Energy in Libya

Energy in Libya describes energy and electricity production, consumption, and import in Libya. The petroleum industry is the primary engine of the Libyan economy.

OverviewEdit

From 2004 to 2008, Libyan energy production increased by 21.5% and energy exports increased by 27%. Domestic energy consumption in Libya was likely driven by industry and population growth. During this period, according to the International Energy Agency, the world population grew 5.3%, and the Libyan population grew 9.4%. As a net exporter of oil, Libya's energy production was also stimulated by growing populations in countries like Egypt (12.2% growth in that period), Yemen (13.4%), Sudan (16.4%), Saudi Arabia (2.9%), and Italy (3%).

Energy in Libya[1]
Capita Prim. energy Production Export Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 5.74 212 993 780 14,46 43,51
2007 6.16 207 1,181 971 23,88 43,13
2008 6.28 212 1,206 991 24,61 44,85
2009 6.42 237 1,013 772 26.12 50.05
2010 6.36 223 1,030 803 27.14 51.61
2012 6.42 155 360 203 23.96 34.89
2012R 6.16 199 1,009 803 29.58 44.20
2013 6.20 198 718 515 24.58 43.23
Change 2004-10 10.8% 5.3% 3.7% 2.9% 87.7% 18.6%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

OilEdit

 
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.[2]

Libya is a member of OPEC. In 2007, Libya was the world's 10th largest oil exporter, with 73 Mt in oil exports.[3] As of 2009, Europe's share of Libya's oil exports was 78%.[4] Domestically, the primary energy use in Libya was 237 TWh and 37 TWh per million persons.[5][clarification needed]

The National Oil Corporation is the state oil company of Libya. The biggest oil producers in Libya are Eni, an Italian company, and Repsol YPF, a Spanish one. Other major producers in the country include BASF, Petrobras, Gazprom, Exxon Mobil, Pertamina, Nippon Oil, Sirte Oil Company, BP, Hess Corporation, JAPEX, and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.[6]

In 2010, 28% of Libyan oil exports went to Italy (over 284 barrels a day). In 2009, Europe's share of total Libyan oil exports were around 78%. Other importers in 2009 included China (10%), the United States (5%), and Brazil (3%).[4]

NuclearEdit

Libya became a member of the IAEA in 1963.

Libya has a Soviet-designed 10 MWt research reactor in Tajura that was built 1981.

In the late 1970s Libya signed a contract with the Soviet nuclear company Atomenergoexport for two VVER-440 reactors, each delivering 440 megawatts (MW)[7][8] of electrical power on the Gulf of Sirte. The reactors were intended to serve a dual-use for electric power generation and seawater desalination.[9] As Libya was discontented with the technology the USSR wanted to provide them with, the Belgian nuclear company Belgonucleaire was asked to take over the contract. However, due to objection from the United States for concerns regarding misuse of nuclear weapons development, Belgonucleaire refused and Libya asked the USSR again. In the end, the project was stopped during its planning phase in 1986.[10][11]

In 2006 Libya and France signed an agreement on peaceful uses of atomic energy,[12] and in July 2007, they signed a memorandum of understanding related to building a mid-sized nuclear plant with Areva reactor for seawater desalination. This deal was opposed by Germany.[13] This was followed by a memorandum with Canada, to share nuclear medicine, desalinization technology and co-operation over nuclear energy research.[14]

In 2010, prior to the death of Muammar Gaddafi, Libya confirmed that it intended to create a nuclear energy sector.[15]

Renewable energyEdit

The government of Libya promotes renewable energy through the Renewable Energy Authority of Libya. The Libya Renewable Energy Strategic Plan 2013–2025, released in 2012, sets a goal of 10% renewable energy contribution to the country's energy mix by 2025. Renewable energy will come from wind, concentrated solar power, photovoltaic, and solar water heating.[16][17]

Libya is among 13 countries that have not submitted climate pledges under the Paris Agreement.[18]

The country has a high potential for wind and solar energy.[19] Construction has begun construction on a 100 MW solar power plant in the town of Kufra in southeastern Libya.[17]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 12 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  2. ^ "In a pure coincidence, Gaddafi impeded U.S. oil interests before the war", Glenn Greenwald. Salon. 11 June 2011. Accessed 11 June 2011
  3. ^ Key world energy statistics 2009 page 23 Archived 7 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Libyan chaos threatens oil crisis Financial Times 23 February 2011 p.2
  5. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2011 Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48 Archived 27 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Financial Times 23 February 2011 p. 24
  7. ^ "Nuclear Power Reactor Details - LIBYA-1". PRIS. IAEA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  8. ^ "Nuclear Power Reactor Details - LIBYA-2". PRIS. IAEA. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  9. ^ Megahed, Mohamed M. (2001). "Nuclear desalination: history and prospects" (PDF). Desalination. 135: 173. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00148-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  10. ^ "Libyan Nuclear Weapons". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  11. ^ "Libya Nuclear Chronology" (PDF). NTI. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Libya in 'milestone' nuclear deal". BBC News. 16 March 2006.
  13. ^ "Germans attack Libya nuclear deal". BBC. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
  14. ^ "Canada and Libya look to cooperate". World Nuclear News. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Libya moving forward with nuclear power plans". World Nuclear News. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  16. ^ "Libya Renewable Energy Strategic Plan 2013-2025 – Policies". IEA. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  17. ^ a b Marques, Filipa. "National Plan for Developing the Renewable Energy in Libya (2013-2025)". African Power Platform. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  18. ^ "The Truth Behind the Paris Agreement Climate Pledges – "Insufficient to Address Climate Change"". SciTechDaily. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  19. ^ Alhaji (19 March 2020). "Libya begins construction of 100MW solar power plant in Kufra town". Construction Review Online. Retrieved 10 June 2020.