Emmanouil Tsouderos

Emmanouil Tsouderos (Greek: Εμμανουήλ Τσουδερός, also transliterated as Emmanuel Tsuderos; 19 July 1882 – 10 February 1956) was a political and financial figure of Greece. During World War II he served as Prime Minister of Greece from 1941 to 1944, for all but one week of that tenure as head of the Greek government in exile.

Emmanouil Tsouderos
Emmanouil Tsouderos.jpg
Prime Minister of Greece
In office
21 April 1941 – 13 April 1944
MonarchGeorge II
Preceded byAlexandros Koryzis
Succeeded bySofoklis Venizelos
Personal details
Born19 July 1882
Rethymno, Crete, Greece
DiedFebruary 10, 1956(1956-02-10) (aged 73)
Athens, Greece
Political partyIndependent (Non-political)
ResidenceAthens, Greece
Occupationlawyer, economist

Early life and studiesEdit

Emmanuel Tsouderos was born in 1882 in Rethymno, Crete (then part of the Ottoman Empire). He studied law at Athens University, and economics in Paris and London.[1]

Career in politicsEdit

He returned to Crete aged 24, and was elected Member of Parliament of the Cretan Legislature (1906–1912), when Crete had autonomous status under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire and was under the protection of Russia, Britain, France and Italy.

After the union of Crete with Greece in December 1913, he was elected to the Hellenic Parliament, and served as Minister of Transportation under Eleftherios Venizelos, and Minister of Finances under Themistoklis Sophoulis.

In 1928, when the Central Bank of Greece was established, Tsouderos was appointed its first vice-Governor, and in 1931 its Governor.[2]

See Marguarita Dritsas, Hellenic Open University, for her definitive biography of Tsourderos, based on his personal papers in the Bank of Greece Archives. [Dritsas, Margarita. (2012). Emmanuel Tsouderos, 1882-1956, Central Banker and Politician. Bank of Greece Publications.][1]

Prime ministerEdit

Following the suicide of Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis on 18 January 1941, amidst the German invasion of Greece, King George II of Greece sought for his successor. Several names, such as Konstantinos Kotzias, the former dictator General Theodoros Pangalos, and the Venizelist general Alexandros Mazarakis-Ainian were discussed, but either rejected or turned down the offer.[3] As the evacuation of the Greek government to Crete was being prepared, Tsouderos, as a Venizelist and Cretan, as well as a known Anglophile, emerged as a prominent choice for the post during the 20th. On the next day, after attending a séance in which the spirit of Venizelos urged him to accept, Tsouderos accepted and was sworn in as Prime Minister.[4] On the 20th, the Greek army in Epirus unilaterally surrendered to the Germans, and on the morning of the 23rd, the Greek government left Athens.[5]

Tsouderos fled again during the Battle of Crete. He went to the Middle East and later Egypt. Tsouderos headed the Greek government in exile from 29 April 1941 until 13 April 1944. Although he was the internationally recognised Prime Minister of Greece (in opposition to the numerous prime ministers who were the figureheads of the collaborationist Hellenic State), in practice he had little influence inside Greece's borders. This government was initially located in London, but subsequently moved to Cairo. He served in the subsequent government in exile under Sofoklis Venizelos.

After the end of World War II Tsouderos served in different capacities, until his death at the age of 73 in Nervi, Genoa, Italy on February 10, 1956.[1]


  1. ^ a b "M.Tsouderos War-Time Premier Of Greece Obituary". The Times. London. February 11, 1956. pp. 9, Issue 53452, col C. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  2. ^ Bank of Greece Archived October 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Koliopoulos 1976–1977, pp. 68–70.
  4. ^ Koliopoulos 1976–1977, pp. 71–72.
  5. ^ Koliopoulos 1976–1977, pp. 73–74.


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