of Ezra Pound. New York: Boni & Liveright.
  • (1928). A Draft of the Cantos 17–27. London: John Rodker.
  • (1928). Selected Poems. Edited and with an introduction by T. S. Eliot. London: Faber & Faber.
  • (1928). Ta Hio: The Great Learning, newly rendered into the American language. Seattle: University of Washington Bookstore (translation).
  • (1930). A Draft of XXX Cantos. Paris: Nancy Cunard's Hours Press.
  • (1930). Imaginary Letters. Paris: Black Sun Press. Eight essays from the Little Review, 1917–18.
  • (1931). How to Read. Harmsworth (essays).
  • (1932). Guido Cavalcanti Rime. Genoa: Edizioni Marsano (translations).
  • (1933). ABC of Economics. London: Faber & Faber (essays).
  • (1934). Eleven New Cantos: XXXI–XLI. New York: Farrar & Rinehart (poems).
  • (1934). Homage to Sextus Propertius. London: Faber & Faber (poems).
  • (1934). ABC of Reading. New Haven: Yale University Press (essays).
  • (1934). Make It New. London: Faber & Faber (essays).
  • (1935). Alfred Venison's Poems: Social Credit Themes by the Poet of Titchfield Street. London: Stanley Nott, Ltd. Pamphlets on the New Economics, No. 9 (essays).
  • (1935). Jefferson and/or Mussolini. London: Stanley Nott. (essays).
  • (1935). Social Credit: An Impact. London: Stanley Nott. (essays). Repr.: Peter Russell (1951). Money Pamphlets by Pound, no. 5, London.
  • (1936) with Ernest Fenollosa. The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry. London: Stanley Nott.
  • (1937). The Fifth Decade of Cantos. New York: Farrar & Rinehart (poems).
  • (1937). Polite Essays. London: Faber & Faber (essays).
  • (1937). Confucius: Digest of the Analects, edited and published by Giovanni Scheiwiller, (translations)
  • (1938). Guide to Kulchur. New York: New Directions.
  • (1939). What Is Money For?. Greater Britain Publications (essays). Money Pamphlets by Pound, no. 3. London: Peter Russell.
  • (1940). Cantos LXII–LXXI. New Directions, New York (John Adams Cantos 62–71).
  • (1942). Carta da Visita di Ezra Pound. Edizioni di lettere d'oggi. Rome. English translation by John Drummond: A Visiting Card. Money Pamphlets by Pound, no. 4. London: Peter Russell, 1952 (essays).
  • (1944). L'America, Roosevelt e le cause della guerra presente. Casa editrice della edizioni popolari, Venice. English translation, by John Drummond: America, Roosevelt and the Causes of the Present War, Money Pamphlets by Pound, no. 6, Peter Russell, London 1951
  • (1944). Introduzione alla Natura Economica degli S.U.A.. Casa editrice della edizioni popolari. Venice. English translation An Introduction to the Economic Nature of the United States, by Carmine Amore. Repr.: Peter Russell, Money Pamphlets by Pound, London 1950 (essay)
  • (1944). Orientamini. Casa editrice dalla edizioni popolari. Venice (prose)
  • (1944). Oro et lavoro: alla memoria di Aurelio Baisi. Moderna, Rapallo. English translation: Gold and Work, Money Pamphlets by Pound, no. 2, Peter Russell, London 1952 (essays)
  • (1948). If This Be Treason. Siena: privately printed for Olga Rudge by Tip Nuova (original drafts of six of Pound's Radio Rome broadcasts)
  • (1948). The Pisan Cantos. New York: New Directions Publishing (Cantos 74–84)
  • (1948). The Cantos of Ezra Pound (includes The Pisan Cantos). New Directions, poems
  • (1949). Elektra (started in 1949, first performed 1987), a play by Ezra Pound and Rudd Fleming
  • (1950). Seventy Cantos. London: Faber & Faber. OCLC 468875760
  • (1950). Patria Mia. Chicago: R. F. Seymour (reworked New Age articles, 1912–1913). OCLC 230706458
  • (1951). Confucius: The Great Digest and Unwobbling Pivot. New York: New Directions (translation). OCLC 334011927[445]
  • (1951). Confucius: Analects (John) Kaspar & (David) Horton, Square $ Series, New York (translation).
  • (1954). The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius. Harvard University Press (translations)
  • (1954). Lavoro ed Usura. All'insegna del pesce d'oro. Milan (essays)
  • (1955). Section: Rock-Drill, 85–95 de los Cantares. All'insegna del pesce d'oro, Milan, (poems)
  • (1956). Sophocles: The Women of Trachis. A Version by Ezra Pound. Neville Spearman, London, (translation)
  • (1957). Brancusi. Milan (essay)
  • (1959). Thrones: 96–109 de los Cantares. New York: New Directions (poems).
  • (1968). Drafts and Fragments: Cantos CX–CXVII. New York: New Directions (poems).[446]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b For around 23,000 lines, 800 pages, Milton and Eliot, see Beach (2003), 32; for 116 sections, Stoicheff (1995), 6

    R. Peter Stoicheff (1986): "The Stone Wall/New Directions/Faber & Faber volume of 1968 will be considered the 'first authorized edition' here."[415]

  2. ^ On 21 November 1932 Hemingway wrote ("Statement on Ezra Pound", The Cantos of Ezra Pound: Some Testimonies, New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1933): "Any poet born in this century or in the last ten years of the preceding century who can honestly say that he has not been influenced by or learned greatly from the work of Ezra Pound deserves to be pitied rather than rebuked. It is as if a prose writer born in that time should not have learned from or been influenced by James Joyce or that a traveller should pass through a great blizzard and not have felt its cold or a sandstorm and not have felt the sand and the wind. The best of Pound's writing—and it is in the CANTOS—will last as long as there is any literature."[1]
  3. ^ "There was a young man from the West, / He did what he could for what he thought best; / But election came round; / He found himself drowned, / And the papers will tell you the rest."[11]
  4. ^ Pound may have attended Cheltenham Township High School for the year 1900–1901.[15]
  5. ^ In "How I Began" (1913), Pound wrote: "I resolved that at thirty I would know more about poetry than any man living ... that I would know what was accounted poetry everywhere, what part of poetry was 'indestructible', what part could not be lost by translation and—scarcely less important—what effects were obtainable in one language only and were utterly incapable of being translated.
    "In this search I learned more or less of nine foreign languages, I read Oriental stuffs in translations, I fought every University regulation and every professor who tried to make me learn anything except this, or who bothered me with 'requirements for degrees'."[21]
  6. ^ "This book is for Mary Moore of Trenton, if she wants it."[30]
  7. ^ When in 1908 Doolittle discussed her relationship with Pound with her father, the astronomy professor Charles Doolittle, the professor dismissed him as "nothing but a nomad".[28] Pound was seeing two other women at the time—Viola Baxter and Mary Moore[29]—and dedicated a book of poetry, Personae (1909), to Moore.[f] He asked her to marry him too, but she turned him down.[31]
  8. ^ Pound's advertised lectures were:
    • 21 January 1909: "Introductory Lecture. The Search for the Essential Qualities of Literature".
    • 28 January: The Rise of Song in Provence".
    • 4 February: "Mediaeval Religious Feeling".
    • 11 February: "Trade with the East".
    • 18 February: "Latin Lyrists of the Renaissance".
    • 25 February: "Books and Their Makers during the Middle Ages".[60]
  9. ^ Pound lived on the first floor of 10 Church Walk, Kensington, from September 1909 – June 1910 and November 1911 – April 1914. According to Moody, the two first-floor windows on the left were Pound's.[93] According to Carpenter, Pound was on the top floor behind the window on the far left.[94]

    John Ezard (The Guardian, 2004): "The plaque, from English Heritage, is a first chink of light in the cloud of infamy and disgrace which hangs over Pound's memory ... The ceremony in London brought applause from an audience of those who support him as an artist. One called it "an event long overdue" when the plaque was unveiled at the house in Kensington Church Walk where the US-born writer lived from 1909 to 1914."[95]

  10. ^ "What obfuscated me was not the Italian but the crust of dead English, the sediment present in my own available vocabulary, which I, let us hope, got rid of a few years later. You can't go round this sort of thing. It takes six or eight years to get educated in one's art, and another ten to get rid of that education."
    "Neither can anyone learn English, one can only learn a series of Englishes. Rossetti made his own language. I hadn't in 1910 made a language, I don't mean a language to use, but even a language to think in."[99]
  11. ^ Doolittle and Aldington said they had no recollection of this discussion.[107]
  12. ^ W. B. Yeats, "The Peacock": "What's riches to him / That has made a great peacock / With the pride of his eye?"
  13. ^ Des Imagistes was first of five Imagist anthologies, and the only one to contain work by Pound.[130]
  14. ^ Steven Yao does not view Pound's lack of Chinese as an obstacle, and states that the poet's trawl through centuries of scholarly interpretations resulted in a genuine understanding of the original poem.[148] Pound continues to be influential on contemporary Chinese poets such as An Qi, who paid homage to him in her poem Pound or the Rib of Poetry.[149]
  15. ^ On 13 January 1921, shortly before or after he left for France, the New Age published a long statement of Pound's philosophy, which he called his Axiomata and which included:
    (1) The intimate essence of the universe is not of the same nature as our own consciousness.
    (2) Our own consciousness is incapable of having produced the universe.
    (3) God, therefore exists. That is to say, there is no reason for not applying the term God, Theos, to the intimate essence ...[181]
  16. ^ Mein Kampf was translated into English in full in 1939, but in 1931 Chatto and Windus had published the book Hitler, by Pound's friend Wyndham Lewis, with translated fragments of Mein Kampf.[230] Lewis later turned against fascism.[92]
  17. ^ Tim Redman (2001): "Pound's antisemitism, which had been sporadically in evidence since the publication of 'Patria Mia' in 1912, grew in virulence along with that of the Italian regime. With the passage of the racial laws in 1938, the onset of the Second World War in 1939, and the foundation of the Salo Republic, Pound's antisemitic outbursts grew in viciousness and frequency until the end of the war, when public awareness of the Holocaust forced a realization of the horrific consequences of hateful speech."[248]
  18. ^ In October and November 1943 the Germans began concentrating Jews in transit camps in major cities, including Florence, Genoa, Milan, Rome, and Trieste. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, "these operations had limited success, due in part to advance warning given to the Jews by Italian authorities and the Vatican, and in part to the unwillingness of many non-Jewish Italians, including Salò police authorities, to participate in or facilitate the roundups. ... In all, the Germans deported 8,564 Jews from Italy, Italian-occupied France, and the islands of Rhodes and Kos, most of them to Auschwitz-Birkenau. 1,009 returned. In addition, the Germans shot 196 Jews in Italy proper, nearly half of these at the Ardeatine Caves in March 1944. Another approximately 100 died in the police transit camps or in prisons or police custody through Italy. More than 40,000 Jews survived the Holocaust in Italy."[273]
  19. ^ The 19 counts consisted of broadcasts that had been witnessed by two technicians; the charge was that Pound had violated his allegiance to the United States by unlawfully supporting the Kingdom of Italy.[304]
  20. ^ The Associated Press reported the list of judges as Conrad Aiken, W. H. Auden, Louise Bogan, Katherine Garrison Chapin, T. S. Eliot, Paul Green, Robert Lowell, Katherine Anne Porter, Karl Shapiro, Allen Tate, Willard Thorp, and Robert Penn Warren. Also on the list were Leonie Adams, the Library of Congress's poetry consultant, and Theodore Spencer, who died on 18 January 1949, just before the award was announced.[325]
  21. ^ "At their [the committee's first] meeting [in November 1948], and to no one's great surprise, given [Allen] Tate's behind-the-scenes maneuverings and the intimidating presence of recent Nobel Laureate T. S. Eliot, The Pisan Cantos emerged as the major contender ..."[328]
  22. ^ For example, one flier was modeled on the 1914 Blast manifesto: "JAIL NAACP, alien, unclean, unchristian / BLAST irrelevant ungodly LEADERS".[350]
  23. ^ According to John Tytell and Humphrey Carpenter, he was photographed on May Day at the head of a neo-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano parade of 500 men.[389] This did not happen, according to Tim Redman and A. David Moody, and no such photograph has emerged.[390]
  24. ^ In 1988 Christopher Ricks took issue with Pound's use of the word mistake, which he wrote was "scarcely commensurate with the political and spiritual monstrosity" of Pound's antisemitism.[399] Anthony Julius argued that Pound's use of the term suburban was the result of "an arrogance that broods on the descent from an ideal of greatness rather than on the injury which that descent did to others".[400]
  25. ^ For an earlier version, Pound (1962), 14–16. For more on Canto 116, Baumann (1983). For the publication history of the final sections, Stoicheff (1986) and Stoicheff (1995).

    Walter Baumann (Paideuma, 1983): "... Eva Hesse has informed us, presumably on Pound's authority, that the word 'demigod' alludes to the Heracles of Sophocles' Women of Trachis. The prominence Pound gave to the moment in the play when Heracles finally understands the full meaning of the oracles concerning him—that he is to be 'released from trouble,' not by a 'life of comfort,' but by death—is far more a revelation of his state of mind when making his version of the Trachiniae than of Sophocles' intentions, and the ad-libbing he allowed himself at the crucial point in the Sophoclean text is literally a shorthand anticipation of Canto 116: 'SPLENDOUR, / IT ALL COHERES'".[414]

SourcesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Hemingway (2006), 24–25
  2. ^ a b Preda (2005b), 90
  3. ^ Moody (2007), 4; Wilson (2014), 14

    Ridler, Keith (25 May 2008). "Poet's Idaho home is reborn". Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014.

  4. ^ Tytell (1987), 11
  5. ^ a b c d e Moody (2007), xiii
  6. ^ Cockram (2005), 238; for Aunt Frank's name, Wallace (2010), 205
  7. ^ Wilhelm (1985a), 14; Wilhelm (1985b), 380; Kavka (1991), 145–146
  8. ^ Kavka (1991), 145–148; Moody (2007), 4
  9. ^ Cockram (2005), 239; Moody (2007), 4
  10. ^ Carpenter (1988), 26–27
  11. ^ Carpenter (1988), 36
  12. ^ Carpenter (1988), 30
  13. ^ Carpenter (1988), 32–33; Moody (2007), 10
  14. ^ Carpenter (1988), 30, 33–34
  15. ^ McDonald (2005), 91
  16. ^ Moody (2007), 14; Carpenter (1988), 35
  17. ^ Hall (1962)
  18. ^ Carpenter (1988), 37
  19. ^ Moody (2007), 15–16
  20. ^ Moody (2007), 14, 15
  21. ^ Pound (1974), 25; Moody (2007), 14
  22. ^ Carpenter (1988), 39
  23. ^ a b Moody (2007), 20
  24. ^ Carpenter (1988), 47
  25. ^ Moody (2007), 21, 23–24
  26. ^ Tytell (1987), 24–27
  27. ^ Doolittle (1979), 67–68; Tytell (1987), 26
  28. ^ Tytell (1987), 28; Moody (2007), 62
  29. ^ Tytell (1987), 28–29
  30. ^ Pound (1909); "Mary Moore Cross, 92, Dead; Pound Dedicated Poems to Her". The New York Times, 25 December 1976.
  31. ^ Tytell (1987), 28–29
  32. ^ a b c Moody (2007), 19, 27–28
  33. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 30
  34. ^ Moody (2007), 28
  35. ^ Moody (2007), 29, 31; Slatin (1955), 75
  36. ^ Moody (2007), 29–30
  37. ^ Moody (2007), 30
  38. ^ Carpenter (1988), 78; Moody (2007), 90; from Personae of Ezra Pound (1909), 40
  39. ^ Carpenter (1988), 71–73; Moody (2007), 56
  40. ^ Moody (2007), 59
  41. ^ Moody (2007), 58
  42. ^ Carpenter (1988), 74
  43. ^ Tytell (1987), 34; Carpenter (1988), 80–81; Moody (2007), 60–61
  44. ^ Tytell (1987), 34
  45. ^ Carpenter (1988), 83; Moody (2007), 62
  46. ^ Carpenter (1988), 88; Moody (2007), 62
  47. ^ Carpenter (1988), 89; Moody (2007), 63; for the bakery, Tytell (1987), 36
  48. ^ Witemeyer (2005a), 185; Moody (2007), 66
  49. ^ Witemeyer (2005a), 185; Wilhelm (2008), xiii, 299
  50. ^ Pound (1947), "Canto LXXVI" The Sewanee Review, 65; Pound (1970a), 480; Terrell (1993), 398
  51. ^ Baumann (1984), 357
  52. ^ Knapp (1979), 25–27
  53. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 3
  54. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 4
  55. ^ "Canto LXXX", Pound (2003b), 80, lines 334–336; Wilhelm (2008), 4
  56. ^ Tytell (1987), 38–39; for the Evening Standard, Erkkila (2011), 3
  57. ^ Witemeyer (2005b), 249
  58. ^ a b Baumann (1984), 358
  59. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 5–11; Baumann (1984), 360
  60. ^ Slatin (1955), 76
  61. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 7
  62. ^ Ford (1931), 370; Moody (2007), 113
  63. ^ Crunden (1993), 272
  64. ^ Tytell (1987), 45
  65. ^ Tytell (1987), 44–45
  66. ^ Tytell (1987), 46
  67. ^ Pound (1971), 7
  68. ^ Aldington (1941), 105.
  69. ^ Punch, 23 June 1909, 449; Nadel (2010), 159
  70. ^ Pound (1990), 38; Pound (2003a), 148
  71. ^ Wilson (2004)
  72. ^ Erkkila (2011), 10
  73. ^ Erkkila (2011), 14
  74. ^ a b Moody (2007), 180
  75. ^ Spoo (2005), 67; Moody (2007), 124–125
  76. ^ Moody (2007), 117, 123
  77. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 64–65
  78. ^ Carpenter (1988), 152
  79. ^ a b Surrette (1999), 242
  80. ^ Wilhelm (2008), 65–66; Moody (2007), 150
  81. ^ Carswell (1978), 34
  82. ^ Moody (2007), 150
  83. ^ Erkkila (2011), 45
  84. ^ a b Witemeyer (1981), 112.
  85. ^ Redman (1991), 17; for Fabian Society, Carswell (1978), 35
  86. ^ "Canto XCVIII", Pound (1970a), 705; Wilhelm (2008), 83
  87. ^ a b c Redman (1991), 17
  88. ^ Hutchins (1965), 107, citing Pound's letter to her of August 1953; Redman (1991), 17; Wilhelm (2008), 83
  89. ^ a b Preda (2005a), 87
  90. ^ Holmes (2015), 209, citing Douglas, C. H. (26 August 1938). "The Jews". Social Credit, 8. Holmes also cites Finlay, J. L. (1972). Social Credit: The English Origins. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
  91. ^ Holmes (2015), 210
  92. ^ a b Hitchens (2008)
  93. ^ Moody (2007), between 304 and 305
  94. ^ Carpenter (1988), between 370 and 371
  95. ^ Ezard (2004)
  96. ^ Arrowsmith (2011), 100, 106–107; Qian (2000), 101
  97. ^ Arrowsmith (2011), 106–107
  98. ^ Huang (2015), 108, note 4
  99. ^ Pound (1934), 399
  100. ^ Carpenter (1988), 185; Moody (2007), 213
  101. ^ For the original, see "The Seafarer", Anglo-Saxons.net; for Pound's, "The Seafarer", University of Toronto.
  102. ^ Moody (2007), 180
  103. ^ Pound (1912).
  104. ^ Pound (1912), 59; Moody (2007), 180
  105. ^ Doolittle (1979), 18
  106. ^ Moody (2007), 180, 222
  107. ^ Carpenter (1988), 187
  108. ^ Pound (1918), 95
  109. ^ Pound (1913), 201
  110. ^ Thacker (2018), 5
  111. ^ Pound (April 1913), 12; Pound (2003a), 287
  112. ^ Pound (1974), 26; Wilhelm (2010), 105
  113. ^ Monk (2005), 94
  114. ^ Pound (1970b), 17–18; Carpenter (1988), 224
  115. ^ a b Carpenter (1988), 225; Moody (2007), 240
  116. ^ Moody (2007), 240; Longenbach (1988); also see Longenbach (1990).
  117. ^ "Canto LXXXIII", Pound (1970a), 553–554; Borstein (2001), 26
  118. ^ Pound (1970b), 24
  119. ^ Carpenter (1988), 226–227
  120. ^ Moody (2007), 246
  121. ^ a b Moody (2007), 246–249
  122. ^ Tytell (1987), 74
  123. ^ Moody (2007), 209
  124. ^ Putnam (1947), 150, 152
  125. ^ Moody (2007), 209, 210–211
  126. ^ Nadel (2001), 2
  127. ^ Thacker (2018), 3
  128. ^ Longenbach (1990), 54
  129. ^ Pound (1914), 5–6; for Joyce, see Thacker (2018), 5–6
  130. ^ Thacker (2018), 3
  131. ^ Moody (2007), 230, 256
  132. ^ Pound (June 1914), 153
  133. ^ "'Vorticist' Art". The Times. 13 June 1914. Issue 40549, 5.
  134. ^ Moody (2007), 222–225; Aldington (1941), 139
  135. ^ Aldington (1941), 139
  136. ^ Thacker (2018), 6
  137. ^ Moody (2007), 222–225; also see Thacker (2018), 2, 5–6
  138. ^ Aldington (1941), 165
  139. ^ Tytell (1987), 120–121.
  140. ^ Moody (2007), 319; Carpenter (1988), 258
  141. ^ Carpenter (1988), 258
  142. ^ Carpenter (1988), 260, 262; Eliot (1915), 130–135
  143. ^ Pound (1915), 11–12; Pound (2003a), 251–252; Tytell (1987), 124
  144. ^ Moody (2007), 239
  145. ^ Qian (2000), 105
  146. ^ Alexander (1979), 95
  147. ^ Yip (1969), 88
  148. ^ Yao (2010), 36–39
  149. ^ Ying (2010), 5
  150. ^ Alexander (1979), 62
  151. ^ Graves (1955), 138
  152. ^ Pound (1916), 3; Redman (1991), 27
  153. ^ Pound (1916), 76; Tytell (1987), 123
  154. ^ Moody (2007), 306; Pound wrote this to Milton Bronner, an American reporter.
  155. ^ Sandburg (1916)
  156. ^ a b Bush (1976), 184; Pound (June 1917), 113–121]; Pound (July 1917), 180–188; Pound (August 1917), 248–254
  157. ^ Moody (2007), 306–307
  158. ^ Tytell (1987), 71
  159. ^ Moody (2007), 325
  160. ^ Moody (2007), 332–333
  161. ^ Aldington (1941), 103; for the vicar's name, Hutchins (1965), 82–83
  162. ^ Moody (2007), 330–331, 342
  163. ^ Pound (1990), 82; Pound (2003a), 1277
  164. ^ Crunden (1993), 271
  165. ^ Moody (2007), 334–335
  166. ^ Moody (2007), 341
  167. ^ Moody (2007), 339
  168. ^ Pound (1919)
  169. ^ Hale (1919), 52, 55; Kenner (1971), 286; Moody (2007), 353
  170. ^ Kenner (1971), 286; Moody (2007), 354
  171. ^ Pound (1920), 12; Pound (2003a), 551 (549–563)
  172. ^ Aldington (1941), 217
  173. ^ Moody (2007), 399
  174. ^ Moody (2007), 402
  175. ^ Aldington (1941), 217
  176. ^ Moody (2017), 378, note 2
  177. ^ Moody (2007), 387, 409
  178. ^ Adams (2005), 150
  179. ^ Leavis (1942), 150
  180. ^ a b Orage (1921), 126–127; Moody (2007), 410
  181. ^ Pound (1921); Witemeyer (1981), 25–26
  182. ^ Carpenter (1988), between 370 and 371
  183. ^ Carpenter (1988), 402–403; Wilhelm (2008), 287.
  184. ^ Meyers (1985), 70–74
  185. ^ Stein (1933), 246; Carpenter (1988), 400
  186. ^ Cohassey (2014), 6
  187. ^ Cohassey (2014), 7–8
  188. ^ Meyers (1985), 74–75
  189. ^ Meyers (1985), 74
  190. ^ Cohassey (2014), 12
  191. ^ Bornstein (2001), 33–34
  192. ^ Eliot (1946), 330
  193. ^ a b Nadel (2005), ix
  194. ^ Cohassey (2014), 31
  195. ^ Cohassey (2014), 30
  196. ^ Tytell (1987), 180; Wilhelm (2008), 251
  197. ^ Terrell (1993), vii; Albright (2001), 75
  198. ^ "Three Cantos". Poetry Foundation.
  199. ^ Bush (1976), xiv; Moody (2014), 41
  200. ^ Bush (1976), xiv
  201. ^ Bush (1976), xv, 3
  202. ^ Tytell (1987), 191–192
  203. ^ Putnam (1947), 89–90; Tytell (1987), 193
  204. ^ Tytell (1987), 193
  205. ^ Tytell (1987), 197–198; Nadel (2007), 13
  206. ^ Baker (1981), 127
  207. ^ Tytell (1987), 225
  208. ^ Tytell (1987), 198; Carpenter (1988), 448
  209. ^ Cohassey (2014), 48
  210. ^ Carpenter (1988), 448, 450–451
  211. ^ Carpenter (1988), 452–453
  212. ^ Carpenter (1988), 455–456
  213. ^ Carpenter (1988), 554
  214. ^ Tytell (1987), 198; Van Gelder 1996
  215. ^ Conover (2001), 83
  216. ^ de Rachewiltz (1971), 1
  217. ^ Tytell (1987), 201
  218. ^ a b Hemingway (1925)
  219. ^ Nadel (2007), 14
  220. ^ Wilhelm (1994), 22–24
  221. ^ Moody (2014), xiv
  222. ^ Tytell (1987), 215
  223. ^ Julius (1995), 182, citing Corrigan (1977), 466, and note 17, 479; Corrigan cites a letter from Pound to Jeanne Robert Foster, 2 February 1922, Houghton Library, Harvard University
  224. ^ Julius (1995), 182, citing Putnam (1947), 158, who says he heard this directly from Steloff.
  225. ^ Tytell (1987), 268–269
  226. ^ Moody (2014), 242–243; Redman (1991), 177
  227. ^ Julius (1995), 184–185; "Ezra Pound–New Acquisitions". Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, 7 November 2012.
  228. ^ Casillo (1988), 193; Feldman (2013), 52
  229. ^ Feldman (2013), 52
  230. ^ Lewis (1931); Kimpel and Eaves (1983), 49; Feldman (2013), 52
  231. ^ Doob (1978), 59
  232. ^ Casillo (1988), 193
  233. ^ Tytell (1987), 254; Julius (1995), 183
  234. ^ Tytell (1987), 227
  235. ^ Tytell (1987), 228
  236. ^ a b Wilhelm (2010), 70–71
  237. ^ Moody (2014), 129–130
  238. ^ Moody (2014), 136–137
  239. ^ a b c Moody (2014), 137
  240. ^ Swift (2017), 216
  241. ^ a b Pound (1970a), 202; Redman (1991), 95
  242. ^ Tytell (1987), 230
  243. ^ Redman (1991), 98
  244. ^ Redman (2001), 101, 256; Moody (2014), 137
  245. ^ Feldman (2013), 115
  246. ^ Feldman (2013), 19
  247. ^ Feldman (2013), 53, 115
  248. ^ Redman (2001), 258
  249. ^ Sarfatti (2006), 138–139
  250. ^ Tytell (1987), 250
  251. ^ Tytell (1987), 251
  252. ^ Tytell (1987), 252
  253. ^ Tytell (1987), 254
  254. ^ Tytell (1987), 253
  255. ^ Tytell (1987), 257–258
  256. ^ Tytell (1987), 254
  257. ^ a b c Tytell (1987), 257
  258. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 259
  259. ^ Feldman (2013), 4
  260. ^ Pound radio broadcasts, United States Department of Justice (DOJ), 7.
  261. ^ Feldman (2013), 94
  262. ^ Feldman (2013), 99; Tytell (1987), 261
  263. ^ Feldman (2013), 83–84
  264. ^ Tytell (1987), 261
  265. ^ Feldman (2013), 107
  266. ^ Swift (2017), 232
  267. ^ Pound radio broadcasts. DOJ, 12–13.
  268. ^ Tytell (1987), 266
  269. ^ Tytell (1987), 269–270
  270. ^ Friedländer (2007), 470; Sarfatti (2006), 180
  271. ^ Feldman (2013), 144
  272. ^ Sarfatti (2006), 180–181
  273. ^ "Italy". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  274. ^ Kubica (1988), 416; Czech (2000), 187–188
  275. ^ Carpenter (1988), 627
  276. ^ Tytell (1987), 272–273; Carpenter (1988), 628–629; Moody (2015), 66–67
  277. ^ Moody (2015), 72
  278. ^ Carpenter (1988), 632–633; Tytell (1987), 274
  279. ^ Feldman (2013), 159; Moody (2015), 74
  280. ^ Feldman (2013), 159
  281. ^ Pound (2003b), 3, lines 1–11; Terrell (1993), 362
  282. ^ Moody (2015), 85
  283. ^ Tytell (1987), 272
  284. ^ Conover (2001), 154; Moody (2015), 86
  285. ^ Moody (2015), 88
  286. ^ Sieburth (2003b), ix
  287. ^ "Canto LXXIV", Pound (2003b), 3, lines 4–5
  288. ^ Moody (2015), 100
  289. ^ Tytell (1987), 276
  290. ^ Sieburth (2003b), x
  291. ^ Tytell (1987), 276; Sieburth (2003b), xii
  292. ^ Pound and Spoo (1999), between pages 16 and 17
  293. ^ Sieburth (2003), xxxvi
  294. ^ Feldman (2013), 5
  295. ^ Johnson (1945); Sieburth (2003b), xi; Moody (2007), 113–114
  296. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 277
  297. ^ Sieburth (2003b), xiii
  298. ^ Sieburth (2003b), xiv
  299. ^ Sieburth (2003b), xv
  300. ^ Kimpel and Eaves (1981), 474; Sieburth (2003b), frontispiece; Moody (2015), 117–118
  301. ^ Tytell (1987), 284
  302. ^ Kimpel and Eaves (1981), 475–476
  303. ^ Pound and Spoo (1999), 19–20; Moody (2015), 127
  304. ^ Tytell (1987), 286–287
  305. ^ Moody (2015), 185
  306. ^ Moody (2015), 177–178
  307. ^ Torrey (1992), 193; Moody (2015), 179
  308. ^ Moody (2015), 192
  309. ^ Moody (2015), 192
  310. ^ Tytell (1987), 294; Moody (2015), 194
  311. ^ Moody (2015), 196, note 4; Swift (2015), 22
  312. ^ Moody (2015), 213.
  313. ^ Moody (2015), 242; "Julien Cornell, 83, The Defense Lawyer In Ezra Pound Case". The New York Times, 7 December 1994.
  314. ^ Moody (2015), 244, 246; Swift (2017), 79
  315. ^ Moody (2015), 247
  316. ^ Tytell (1987), 302
  317. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 309
  318. ^ Moody (2015), 234
  319. ^ Tytell (1987), 302
  320. ^ Tytell (1987), 299–300; Torrey (1992), 219
  321. ^ Tytell (1987), 305; Kutler (1982), 81
  322. ^ Pound (1970), 536; Pound (2003b), 94; Alexander (1981), 227; Terrell (1993), 449
  323. ^ Tytell (1987), 293
  324. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 302
  325. ^ "Pound, in Mental Clinic, Wins Prize for Poetry Penned in Treason Cell". Associated Press, 19 February 1949.
  326. ^ Carpenter (1988), 787
  327. ^ Carpenter (1988), 791
  328. ^ Sieburth (2003b), xxxviii–xxxix
  329. ^ a b Tytell (1987), 303
  330. ^ Carpenter (1988), 793
  331. ^ Carpenter (1988), 792
  332. ^ "Canto Controversy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 22 August 1949, 6.
  333. ^ Hillyer (11 June 1949 and 18 June 1949); Tytell (1987), 303; McGuire (2020), 213–214
  334. ^ McGuire (2020), 212
  335. ^ Cohassey (2014), 142
  336. ^ Olson (1991), 93
  337. ^ Tytell (1987), 303–304
  338. ^ Tryphonopoulous and Surette (1998), 131–132; Kimpel and Eaves (1983), 50
  339. ^ Ormsby (2017)
  340. ^ Tytell (1987), 304; Wilhelm (1994), 286, 306
  341. ^ Tytell (1987), 306; Barnhisel (1998), 283; Marsh (2015), 93
  342. ^ Marsh (2015), 135–136
  343. ^ Tytell (1987), 306
  344. ^ Swift (2017), 198
  345. ^ Tytell (1987), 307; Hickman (2005), 127
  346. ^ Tytell (1987), 307; Barnhisel (1998), 276ff; Moody (2015), 295
  347. ^ Tytell (1987), 308
  348. ^ Barnhisel (1998), 287–288; Moody (2017), 378
  349. ^ Tytell (1987), 306; Bird, Robert S. (31 January 1957). "Pound's Ideology Permeates Kasper Speeches, Writing". The Nashville Banner. New York Herald Tribune News Service. p. 3.
  350. ^ Tytell (1987), 306
  351. ^ Tytell (1987), 308; "Jail term upheld for bias leader". The New York Times, 2 June 1957
  352. ^ Tytell (1987), 308; Carpenter (1988), 829; Webb (2011), 88–89; Marsh (2015), 203

    "Police Firmness in Nashville". Life magazine, 23 September 1957, 34

  353. ^ Carpenter (1988), 829; Marsh (2015), 229
  354. ^ Stock (1970), 442–443
  355. ^ Swift (2017), 27, 199; Stock (1970), xiii, 443
  356. ^ a b Carpenter (1988), 815
  357. ^ a b Swift (2017), 200
  358. ^ Swift (2017), 218
  359. ^ Stock (1970), 443
  360. ^ Swift (2017), 199
  361. ^ Stock (1970), xiii, 443
  362. ^ Carpenter (1988), 786; Gill (2005), 155
  363. ^ Tytell (1987), 305
  364. ^ Cohassey (2014), 147
  365. ^ Baker (2003), 742
  366. ^ Cohassey (2014), 147
  367. ^ "Books: An American Storyteller". Time magazine, 13 December 1954, 6/11
  368. ^ Reynolds (2000), 305
  369. ^ Plimpton (1958)
  370. ^ Tytell (1987), 322
  371. ^ Tytell (1987), 325; Lewis (1958)
  372. ^ Tytell (1987), 325–326
  373. ^ Swift (2017), 27
  374. ^ "Ezra Pound", The Richard Avedon Foundation.
  375. ^ Swift (2017), 251
  376. ^ Carpenter (1988), 848
  377. ^ "Pound, in Italy, Gives Fascist Salute; Calls United States an 'Insane Asylum'". The New York Times, 10 July 1958
  378. ^ Tytell (1987), 305, 327–328<; Carpenter (1988), 848
  379. ^ Carpenter (1988), 848; Moody (2015), xxxvii
  380. ^ Tytell (1987), 328
  381. ^ Pound (1970a), 807; Tytell (1987), 331
  382. ^ Tytell (1987), 332
  383. ^ Tytell (1987), 347
  384. ^ a b Reck (1986)
  385. ^ Reck (1968), 27
  386. ^ Hall (1962); Tytell (1987), 333
  387. ^ Tytell (1987), 334–335
  388. ^ Redman (2001), 260
  389. ^ Tytell (1987), 334–335; Carpenter (1988), 873–874
  390. ^ Moody (2015), 424
  391. ^ Tytell (1987), 335
  392. ^ Tytell (1987), 335
  393. ^ Rossi (2008), 144
  394. ^ Rossi (2008), 145–146
  395. ^ a b Nadel (2007), 18
  396. ^ Tytell (1987), 337
  397. ^ Reck (1968), 28–29, 84.
  398. ^ Reck (1968), 29; Carpenter (1988), 898–899
  399. ^ Ricks (1988), 54
  400. ^ Julius (1995), 185.
  401. ^ Tytell (1987), 337–338
  402. ^ Tytell (1987), 339
  403. ^ Moody (2015), 487–488; Swift (2017), 244
  404. ^ Tytell (1987), 339; Cohassey (2014), 162; "Ezra Pound Dies in Venice at Age of 87". The New York Times, 2 November 1972.
  405. ^ "Photograph of Olga Rudge and Ezra Pound". Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
  406. ^ Putnam (1947), 141
  407. ^ O'Connor (1963), 7, 19
  408. ^ Witmeyer (2001), 47
  409. ^ Coats (2009), 87–89
  410. ^ Stark (2001) 10–12
  411. ^ Ingham (2001), 236–237
  412. ^ Pound (1910), 89
  413. ^ Pound (1970a), 815–816
  414. ^ Baumann (1983), 207–208
  415. ^ Stoicheff (1986), 78
  416. ^ Terrell (1993), vii; also see "Ezra Pound". Poetry Foundation; Laughlin (1986), 13–14; Karachalios (1995), 95
  417. ^ Beach (2003), 32–33; Bacigalupo (2020), 3
  418. ^ Terrell (1993), viii
  419. ^ Tate (1955), 264–265
  420. ^ Nadel (2001), 9
  421. ^ Pound (1970s), 816
  422. ^ Pound (1970a), 817; Baumann (1983), 207–208; Nicholls (2001), 144; Dennis (2001), 282
  423. ^ Julius (1995), 183, 184
  424. ^ Houen (2010), 399; Wilhelm (2010), 247; Terrell (1993), 551; Pound (1970a), 633–634
  425. ^ Barnhisel (1998), 273–274; Erkkila (2011), xlvii
  426. ^ a b Erkkila (2011), xlvii
  427. ^ Barnhisel (1998), 273–274
  428. ^ a b c Erkkila (2011), xlviii
  429. ^ a b c Surette and Tryphonopoulos (2005)
  430. ^ "Carroll Franklin Terrell '38". Bowdowin magazine, undated.
  431. ^ Nadel (2010), 162; Swift (2017), 199
  432. ^ Nadel (2001), 12
  433. ^ Nadel (2010), 162–165
  434. ^ Coats (2009), 81
  435. ^ Menand (2008); Montgomery (1972)
  436. ^ Bornstein (2001), 22–23; Menand (2008)
  437. ^ Witemeyer (2001), 48
  438. ^ Kenner (1951), 16
  439. ^ Conquest (1979), 236
  440. ^ Conquest (1979), 243
  441. ^ Bigsby (2009), 252
  442. ^ Redman (1991), 2–3
  443. ^ Moody (2015), 251; Swift (2017), 14–15
  444. ^ Bishop (1957)
  445. ^ Kenner 1952
  446. ^ "Ezra Pound Bibliography". The Center for Programs in Contemporary Writing, University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020.

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