Eumenes of Cardia (/jˈmɛnz/; Greek: Εὐμένης; c. 362 – 316 BC) was a Greek general and satrap. He participated in the Wars of the Diadochi as a supporter of the Macedonian Argead royal house. He died after the Battle of Gabiene in 316 BC.

Eumenes
Eumenes of Cardia.jpg
Eumenes of Cardia, late 17th century print.
AllegianceMacedonian Empire
Years of servicefl. 362 – 316 BC
RankGeneral
Satrap of Cappadocia and Paphlagonia
Battles/warsBattle of Gabiene (316 BC)
Spouse(s)Artonis, daughter of Achaemenid satrap Artabazus II

Contents

CareerEdit

Eumenes was a native of Cardia in the Thracian Chersonese, although he was suspected to be Scythian. At a very early age, he was employed as a private secretary by Philip II of Macedon until his death and by Alexander the Great, whom he accompanied into Asia. After Alexander's death (323), Eumenes took command of a large body of Greek soldiers fighting in support of Alexander's son, Alexander IV.

Satrap of Cappadocia and Paphlagonia (323 BC)Edit

In the ensuing division of the empire in the Partition of Babylon (323 BC), Cappadocia and Paphlagonia were assigned to Eumenes; but as they were not yet subdued, Leonnatus and Antigonus were charged by Perdiccas with securing them for him. Antigonus, however, ignored the order, and Leonnatus vainly attempted to induce Eumenes to accompany him to Europe and share in his far-reaching designs. Eumenes joined Perdiccas, who installed him in Cappadocia.

Battle of the Hellespont (321 BC)Edit

When Craterus and Antipater, having subdued Greece in the Lamian War, determined to pass into Asia and overthrow the power of Perdiccas, their first blow was aimed at Cappadocia. Craterus and Neoptolemus, the satrap of Armenia, were completely defeated by Eumenes in the Battle of the Hellespont in 321. Neoptolemus was killed, and Craterus died of his wounds.

 
The fight of Eumenes of Cardia against Neoptolemus, Battle of the Hellespont (321 BC), Wars of the Diadochi. 1878 engraving.

After the murder of Perdiccas in Egypt by his own soldiers (320), the Macedonian generals condemned Eumenes to death, assigning Antipater and Antigonus as his executioners. Eumenes, betrayed to them by one of his own officers, fled to Nora, a strong fortress on the border between Cappadocia and Lycaonia, where he held out for more than a year until the death of Antipater threw his opponents into disarray. Antipater had left the regency to his friend Polyperchon instead of his son Cassander. Cassander, therefore, allied himself with Antigonus and Ptolemy, while Eumenes allied himself with Polyperchon. He was able to escape from Nora, and his forces were soon threatening Syria and Phoenicia.

Battle of Gabiene (316 BC)Edit

In 318 BC Antigonus marched against him, and Eumenes withdrew east to join the satraps of the provinces beyond the Tigris River. After two indecisive victories at Paraitacene (317) and Gabiene (316), Eumenes was betrayed to Antigonus by officers under his command.

According to Plutarch and Diodorus, Eumenes had won the battle but lost control of his army's baggage camp thanks to his ally Peucestas' duplicity or incompetence. This baggage also included all the loot of the most decorated Macedonian veterans (called the Argyraspides, or Silver Shields)—treasure accumulated over 30 years of successful warfare. It contained not only gold and gems but the soldiers' women and children. Antigonus responded to a request for the return of the baggage train sent by Teutamus, one of their commanders, by demanding they give him Eumenes. The Silver Shields did just that.

DeathEdit

Antigonus, according to Plutarch, starved Eumenes for three days, but finally sent an executioner to dispatch him when the time came for him to move his camp. Eumenes' body was given to his friends, to be burnt with honor, and his ashes were conveyed in a silver urn to his wife and children.

LegacyEdit

Despite Eumenes' undeniable skills as a general, he never commanded the full allegiance of the Macedonian officers in his army and died as a result. He was an able commander who did his utmost to maintain the unity of Alexander's empire in Asia, but his efforts were frustrated by generals and satraps both nominally under his command and under that of his enemies. Eumenes was hated and despised by many fellow commanders—certainly for his successes and supposedly for his Greek ethnicity and prior office as Royal Secretary. Eumenes has been seen as a tragic figure, a man who seemingly tried to do the right thing but was overcome by a more ruthless enemy and the treachery of his own soldiers.

FamilyEdit

Pharnabazus III, Persian satrap of Phrygia, was his brother-in-law, as Eumenes married Artonis, the daughter of Persian satrap Artabazus II and sister of Pharnabazus III.

"For Barsine, the daughter of Artabazus, who was the first lady Alexander took to his bed in Asia, and who brought him a son named Heracles, had two sisters; one of which, called Apame, he gave to Ptolemy; and the other, called Artonis, he gave to Eumenes, at the time when he was selecting Persian ladies as wives for his friends."

— Plutarch, The Life of Eumenes.[1]

SourcesEdit

  • Plutarch - the main surviving biography of Eumenes is by Plutarch. Plutarch's parallel Roman life was the life of Sertorius.
  • Diodorus - Eumenes is a significant figure in books 16–18 of Diodorus's history
  • Historie, a historical fiction manga based on Eumenes' life.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Plutarch: Life of Eumenes - translation.

SourcesEdit

  • Edward Anson, Eumenes of Cardia: A Greek among Macedonians, Brill Academic Publishers, 2004.
  • Waterfield, Robin (2011). Dividing the Spoils - The War for Alexander the Great’s Empire (hardback). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 273 pages. ISBN 978-0-19-957392-9.
  •   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eumenes" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 889.

External linksEdit