Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function. Euler's formula states that for any real number x:
where e is the base of the natural logarithm, i is the imaginary unit, and cos and sin are the trigonometric functions cosine and sine respectively. This complex exponential function is sometimes denoted cis x ("cosine plus i sine"). The formula is still valid if x is a complex number, and so some authors refer to the more general complex version as Euler's formula.
When , Euler's formula evaluates to , which is known as Euler's identity.
the above equation tells us something about complex logarithms by relating natural logarithms to imaginary (complex) numbers. Bernoulli, however, did not evaluate the integral.
Bernoulli's correspondence with Euler (who also knew the above equation) shows that Bernoulli did not fully understand complex logarithms. Euler also suggested that the complex logarithms can have infinitely many values.
Exponentiating this equation yields Euler's formula. Note that the logarithmic statement is not universally correct for complex numbers, since a complex logarithm can have infinitely many values, differing by multiples of 2iπ.
Around 1740 Euler turned his attention to the exponential function instead of logarithms and obtained the formula used today that is named after him. It was published in 1748, obtained by comparing the series expansions of the exponential and trigonometric expressions.
Applications in complex number theoryEdit
- Interpretation of the formula
This formula can be interpreted as saying that the function eiφ is a unit complex number, i.e., it traces out the unit circle in the complex plane as φ ranges through the real numbers. Here φ is the angle that a line connecting the origin with a point on the unit circle makes with the positive real axis, measured counterclockwise and in radians.
The original proof is based on the Taylor series expansions of the exponential function ez (where z is a complex number) and of sin x and cos x for real numbers x (see below). In fact, the same proof shows that Euler's formula is even valid for all complex numbers x.
A point in the complex plane can be represented by a complex number written in cartesian coordinates. Euler's formula provides a means of conversion between cartesian coordinates and polar coordinates. The polar form simplifies the mathematics when used in multiplication or powers of complex numbers. Any complex number z = x + iy, and its complex conjugate, z = x − iy, can be written as
- x = Re z is the real part,
- y = Im z is the imaginary part,
- r = |z| = √ is the magnitude of z
- φ = arg z = atan2(y, x).
φ is the argument of z, i.e., the angle between the x axis and the vector z measured counterclockwise in radians, which is defined up to addition of 2π. Many texts write φ = tan−1 y/ instead of φ = atan2(y,x), but the first equation needs adjustment when x ≤ 0. This is because for any real x and y not both zero the angles of the vectors (x, y) and (−x, −y) differ by π radians, but have the identical value of tan φ = y/.
- Use of the formula to define the logarithm of complex numbers
Now, taking this derived formula, we can use Euler's formula to define the logarithm of a complex number. To do this, we also use the definition of the logarithm (as the inverse operator of exponentiation):
both valid for any complex numbers a and b.
Therefore, one can write:
for any z ≠ 0. Taking the logarithm of both sides shows that
Finally, the other exponential law
Relationship to trigonometryEdit
The two equations above can be derived by adding or subtracting Euler's formulas:
and solving for either cosine or sine.
These formulas can even serve as the definition of the trigonometric functions for complex arguments x. For example, letting x = iy, we have:
Complex exponentials can simplify trigonometry, because they are easier to manipulate than their sinusoidal components. One technique is simply to convert sinusoids into equivalent expressions in terms of exponentials. After the manipulations, the simplified result is still real-valued. For example:
Another technique is to represent the sinusoids in terms of the real part of a complex expression and perform the manipulations on the complex expression. For example:
This formula is used for recursive generation of cos nx for integer values of n and arbitrary x (in radians).
See also Phasor arithmetic.
In the language of topology, Euler's formula states that the imaginary exponential function t ↦ eit is a (surjective) morphism of topological groups from the real line ℝ to the unit circle 1. In fact, this exhibits ℝ as a covering space of . Similarly, Euler's identity says that the kernel of this map is τℤ, where τ = 2π. These observations may be combined and summarized in the commutative diagram below:
In differential equations, the function eix is often used to simplify solutions, even if the final answer is a real function involving sine and cosine. The reason for this is that the exponential function is the eigenfunction of the operation of differentiation.
In electrical engineering, signal processing, and similar fields, signals that vary periodically over time are often described as a combination of sinusoidal functions (see Fourier analysis), and these are more conveniently expressed as the sum of exponential functions with imaginary exponents, using Euler's formula. Also, phasor analysis of circuits can include Euler's formula to represent the impedance of a capacitor or an inductor.
Definitions of complex exponentiationEdit
The exponential function ex for real values of x may be defined in a few different equivalent ways (see Characterizations of the exponential function). Several of these methods may be directly extended to give definitions of ez for complex values of z simply by substituting z in place of x and using the complex algebraic operations. In particular we may use either of the three following definitions, which are equivalent. From a more advanced perspective, each of these definitions may be interpreted as giving the unique analytic continuation of ex to the complex plane.
Differential equation definitionEdit
Power series definitionEdit
For complex z
For complex z
Here, n is restricted to positive integers, so there is no question about what the power with exponent n means.
Various proofs of the formula are possible.
Using power seriesEdit
Using now the power-series definition from above, we see that for real values of x
Using polar coordinatesEdit
Another proof is based on the fact that all complex numbers can be expressed in polar coordinates. Therefore, for some r and θ depending on x,
No assumptions are being made about r and θ; they will be determined in the course of the proof. From any of the definitions of the exponential function it can be shown that the derivative of eix is ieix. Therefore, differentiating both sides gives
Substituting r(cos θ + i sin θ) for eix and equating real and imaginary parts in this formula gives dr/ = 0 and dθ/ = 1. Thus, r is a constant, and θ is x + C for some constant C. The initial values r(0) = 1 and θ(0) = 0 come from e0i = 1, giving r = 1 and θ = x. This proves the formula
Using differential equationsEdit
Another proof is based on differential equations satisfied by exponential and trigonometric functions. See Trigonometric functions § Relationship to exponential function (Euler's formula).
- Moskowitz, Martin A. (2002). A Course in Complex Analysis in One Variable. World Scientific Publishing Co. p. 7. ISBN 981-02-4780-X.
- Feynman, Richard P. (1977). The Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol. I. Addison-Wesley. p. 22-10. ISBN 0-201-02010-6.
- Bernoulli, Johann (1702). "Solution d'un problème concernant le calcul intégral, avec quelques abrégés par rapport à ce calcul" [Solution of a problem in integral calculus with some notes relating to this calculation]. Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Paris. 1702: 197–289.
- Cotes wrote: "Nam si quadrantis circuli quilibet arcus, radio CE descriptus, sinun habeat CX sinumque complementi ad quadrantem XE ; sumendo radium CE pro Modulo, arcus erit rationis inter & CE mensura ducta in ." (Thus if any arc of a quadrant of a circle, described by the radius CE, has sinus CX and sinus of the complement to the quadrant XE ; taking the radius CE as modulus, the arc will be the measure of the ratio between & CE multiplied by .) That is, consider a circle having center E (at the origin of the (x,y) plane) and radius CE. Consider an angle θ with its vertex at E having the positive x-axis as one side and a radius CE as the other side. The perpendicular from the point C on the circle to the x-axis is the "sinus" CX ; the line between the circle's center E and the point X at the foot of the perpendicular is XE, which is the "sinus of the complement to the quadrant" or "cosinus". The ratio between and CE is thus . In Cotes' terminology, the "measure" of a quantity is its natural logarithm, and the "modulus" is a conversion factor that transforms a measure of angle into circular arc length (here, the modulus is the radius (CE) of the circle). According to Cotes, the product of the modulus and the measure (logarithm) of the ratio, when multiplied by , equals the length of the circular arc subtended by θ, which for any angle measured in radians is CE • θ. Thus, . This equation has the wrong sign: the factor of should be on the right side of the equation, not the left side. If this change is made, then, after dividing both sides by CE and exponentiating both sides, the result is: , which is Euler's formula.
- John Stillwell (2002). Mathematics and Its History. Springer.
- Leonard Euler (1748) Chapter 8: On transcending quantities arising from the circle of Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite, page 214, section 138 (translation by Ian Bruce, pdf link from 17 century maths).
- Ricardo, Henry J. A Modern Introduction to Differential Equations. p. 428.
- Strang, Gilbert (1991). Calculus. Wellesley-Cambridge. p. 389. ISBN 0-9614088-2-0. Second proof on page.