The Former Liang (Chinese: 前涼; pinyin: Qián Liáng; 320–376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265–420) in China. It was founded by the Zhang family of the Han Chinese. Its territories included present-day Gansu and parts of Ningxia, Shaanxi, Qinghai and Xinjiang.

Former Liang (前涼)

西平, 涼
320–376
Former Liang in the northwest
Former Liang in the northwest
StatusVassal of Jin Dynasty (265-420), Han Zhao, Later Zhao, Former Qin
CapitalGuzang
GovernmentMonarchy
Prince 
• 320-324
Zhang Mao
• 324-346
Zhang Jun
• 346-353
Zhang Chonghua
• 353-355
Zhang Zuo
• 355-363
Zhang Xuanjing
• 364-376
Zhang Tianxi
History 
• Zhang Gui's creation as Duke of Xiping
4 March 314[1][2]
• Zhang Mao's issuance of general pardon, usually viewed as establishment
320
• Zhang Mao's acceptance of Prince of Liang title
323
• Zhang Zuo's formal rejection of Jin suzerainty
354
• Zhang Xuanjing's formal acceptance of Jin suzerainty
361
• Disestablished
26 September[3][4] 376
• Zhang Tianxi's death
406
CurrencyChinese coin, Chinese cash (Wu Zhu)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Former Qin
Today part ofChina
Kyrgyzstan
Mongolia

All rulers of the Former Liang remained largely titularly under the court of the Jin dynasty as the Duke of Xiping except Zhang Zuo who proclaimed himself wang (prince/king). However, at times the other Former Liang rulers also used the wang title when imposed on them when they were forced to submit to Han Zhao, Later Zhao, or Former Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang under the Han Chinese ruler Zhang Gui. After this, significant Han Chinese settlement occurred in Gaochang, a major, large part of the population becoming Chinese. In 383 The General Lu Guang of the Former Qin seized control of the region.[5]

Rulers of the Former LiangEdit

Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Cheng Zhang Mao 320-324 Yongyuan 永元 320-324
Zhongcheng Zhang Jun 324-346 Tiayuan 太元 324-346
Huan Zhang Chonghua 346-353 Yongle 永樂 346-353
Zhang Yaoling 353
King Wei Zhang Zuo 353-355 Jin era names
Jingdao Zhang Xuanjing 355-363 Jin era names
Dao Zhang Tianxi 364-376 Taiqing 太清 364-376

Rulers family treeEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%A6%E8%AE%CA&king=%B7%5D%AB%D2&reign=%AB%D8%BF%B3&yy=2&ycanzi=&mm=2&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%D0%B1G
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 89.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A4%B8&yy=1&ycanzi=&mm=8&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%D2%A4%C8
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 104.
  5. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)