Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Dutch: Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Indonesian: Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800.
Dutch East Indies
Anthem: "Wilhelmus" (Dutch)
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942.
|Common languages||Dutch (Official)|
Malay (Lingua Franca)
|Head of state|
• 1800 (first)
|Augustijn Gerhard Besier|
• 1806 (last)
|Carel de Vos van Steenwijk|
• 1816–1840 (first)
• 1948–1949 (last)
• 1800–1801 (first)
|Pieter G. van Overstraten|
• 1949 (last)
|A. H. J. Lovinka|
• VOC nationalised
|1 January 1800|
|Feb 1942 – Aug 1945|
|17 August 1945|
|27 December 1949|
|Currency||Dutch East Indies gulden|
|Today part of||Indonesia|
During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects. The term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, and set the stage for an independence movement.
Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution. The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia 14 years later in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement.
The word Indies comes from Latin: Indus (Names for India). The original name Dutch Indies (Dutch: Nederlandsch-Indië) was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s.
Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, Indies, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, and colonial Indonesia interchangeably.
Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states. (The most important were Srivijaya and Majapahit.) The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC).
The VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, and make treaties across Asia. A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network. To their original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers, cloves and cinnamon, the company and later colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco, rubber, sugar and opium, and safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory. Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war, corruption, and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century. The company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago (including much of Java, parts of Sumatra, much of Maluku, and the hinterlands of ports such as Makasar, Manado, and Kupang) were nationalized under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies.
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous. Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali, Lombok and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. Finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia.
In 1806, with the Netherlands under Imperial French domination, Emperor Napoleon I appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshal Herman Willem Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Following Napoleon's defeat at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, independent Dutch control was restored in 1816. Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula (Malaya) and Dutch India. The resulting borders between former British and Dutch possessions remain today between modern Malaysia and Indonesia.
Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship (1830–1835) confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java, Sumatra and Bangka. However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands. Motivations included: the protection of areas already held; the intervention of Dutch officials ambitious for glory or promotion; and to establish Dutch claims throughout the archipelago to prevent intervention from other Western powers during the European push for colonial possessions. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence.
The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance. The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control. The most prolonged military expedition was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912. Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century. However, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894, and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895. Towards the end of the 19th century, the balance of military power shifted towards the industrialising Dutch and against pre-industrial independent indigenous Indonesian polities as the technology gap widened. Military leaders and Dutch politicians believed they had a moral duty to free the native Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were considered oppressive, backward, or disrespectful of international law.
Although Indonesian rebellions broke out, direct colonial rule was extended throughout the rest of the archipelago from 1901 to 1910 and control taken from the remaining independent local rulers. Southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali was subjugated with military conquests in 1906 and 1908, as were the remaining independent kingdoms in Maluku, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Nusa Tenggara. Other rulers including the Sultans of Tidore in Maluku, Pontianak (Kalimantan), and Palembang in Sumatra, requested Dutch protection from independent neighbours thereby avoiding Dutch military conquest and were able to negotiate better conditions under colonial rule. The Bird's Head Peninsula (Western New Guinea), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.
World War II and independenceEdit
The Netherlands capitulated their European territory to Germany on May 14, 1940. The royal family fled to exile in Britain. Germany and Japan were Axis allies. On 27 September 1940, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Japan signed a treaty outlining "spheres of influence". The Dutch East Indies fell into Japan's sphere.
The Netherlands, Britain and the United States tried to defend the colony from the Japanese forces as they moved south in late 1941 in search of Dutch oil. On 10 January 1942, during the Dutch East Indies Campaign, Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies as part of the Pacific War. The rubber plantations and oil fields of the Dutch East Indies were considered crucial for the Japanese war effort. Allied forces were quickly overwhelmed by the Japanese and on 8 March 1942 the Royal Dutch East Indies Army surrendered in Java.
Fuelled by the Japanese Light of Asia war propaganda and the Indonesian National Awakening, a vast majority of the indigenous Dutch East Indies population first welcomed the Japanese as liberators from the colonial Dutch empire, but this sentiment quickly changed as the occupation turned out to be far more oppressive and ruinous than the Dutch colonial government. The Japanese occupation during World War II brought about the fall of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government structure as they could, replacing it with their own regime. Although the top positions were held by the Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. In contrast to Dutch repression of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese allowed indigenous leaders to forge links amongst the masses, and they trained and armed the younger generations.
According to a UN report, four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony; although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia's territory a guerrilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence. In December 1949, the Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea). Sukarno's government campaigned for Indonesian control of the territory, and with pressure from the United States, the Netherlands agreed to the New York Agreement which ceded the territory to Indonesian administration in May 1963.
The economic history of the colony was closely related to the economic health of the mother country. Despite increasing returns from the Dutch system of land tax, Dutch finances had been severely affected by the cost of the Java War and the Padri War, and the Dutch loss of Belgium in 1830 brought the Netherlands to the brink of bankruptcy. In 1830, a new Governor-General, Johannes van den Bosch, was appointed to make the Indies pay their way through Dutch exploitation of its resources. With the Dutch achieving political domination throughout Java for the first time in 1830, it was possible to introduce an agricultural policy of government-controlled forced cultivation. Termed cultuurstelsel (cultivation system) in Dutch and tanam paksa (forced plantation) in Indonesia, farmers were required to deliver, as a form of tax, fixed amounts of specified crops, such as sugar or coffee. Much of Java became a Dutch plantation and revenue rose continually through the 19th century which were reinvested into the Netherlands to save it from bankruptcy. Between 1830 and 1870, 1 billion guilders (€10.5 billion 2016) were taken from Indonesia, on average making 25 per cent of the annual Dutch Government budget. The Cultivation System, however, brought much economic hardship to Javanese peasants, who suffered famine and epidemics in the 1840s.
Critical public opinion in the Netherlands led to much of the Cultivation System's excesses being eliminated under the agrarian reforms of the "Liberal Period". Dutch private capital flowed in after 1850, especially in tin mining and plantation estate agriculture. The Marktavious Company's tin mines off the eastern Sumatra coast was financed by a syndicate of Dutch entrepreneurs, including the younger brother of King William III. Mining began in 1860. In 1863 Jacob Nienhuys obtained a concession from the Sultanate of Deli (East Sumatra) for a large tobacco estate (Deli Company. From 1870, the Indies were opened up to private enterprise and Dutch businessmen set up large, profitable plantations. Sugar production doubled between 1870 and 1885; new crops such as tea and cinchona flourished, and rubber was introduced, leading to dramatic increases in Dutch profits. Changes were not limited to Java, or agriculture; oil from Sumatra and Kalimantan became a valuable resource for industrialising Europe. Dutch commercial interests expanded off Java to the outer islands with increasingly more territory coming under direct Dutch control or dominance in the latter half of the 19th century. However, the resulting scarcity of land for rice production, combined with dramatically increasing populations, especially in Java, led to further hardships.
The colonial exploitation of Indonesia's wealth contributed to the industrialisation of the Netherlands, while simultaneously laying the foundation for the industrialisation of Indonesia. The Dutch introduced coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco and rubber and large expanses of Java became plantations cultivated by Javanese peasants, collected by Chinese intermediaries, and sold on overseas markets by European merchants. In the late 19th century economic growth was based on heavy world demand for tea, coffee, and cinchona. The government invested heavily in a railroad network (240 km or 150 mi long in 1873, 1,900 km or 1,200 mi in 1900), as well as telegraph lines, and entrepreneurs opened banks, shops and newspapers. The Dutch East Indies produced most of the world's supply of quinine and pepper, over a third of its rubber, a quarter of its coconut products, and a fifth of its tea, sugar, coffee, and oil. The profit from the Dutch East Indies made the Netherlands one of the world's most significant colonial powers. The Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij shipping line supported the unification of the colonial economy and brought inter-island shipping through to Batavia, rather than through Singapore, thus focussing more economic activity on Java.
The worldwide recession of the late 1880s and early 1890s saw the commodity prices on which the colony depended collapse. Journalists and civil servants observed that the majority of the Indies population were no better off than under the previous regulated Cultivation System economy and tens of thousands starved. Commodity prices recovered from the recession, leading to increased investment in the colony. The sugar, tin, copra and coffee trade on which the colony had been built thrived, and rubber, tobacco, tea and oil also became principal exports. Political reform increased the autonomy of the local colonial administration, moving away from central control from the Netherlands, whilst power was also diverged from the central Batavia government to more localised governing units.
The world economy recovered in the late 1890s and prosperity returned. Foreign investment, especially by the British, were encouraged. By 1900, foreign-held assets in the Netherlands Indies totalled about 750 million guilders ($300 million), mostly in Java.
After 1900 upgrading the infrastructure of ports and roads was a high priority for the Dutch, with the goal of modernising the economy, facilitating commerce, and speeding up military movements. By 1950 Dutch engineers had built and upgraded a road network with 12,000 km of asphalted surface, 41,000 km of metalled road area and 16,000 km of gravel surfaces. In addition the Dutch built, 7,500 kilometres (4,700 mi) of railways, bridges, irrigation systems covering 1.4 million hectares (5,400 sq mi) of rice fields, several harbours, and 140 public drinking water systems. Wim Ravesteijn has said that, "With these public works, Dutch engineers constructed the material base of the colonial and postcolonial Indonesian state."
In 1898, the population of Java numbered 28 million with another 7 million on Indonesia's outer islands. The first half of 20th century saw large-scale immigration of Dutch and other Europeans to the colony, where they worked in either the government or private sectors. By 1930, there were more than 240,000 people with European legal status in the colony, making up less than 0.5% of the total population. Almost 75% of these Europeans were in fact native Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans.
|1||Indigenous islanders (Pribumi)||59,138,067||97.4%|
|3||Dutch people and Eurasians||240,417||0.4%|
|4||Other foreign orientals||115,535||0.2%|
The Dutch colonialists formed a privileged upper social class of soldiers, administrators, managers, teachers and pioneers. They lived together with the "natives", but at the top of a rigid social and racial caste system. The Dutch East Indies had two legal classes of citizens; European and indigenous. A third class, Foreign Easterners, was added in 1920.
In 1901 the Dutch adopted what they called the Ethical Policy, under which the colonial government had a duty to further the welfare of the Indonesian people in health and education. Other new measures under the policy included irrigation programs, transmigration, communications, flood mitigation, industrialisation, and protection of native industry. Industrialisation did not significantly affect the majority of Indonesians, and Indonesia remained an agricultural colony; by 1930, there were 17 cities with populations over 50,000 and their combined populations numbered 1.87 million of the colony's 60 million.
The Dutch school system was extended to Indonesians with the most prestigious schools admitting Dutch children and those of the Indonesian upper class. A second tier of schooling was based on ethnicity with separate schools for Indonesians, Arabs, and Chinese being taught in Dutch and with a Dutch curriculum. Ordinary Indonesians were educated in Malay in Roman alphabet with "link" schools preparing bright Indonesian students for entry into the Dutch-language schools. Vocational schools and programs were set up by the Indies government to train indigenous Indonesians for specific roles in the colonial economy. Chinese and Arabs, officially termed "foreign orientals", could not enrol in either the vocational schools or primary schools.
Graduates of Dutch schools opened their own schools modelled on the Dutch school system, as did Christian missionaries, Theosophical Societies, and Indonesian cultural associations. This proliferation of schools was further boosted by new Muslim schools in the Western mould that also offered secular subjects. According to the 1930 census, 6% of Indonesians were literate, however, this figure recognised only graduates from Western schools and those who could read and write in a language in the Roman alphabet. It did not include graduates of non-Western schools or those who could read but not write Arabic, Malay or Dutch, or those who could write in non-Roman alphabets such as Batak, Javanese, Chinese, or Arabic.
Some higher education institutions were also established. In 1898 the Dutch East Indies government established a school to train medical doctors, named School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen (STOVIA). Many STOVIA graduates later played important roles in Indonesia's national movement toward independence as well in developing medical education in Indonesia, such as Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo, who established the Budi Utomo political society. De Technische Hoogeschool te Bandung established in 1920 by the Dutch colonial administration to meet the needs of technical resources at its colony. One of Technische Hogeschool graduate is Sukarno whom later would lead the Indonesian National Revolution. In 1924, the colonial government again decided to open a new tertiary-level educational facility, the Rechts Hogeschool (RHS), to train civilian officers and servants. In 1927, STOVIA's status was changed to that of a full tertiary-level institution and its name was changed to Geneeskundige Hogeschool (GHS). The GHS occupied the same main building and used the same teaching hospital as the current Faculty of Medicine of University of Indonesia. The old links between the Netherlands and Indonesia are still clearly visible in such technological areas as irrigation design. To this day, the ideas of Dutch colonial irrigation engineers continue to exert a strong influence over Indonesian design practices. Moreover, the two highest internationally ranking universities of Indonesia, the University of Indonesia est.1898 and the Bandung Institute of Technology est.1920, were both founded during the colonial era.
Education reforms, and modest political reform, resulted in a small elite of highly educated indigenous Indonesians, who promoted the idea of an independent and unified "Indonesia" that would bring together disparate indigenous groups of the Dutch East Indies. A period termed the Indonesian National Revival, the first half of the 20th century saw the nationalist movement develop strongly, but also face Dutch oppression.
Law and administrationEdit
Since the VOC era, the highest Dutch authority in the colony resided with the 'Office of the Governor-General'. During the Dutch East Indies era the Governor-General functioned as chief executive president of colonial government and served as commander-in-chief of the colonial (KNIL) army. Until 1903 all government officials and organisations were formal agents of the Governor-General and were entirely dependent on the central administration of the 'Office of the Governor-General' for their budgets. Until 1815 the Governor-General had the absolute right to ban, censor or restrict any publication in the colony. The so-called Exorbitant powers of the Governor-General allowed him to exile anyone regarded as subversive and dangerous to peace and order, without involving any Court of Law.
Until 1848 the Governor-General was directly appointed by the Dutch monarch, and in later years via the Crown and on advice of the Dutch metropolitan cabinet. During two periods (1815–1835 and 1854–1925) the Governor-General ruled jointly with an advisory board called the Raad van Indie (Indies Council). Colonial policy and strategy were the responsibility of the Ministry of Colonies based in The Hague. From 1815 to 1848 the Ministry was under direct authority of the Dutch King. In the 20th century the colony gradually developed as a state distinct from the Dutch metropole with treasury separated in 1903, public loans being contracted by the colony from 1913, and quasi diplomatic ties were established with Arabia to manage the Haji pilgrimage from the Dutch East Indies. In 1922 the colony came on equal footing with the Netherlands in the Dutch constitution, while remaining under the Ministry of Colonies.
The Governor-General led a hierarchy of Dutch officials; the Residents, the Assistant Residents, and District Officers called Controllers. Traditional rulers who survived displacement by the Dutch conquests were installed as regents and indigenous aristocracy became an indigenous civil service. While they lost real control, their wealth and splendour under the Dutch grew. This indirect rule did not disturb the peasantry and was cost-effective for the Dutch; in 1900, only 250 European and 1,500 indigenous civil servants, and 16,000 Dutch officers and men and 26,000 hired native troops, were required to rule 35 million colonial subjects. From 1910, the Dutch created the most centralised state power in Southeast Asia.
A People's Council called the Volksraad for the Dutch East Indies commenced in 1918. The Volksraad was limited to an advisory role and only a small portion of the indigenous population were able to vote for its members. The Council comprised 30 indigenous members, 25 European and 5 from Chinese and other populations, and was reconstituted every four years. In 1925 the Volksraad was made a semilegislative body; although decisions were still made by the Dutch government, the governor-general was expected to consult the Volksraad on major issues. The Volksraad was dissolved in 1942 during the Japanese occupation.
The Dutch government adapted the Dutch codes of law in its colony. The highest court of law, the Supreme Court in Batavia, dealt with appeals and monitored judges and courts throughout the colony. Six Councils of Justice (Raad van Justitie) dealt mostly with crime committed by people in the European legal class and only indirectly with the indigenous population. The Land Councils (Landraden) dealt with civil matters and less serious offences like estate divorces, and matrimonial disputes. The indigenous population was subject to their respective adat law and to indigenous regents and district courts, unless cases were escalated before Dutch judges. Following Indonesian independence, the Dutch legal system was adopted and gradually a national legal system based on Indonesian precepts of law and justice was established.
By 1920 the Dutch had established 350 prisons throughout the colony. The Meester Cornelis prison in Batavia incarcerated the most unruly inmates. In Sawah Loento prison on Sumatra prisoners had to perform manual labour in the coal mines. Separate prisons were built for juveniles (West Java) and for women. In the female Boeloe prison in Semarang inmates had the opportunity to learn a profession during their detention, such as sewing, weaving and making batik. This training was held in high esteem and helped re-socialise women once they were outside the correctional facility. In response to the communist uprising of 1926 the prison camp Boven-Digoel was established in New Guinea. As of 1927 political prisoners, including indigenous Indonesians espousing Indonesian independence, were 'exiled' to the outer islands.
Politically, the highly centralised power structure, including the exorbitant powers of exile and censorship, established by the Dutch administration was carried over into the new Indonesian republic.
The Dutch East Indies was divided into three Gouvernementen, Groot Oost, Borneo and Sumatra, and three provincies in Java. Provincies and Gouvernementen were both divided to Residencies but while the Residencies under Provincies were divided again to regentschappen, Residencies under Gouvermenten were divided to Afdeelingen first before being divided to regentschappen In 1942, the divisions were
Under control of Gouvernement of Sumatra
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Atjeh en Onderhoorigheden||Aceh||Residency of Aceh and Dependencies||1,003,062||55392.23||Aceh, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Groot-Atjeh, Nordkust van Atjeh, Oostkust van Atjeh and Westkust van Atjeh||State of Trumon|
|Residentie Tapanoeli||Tapanuli||Residency of Tapanuli||1,042,583||39076.87||western part of North Sumatra, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Sibolga en Omstreken, Nias en omliggend eiland, Bataklanden and Padang Sidempoean||none|
|Residentie Oostkust van Sumatra||Sumatra Timur||Residency of Sumatra's East Coast||1,693,200||94583.25||eastern part of North Sumatra and northern part of Riau, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Langkat, Deli en Serdang, Asahan, Simaloengoen en Karolanden and Bengkalis; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Medan, Bindjai, Tebing Tinggi, Tandjoengbalai and Pematangsiantar||Langkat Sultanate, Deli Sultanate, Serdang Sultanate, Asahan Sultanate, Panei Sultanate and Siak Sultanate|
|Residentie Sumatra's Westkust||Sumatra Barat||Residency of Sumatra's West Coast||1,910,298||49778.10||West Sumatra including Mentawai Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Tanah Datar, Agam, Solok, Limapoeloe Koto and Zuid Benedenlanden; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Padang, Bukittinggi and Sawahloento||none|
|Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden||Riau||Residency of Riau and Dependencies||298,225||31668.44||southern part of Riau and Riau Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Indragiri and Tandjoengpinang||Indragiri Sultanate|
|Residentie Djambi||Jambi||Residency of Jambi||245,272||44923.76||Jambi, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Djambi||none|
|Residentie Benkoelen||Bengkulu||Residency of Bengkulu||323,123||26249.39||Bengkulu, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Benkoelen||none|
|Residentie Palembang||Palembang||Residency of Palembang||1,098,725||86355.65||South Sumatra, consist of the divisions (afdeeling) of Palembang Bovenlanden, Palembang Benedenlanden and Ogan en Komering-oeloe; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Palembang||none|
|Residentie Bangka en Onderhoorigheden||Bangka||Residency of Bangka and Dependencies||278,792||16774.70||Bangka and Belitung Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Bangka and Billiton||none|
|Residentie Lampongsche Districten||Lampung||Residency of Lampung District||361,563||28783.74||Lampung, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Teloekbetoeng||none|
Java was also divided to three provinces which overlap with Pre-2000 boundary of java without Surakarta which in 1942 along with Yogyakarta were not included in any provinces of Java, but considered Vorstenlanden van Java (Princely States of Java)
Under control of Gouvernement of West-Java
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Bantam||Banten||Residency of Banten||1,028,628||n/a||Banten consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Serang, Lebak and Pandeglang||none|
|Residentie Batavia||Betawi||Residency of Batavia||2,637,035||n/a||Jakarta and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Batavia, Meester-Cornelis and Krawang; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Batavia||none|
|Residentie Buitenzorg||Bogor||Residency of Buitenzorg||2,212,997||n/a||Bogor and surroundings, consist of the regencies (regentschap) of Buitenzorg, Soekaboemi and Tjiandjoer; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Buitenzorg and Soekaboemi||none|
|Residentie Preanger||Priangan||Residency of Preanger||3,448,796||n/a||Bandung and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bandoeng, Soemedang, Tasikmalaja, Tjiamis and Garoet; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Bandoeng||none|
|Residentie Cheribon||Cirebon||Residency of Cirebon||2,069,690||n/a||Cirebon and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of Cheribon, Koeningan, Indramajoe and Madjalengka; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Cheribon||Cheribon Sultanate|
Under control of Gouvernement of Midden-Java
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Pekalongan||Pekalongan||Residency of Pekalongan||2,640,124||n/a||Pekalongan, Tegal and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of Pekalongan, Batang, Pemalang, Tegal and Brebes; and with the municipalities(stadsgemeente) of Pekalongan and Tegal||none|
|Residentie Banjoemas||Banyumas||Residency of Banyumas||2,474,447||n/a||Banyumas, Purwokerto and surroundings, consist of the regencies (regentschap) of Banjoemas, Poerwokerto, Tjilatjap and Bandjarnegara||none|
|Residentie Kedoe||Kedu||Residency of Kedu||2,129,894||n/a||Magelang and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Magelang, Wonosobo, Temanggoeng, Poerworedjo and Keboemen; and with the municipality (stadsgemeente) of Magelang||none|
|Residentie Semarang||Semarang||Residency of Semarang||2,020,684||n/a||Semarang and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Semarang, Kendal, Demak and Grobogan; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Semarang and Salatiga||none|
|Residentie Djepara-Rembang||Jepara-Rembang||Residency of Jepara-Rembang||1,876,480||n/a||Jepara, Rembang and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of Pati, Djepara, Rembang, Blora and Koedoes||none|
Under control of Gouvernement of Oost-Java
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Madioen||Madiun||Residency of Madiun||1,909,801||n/a||Madiun and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Madioen, Magetan, Ngawi, Ponorogo and Patjitan; and with the municipality (stadsgemeente) of Madioen||none|
|Residentie Bodjonegoro||Bojonegoro||Residency of Bojonegoro||1,986,129||n/a||Bojonegoro and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bodjonegoro, Toeban and Lamongan||none|
|Residentie Kediri||Kediri||Residency of Kediri||2,469,955||n/a||Kediri and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Kediri, Ngandjoek, Blitar and Toeloengagoeng; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Kediri and Blitar||none|
|Residentie Soerabaja||Surabaya||Residency of Surabaya||1,902,953||n/a||Surabaya and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Soerabaja, Sidoardjo, Modjokerto and Djombang; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Soerabaja and Modjokerto||none|
|Residentie Malang||Malang||Residency of Malang||2,741,105||n/a||Malang, Probolinggo and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Malang, Pasoeroean, Probolinggo and Loemadjang; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Malang, Pasoeroean and Probolinggo||none|
|Residentie Besoeki||Besuki||Residency of Besuki||2,083,309||n/a||Banyuwangi and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bondowoso, Panaroekan, Djember and Banjoewangi||none|
|Residentie Madoera||Madura||Residency of Madura||1,962,462||n/a||Madura, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bangkalan, Pamekasan and Soemenep||none|
Gouvernement of Jogjakarta controls Residentie Jogjakarta, while Gouvernement of Soerakarta controls Residentie of Soerakarta and Klaten.
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Jogjakarta||Yogyakarta||Residency of Yogyakarta||1,559,027||n/a||Yogyakarta, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Adikarto, Pakoealaman, Koelon-Progo, Jogjakarta, Bantoel and Goenoeng-Kidul||Jogjakarta Sultanate and Duchy of Pakoe Alaman|
|Residentie Soerakarta||Surakarta||Residency of Surakarta||2,564,848 (with Klaten)||n/a||Surakarta, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Sragen, Soerakarta, Kota Mangkoenagaran and Wonogiri||Soerakarta Sunanate and Duchy of Mangkoe Negaran|
|Residentie Klaten||Klaten||Residency of Klaten||0||n/a||consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Klaten and Bojolali||Soerakarta Sunanate|
In 1938 both of these Residencies were again united in a Gouvernement of Borneo with its capital at Banjarmasin.
The Gouvernement van Groote Oost was a gouvernement of the Dutch East Indies created in 1938. It comprised all the islands to the east of Borneo and Java.
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Bali en Lombok||Bali dan Lombok||Residency of Bali and Lombok||1,802,683||n/a||Bali and Lombok, consisting of the afdeelinen) of Singaradja, Zuid Bali and Lombok||Kloengkoeng Sunanate with primacy over several small states in Bali and Lombok|
|Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden||Timor||Residency of Timor and Dependencies||1,657,376||n/a||West Nusa Tenggara East of Lombok and East Nusa Tenggara, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Soembawa, Soemba, Flores and Timor en eilanden||Soembawa Sultanate, Bima Sultanate and several small states|
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Residentie Celebes en Onderhoorigheden||Sulawesi||Residency of Celebes and Dependencies||3,093,251||n/a||South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi, consisting of the afdeelingen of Soenggoeminasa, Bonthain, Makassar, Bone, Parepare, Mandar, and Loewoe, Boetoeng en Laiwoei and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Makassar||Gowa Sultanate, Boetoeng Sultanate Lordship of Banggai, Lordship of Bone, Lordship of Loewoe, Lordship of Sidenreng, Lordship of Soppeng, Lordship of Wadjo, Lordship of Moena and other smaller states|
|Residentie Manado||Manado||Residency of Manado||1,138,665||n/a||Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo and North Sulawesi, consisting of the afdeelingen of Poso, Donggala, Gorontalo, Manado and Sangihe en Talaud eiland with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Manado||none|
In 1922 with the dissolution of Residentie Ternate to Residentie Amboina, Residentie Amboina was renamed to Residentie Molukken. In 1935 the Residentie was renamed to Gouvernement Molukken until the creation of Gouvernement Groote Oost in 1938, in which Gouvernement Molukken became residencie again.
|Modern area||Princely state(s)|
|Dutch name||Local name||Current English name|
|Afdeeling Ternate||Ternate||Afdeeling of Ternate||560,013||n/a||North Maluku||Ternate Sultanate, Tidore Sultanate, Djailolo Sultanate and Batjan Sultanate|
|Afdeeling Amboina||Ambon||Afdeeling of Amboina||560,013 (with Tual)||n/a||Maluku||at least a small state, State of Amahusu|
|Afdeeling Toeal||Tual||Afdeeling of Tual||0||n/a||Southeast Maluku||none|
|Afdeeling Nieuw-Guinea||(Dutch) New Guinea||Afdeeling of New Guinea||333,387(with South New-Guinea)||n/a||West Papua and Papua||none|
|Afdeeling Zuid Nieuw-Guinea||(Dutch) Southern New Guinea||Afdeeling of Southern New Guinea||0||n/a||Southern part of West Papua and Papua||State of Kaimana|
The Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) and the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force (ML-KNIL) were established in 1830 and 1915 respectively. Naval forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy were based in Surabaya, but were never part of the KNIL. The KNIL was a separate branch of the Royal Netherlands Army, commanded by the Governor-General and funded by the colonial budget. The KNIL was not allowed to recruit Dutch conscripts and had the nature of a 'Foreign Legion' recruiting not only Dutch volunteers, but many other European nationalities (especially German, Belgian and Swiss mercenaries). While most officers were Europeans, the majority of soldiers were indigenous Indonesians, the largest contingent of which were Javanese and Sundanese.
Dutch policy before the 1870s was to take full charge of strategic points and work out treaties with the local leaders elsewhere so they would remain in control and co-operate. The policy failed in Aceh, in northern Sumatra, where the sultan tolerated pirates who raided commerce in the Strait of Malacca. Britain was a protector of Aceh and it gave the Netherlands permission to eradicate the pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but across Aceh numerous local Muslim leaders mobilised and fought the Dutch in four decades of very expensive guerrilla war, with high levels of atrocities on both sides. Colonial military authorities tried to forestall a war against the population by means of a ‘strategy of awe’. When a guerrilla war did take place the Dutch used either a slow, violent occupation or a campaign of destruction.
By 1900 the archipelago was considered "pacified" and the KNIL was mainly involved with military police tasks. The nature of the KNIL changed in 1917 when the colonial government introduced obligatory military service for all male conscripts in the European legal class and in 1922 a supplemental legal enactment introduced the creation of a ‘Home guard’ (Dutch: Landstorm) for European conscripts older than 32. Petitions by Indonesian nationalists to establish military service for indigenous people were rejected. In July 1941 the Volksraad passed law creating a native militia of 18,000 by a majority of 43 to 4, with only the moderate Great Indonesia Party objecting. After the declaration of war with Japan, over 100,000 natives volunteered. The KNIL hastily and inadequately attempted to transform them into a modern military force able to protect the Dutch East Indies from Imperial Japanese invasion. On the eve of the Japanese invasion in December 1941, Dutch regular troops in the East Indies comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 men, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. During the Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42 the KNIL and the Allied forces were quickly defeated. All European soldiers, which in practice included all able bodied Indo-European males were interned by the Japanese as POW's. 25% of the POW's did not survive their internment.
Following World War II, a reconstituted KNIL joined with Dutch Army troops to re-establish colonial "law and order". Despite two successful military campaigns in 1947 and 1948, Dutch efforts to re-establish their colony failed and the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949. The KNIL was disbanded by 26 July 1950 with its indigenous personnel being given the option of demobilising or joining the Indonesian military. At the time of disbandment the KNIL numbered 65,000, of whom 26,000 were incorporated into the new Indonesian Army. The remainder were either demobilised or transferred to the Netherlands Army. Key officers in the Indonesian National Armed Forces that were former KNIL soldiers include: Suharto second president of Indonesia, A.H. Nasution, commander of the Siliwangi Division and Chief of Staff of the Indonesian army and A.E. Kawilarang founder of the elite special forces Kopassus.
Language and literatureEdit
Across the archipelago, hundreds of native languages are used, and Malay or Portuguese Creole, the existing languages of trade were adopted. Prior to 1870, when Dutch colonial influence was largely restricted to Java, Malay was used in government schools and training programs such that graduates could communicate with groups from other regions who immigrated to Java. The colonial government sought to standardise Malay based on the version from Riau and Malacca, and dictionaries were commissioned for governmental communication and schools for indigenous peoples. In the early 20th century, Indonesia's independence leaders adopted a form of Malay from Riau, and called it Indonesian. In the latter half of the 19th century, the rest of the archipelago, in which hundreds of language groups were used, was brought under Dutch control. In extending the native education program to these areas, the government stipulated this "standard Malay" as the language of the colony.
Dutch was not made the official language of the colony and was not widely used by the indigenous Indonesian population. The majority of legally acknowledged Dutchmen were bi-lingual Indo Eurasians. Dutch was only used by a limited educated elite, and in 1942, around two percent of the total population in the Dutch East Indies spoke Dutch including over 1 million indigenous Indonesians. A number of Dutch loan words are used in present-day Indonesian, particularly technical terms (see List of Dutch loan words in Indonesian). These words generally had no alternative in Malay and were adopted into the Indonesian vocabulary giving a linguistic insight into which concepts are part of the Dutch colonial heritage. Hendrik Maier of the University of California says that about a fifth of contemporary Indonesian language can be traced to Dutch.
Dutch language literature has been inspired by both colonial and post-colonial Indies from the Dutch Golden Age to the present day. It includes Dutch, Indo-European and Indonesian authors. Its subject matter thematically revolves around the Dutch colonial era, but also includes postcolonial discourse. Masterpieces of this genre include Multatuli's Max Havelaar: Or The Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company, Louis Couperus's Hidden Force, E. du Perron's Country of Origin, and Maria Dermoût's The Ten Thousand Things.
Most Dutch literature was written by Dutch and Indo-European authors, however, in the first half of the 20th century under the Ethical Policy, indigenous Indonesian authors and intellectuals came to the Netherlands to study and work. They wrote Dutch language literary works and published literature in literary reviews such as Het Getij, De Gemeenschap, Links Richten and Forum. By exploring new literary themes and focusing on indigenous protagonists, they drew attention to indigenous culture and the indigenous plight. Examples include the Javanese prince and poet Noto Soeroto, a writer and journalist, and the Dutch language writings of Soewarsih Djojopoespito, Chairil Anwar, Kartini, Sutan Sjahrir and Sukarno. Much of the postcolonial discourse in Dutch Indies literature has been written by Indo-European authors led by the "avant garde visionary" Tjalie Robinson, who is the best read Dutch author in contemporary Indonesia and second generation Indo-European immigrants like Marion Bloem.
The natural beauty of East Indies has inspired the works of artists and painters, that mostly capture the romantic scenes of colonial Indies. The term Mooi Indie (Dutch for "Beautiful Indies") was originally coined as the title of 11 reproductions of Du Chattel's watercolor paintings which depicted the scene of East Indies published in Amsterdam in 1930. The term became famous in 1939 after S. Sudjojono used it to mock the painters that merely depict all pretty things about Indies. Mooi Indie later would identified as the genre of painting that occurred during the colonial East Indies that capture the romantic depictions of the Indies as the main themes; mostly natural scenes of mountains, volcanoes, rice paddies, river valleys, villages, with scenes of native servants, nobles, and sometimes bare-chested native women. Some of the notable Mooi Indie painters are European artists: F.J. du Chattel, Manus Bauer, Nieuwkamp, Isaac Israel, PAJ Moojen, Carel Dake and Romualdo Locatelli; East Indies-born Dutch painters: Henry van Velthuijzen, Charles Sayers, Ernest Dezentje, Leonard Eland and Jan Frank; Native painters: Raden Saleh, Mas Pirngadi, Abdullah Surisubroto, Wakidi, Basuki Abdullah, Mas Soeryo Soebanto and Henk Ngantunk; and also Chinese painters: Lee Man Fong, Oei Tiang Oen and Siauw Tik Kwie. These painters usually exhibit their works in art galleries such as Bataviasche Kuntkringgebouw, Theosofie Vereeniging, Kunstzaal Kolff & Co and Hotel Des Indes.
Theatre and filmEdit
A total of 112 fictional films are known to have been produced in the Dutch East Indies between 1926 and the colony's dissolution in 1949. The earliest motion pictures, imported from abroad, were shown in late 1900, and by the early 1920s imported serials and fictional films were being shown, often with localised names. Dutch companies were also producing documentary films about the Indies to be shown in the Netherlands. The first locally produced film, Loetoeng Kasaroeng, was directed by L. Heuveldorp and released on 31 December 1926. Between 1926 and 1933 numerous other local productions were released. During the mid-1930s, production dropped as a result of the Great Depression. The rate of production declined again after the Japanese occupation beginning in early 1942, closing all but one film studio. The majority of films produced during the occupation were Japanese propaganda shorts. Following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945 and during the ensuing revolution several films were made, by both pro-Dutch and pro-Indonesian backers.
Generally films produced in the Indies dealt with traditional stories or were adapted from existing works. The early films were silent, with Karnadi Anemer Bangkong (Karnadi the Frog Contractor; 1930) generally considered the first talkie; later films would be in Dutch, Malay, or an indigenous language. All were black-and-white. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all films from before 1950 are lost. However, JB Kristanto's Katalog Film Indonesia (Indonesian Film Catalogue) records several as having survived at Sinematek Indonesia's archives, and Biran writes that several Japanese propaganda films have survived at the Netherlands Government Information Service.
Theatre plays by playwrights such as Victor Ido (1869–1948) were performed at the Schouwburg Weltevreden, now known as Gedung Kesenian Jakarta. A less elite form of theatre, popular with both European and indigenous people, were the travelling Indo theatre shows known as Komedie Stamboel, made popular by Auguste Mahieu (1865–1903).
The rich nature and culture of the Dutch East Indies attracted European intellectuals, scientists and researchers. Some notable scientists that conducted most of their important research in the East Indies archipelago are Teijsmann, Junghuhn, Eijkman, Dubois and Wallace. Many important art, culture and science institutions were established in Dutch East Indies. For example, the Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, (Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), the predecessor of the National Museum of Indonesia, was established in 1778 with the aim to promote research and publish findings in the field of arts and sciences, especially history, archaeology, ethnography and physics. The Bogor Botanical Gardens with Herbarium Bogoriense and Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense was a major centre for botanical research established in 1817, with the aim to study the flora and fauna of the archipelago.
Java Man was discovered by Eugène Dubois in 1891. The Komodo dragon was first described by Peter Ouwens in 1912, after an aeroplane crash accident in 1911 and rumours about living dinosaurs in Komodo Island in 1910. Vitamin B1 and its relation to beriberi disease was discovered by Eijkman during his work in the Indies.
The Dutch colonial families through their domestic servants and cooks were exposed to Indonesian cuisine, as the result they developed a taste for native tropical spices and dishes. A notable Dutch East Indies colonial dish is rijsttafel, the rice table that consists of 7 to 40 popular dishes from across the colony. More an extravagant banquet than a dish, the Dutch colonials introduced the rice table not only so they could enjoy a wide array of dishes at a single setting but also to impress visitors with the exotic abundance of their colony.
Through colonialism the Dutch introduced European dishes such as bread, cheese, barbecued steak and pancake. As the producer of cash crops; coffee and tea were also popular in the colonial East Indies. Bread, butter and margarine, sandwiches filled with ham, cheese or fruit jam, poffertjes, pannekoek and Dutch cheeses were commonly consumed by colonial Dutch and Indos during the colonial era. Some of the native upperclass ningrat (nobles) and a few educated native were exposed to European cuisine, and it was held with high esteem as the cuisine of upperclass elite of Dutch East Indies society. This led to the adoption and fusion of European cuisine into Indonesian cuisine. Some dishes which were created during the colonial era are Dutch influenced: they include selat solo (solo salad), bistik jawa (Javanese beef steak), semur (from Dutch smoor), sayur kacang merah (brenebon) and sop buntut. Cakes and cookies also can trace their origin to Dutch influences; such as kue bolu (tart), pandan cake, lapis legit (spekkoek), spiku (lapis Surabaya), klappertaart (coconut tart), and kaasstengels (cheese cookies). Kue cubit commonly found in front of schools and marketplaces are believed to be derived from poffertjes.
The 16th and 17th century arrival of European powers in Indonesia introduced masonry construction to Indonesia where previously timber and its by-products had been almost exclusively used. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Batavia was a fortified brick and masonry city. For almost two centuries, the colonialists did little to adapt their European architectural habits to the tropical climate. They built row houses which were poorly ventilated with small windows, which was thought as protection against tropical diseases coming from tropical air. Years later the Dutch learnt to adapt their architectural styles with local building features (long eaves, verandahs, porticos, large windows and ventilation openings), and the 18th century Dutch Indies country houses was one of the first colonial buildings to incorporate Indonesian architectural elements and adapt to the climate, the known as Indies Style.
From the end of the 19th century, significant improvements to technology, communications and transportation brought new wealth to Java. Modernistic buildings, including train stations, business hotels, factories and office blocks, hospitals and education institutions, were influenced by international styles. The early 20th century trend was for modernist influences—such as art-deco—being expressed in essentially European buildings with Indonesian trim. Practical responses to the environment carried over from the earlier Indies Style, included overhanging eaves, larger windows and ventilation in the walls, which gave birth to the New Indies Style. The largest stock of colonial era buildings are in the large cities of Java, such as Bandung, Jakarta, Semarang, and Surabaya. Notable architects and planners include Albert Aalbers, Thomas Karsten, Henri Maclaine Pont, J. Gerber and C.P.W. Schoemaker. In the first three decades of the 20th century, the Department of Public Works funded major public buildings and introduced a town planning program under which the main towns and cities in Java and Sumatra were rebuilt and extended.
A lack of development in the Great Depression, the turmoil of the Second World War and the Indonesia's independence struggle of the 1940s, and economic stagnation during the politically turbulent 1950s and 1960s, meant that much colonial architecture has been preserved through to recent decades. Colonial homes were almost always the preserve of the wealthy Dutch, Indonesian and Chinese elites, however the styles were often rich and creative combinations of two cultures, so much so that the homes remain sought after into the 21st century. Native architecture was arguably more influenced by the new European ideas than colonial architecture was influenced by Indonesian styles; and these Western elements continue to be a dominant influence on Indonesia's built environment today.
Within the colony of the Dutch East Indies, fashion played an important role to define ones' status and social class. The European colonials wore European fashion straight out of the Netherlands, or even Paris, while the natives wore their traditional clothings that are distinct in every regions. As the years progressed and the Dutch influence became stronger, many natives began mixing European styles within their traditional clothing. High-ranking natives within the colony as well as nobility, would wear European style suits with their batik sarongs for special occasions and even for everyday use. More and more native Indonesians began to dress more European. This of course came with the idea that those who wore European clothing were more progressive and open towards a European society and the etiquette that came with it. More and more the European influence was gaining precedence within native Indonesians. This probably stems from the fact that many natives were treated better if they wore European clothing. Their European counterparts acknowledged them, and that in turn was most likely a catalyst for adoption western clothing into traditional Indonesian clothing.
The fashion influences between colonials and natives was a reciprocal phenomenon. Just as the Europeans influences the natives, the natives too influenced the European colonials. For example, the thick European fabrics was considered too hot to wear in tropical climate. Thus, the light clothing of thin kebaya fabrics and the comfortable and easy to wear batik sarong are considered quite suitable for everyday clothing in hot and humid climate of the East Indies.
Later on in the history of the Dutch East Indies, as a new wave of Europeans were brought into the colony, many adopted the Indonesian styles, many even went so far as to wear traditional Javanese kebaya at home. Batik was also a big influence for the Dutch. The technique was so fascinating to them that they took the technique to their colonies in Africa where it was adopted with African patterns. For the most part, Europeans in the Dutch East Indies, stuck to traditional European styles of dressing. Fashion trends from Paris were still highly regarded and considered the epitome of style. Women wore dresses and skirts and men wore pants and shirts.
Colonial heritage in the NetherlandsEdit
Universities such as the Royal Leiden University founded in the 16th century have developed into leading knowledge centres about Southeast Asian and Indonesian studies. Leiden University has produced academics such as Colonial adviser Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje who specialised in native oriental (Indonesian) affairs, and it still has academics who specialise in Indonesian languages and cultures. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum, an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology.
The traditions of the KNIL are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army and the dedicated Bronbeek Museum, a former home for retired KNIL soldiers, exists in Arnhem to this day.
Many surviving colonial families and their descendants who moved back to the Netherlands after Independence tended to look back on the colonial era with a sense of the power and prestige they had in the colony, with such items as the 1970s book Tempo Doeloe (Old times) by author Rob Nieuwenhuys, and other books and materials that became quite common in the 1970s and 1980s. Moreover, since the 18th century Dutch literature has a large number of established authors, such as Louis Couperus, the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration. In fact one of the great masterpieces of Dutch literature is the book "Max Havelaar" written by Multatuli in 1860.
The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo (Eurasian), native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of 400 years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community. In Dutch they are referred to as Indo (short for Indo-European). Of the 296,200 so called Dutch 'repatriants' only 92,200 were expatriate Dutchmen born in the Netherlands.
Including their 2nd generation descendants, they are currently the largest foreign born group in the Netherlands. In 2008, the Dutch Census Bureau for Statistics (CBS) registered 387,000 first and second generation Indos living in the Netherlands. Although considered fully assimilated into Dutch society, as the main ethnic minority in the Netherlands, these 'Repatriants' have played a pivotal role in introducing elements of Indonesian culture into Dutch mainstream culture. Practically each town in the Netherlands will have a 'Toko' (Dutch Indonesian Shop) or Indonesian restaurant and many 'Pasar Malam' (Night market in Malay/Indonesian) fairs are organised throughout the year.
Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Dutch Cuisine. Rijsttafel, a colonial culinary concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and sateh are still very popular in the Netherlands.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Dick, Howard W. (2002). Surabaya City Of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900–2000 (Ohio RIS Southeast Asia Series): Howard Dick: 9780896802216: Amazon.com: Books. amazon.com. ISBN 978-0896802216.
- "Page:The New International Encyclopædia 1st ed. v. 18.djvu/816 - Wikisource, the free online library". en.wikisource.org. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- Friend (1942), Vickers (2003), Ricklefs (1991), Reid (1974), Taylor (2003).
- "The United Nations and Decolonization - Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945-1999)". United Nations. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Empires and Colonies. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Booth, Anne, et al. Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era (1990), Ch 8
- R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 118
- Robert Elson, The idea of Indonesia: A history (2008) pp 1-12
- Dagh-register gehouden int Casteel Batavia vant passerende daer ter plaetse als over geheel Nederlandts-India anno 1624–1629 [The official register at Castle Batavia, of the census of the Dutch East Indies]. VOC. 1624.
- Gouda, Frances. Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942 (1996) online Archived 9 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Taylor (2003)
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 27
- Vickers (2005), p. 10
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 110; Vickers (2005), p. 10
- *Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
- Luc Nagtegaal, Riding the Dutch Tiger: The Dutch East Indies Company and the Northeast Coast of Java, 1680–1743 (1996)
- Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 1-86373-635-2.
- Kumar, Ann (1997). Java. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. p. 44. ISBN 962-593-244-5.
- Ricklefs (1991), pp. 111–114
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 131
- Vickers (2005), p. 10; Ricklefs (1991), p. 131
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 142
- Friend (2003), p. 21
- Ricklefs (1991), pp. 138-139
- Vickers (2005), p. 13
- Vickers (2005), p. 14
- Reid (1974), p. 1.
- Jack Ford, "The Forlorn Ally—The Netherlands East Indies in 1942," War & Society (1993) 11#1 pp: 105-127.
- Herman Theodore Bussemaker, "Paradise in Peril: The Netherlands, Great Britain and the Defence of the Netherlands East Indies, 1940–41," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (2000) 31#1 pp: 115-136.
- Morison (1948), p. 191
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 195
- L., Klemen, 1999–2000, The Netherlands East Indies 1941–42, "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942 Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine".
- Shigeru Satō: War, nationalism, and peasants: Java under the Japanese occupation, 1942–1945 (1997), p. 43
- Japanese occupation of Indonesia
Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2007). "Indonesia :: Japanese occupation". Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
Though initially welcomed as liberators, the Japanese gradually established themselves as harsh overlords. Their policies fluctuated according to the exigencies of the war, but in general their primary object was to make the Indies serve Japanese war needs.
- Gert Oostindie and Bert Paasman (1998). "Dutch Attitudes towards Colonial Empires, Indigenous Cultures, and Slaves". Eighteenth-Century Studies. 31 (3): 349–355. doi:10.1353/ecs.1998.0021.; Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Vickers (2005), page 85
- Ricklefs (1991), p. 199
- Cited in: Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)
- Dick, et al. (2002)
- Ricklefs (1991), p 119
- Taylor (2003), p. 240
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Indonesia's Infrastructure Problems: A Legacy From Dutch Colonialism". The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012.
- Dick, et al. (2002), p. 95
- Vickers (2005), p. 20
- Vickers (2005), p. 16
- Vickers (2005), p. 18
- Dick, et al. (2002), p. 97
- ten Horn-van Nispen, Marie-Louise; Ravesteijn, Wim (2009). "The road to an empire: Organisation and technology of road construction in the Dutch East Indies, 1800–1940". Journal of Transport History. 10 (1): 40–57. doi:10.7227/TJTH.30.1.5.
- Ravesteijn, Wim (2007). "Between Globalization and Localization: The Case of Dutch Civil Engineering in Indonesia, 1800–1950". Comparative Technology Transfer and Society. 5 (1): 32–64 [quote p. 32]. doi:10.1353/ctt.2007.0017.
- Furnivall, J.S. (1967) . Netherlands India: a Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. Cited in Vicker, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.
- Beck, Sanderson, (2008) South Asia, 1800-1950 - World Peace Communications ISBN 0-9792532-3-3, ISBN 978-0-9792532-3-2 - By 1930 more European women had arrived in the colony, and they made up 113,000 out of the 240,000 Europeans.
- Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.36 ISBN 9789070990923
- Van Nimwegen, Nico (2002). "64". De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders [The demography of the Dutch in the East Indies] (PDF). The Hague: NIDI. p. 35. ISBN 9789070990923. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011.
- Vickers (2005), p. 9
- Reid (1974), p. 170, 171
- Cornelis, Willem, Jan (2008). De Privaatrechterlijke Toestand: Der Vreemde Oosterlingen Op Java En Madoera ( The private law situation: Java and Madoera) (PDF). Bibiliobazaar. ISBN 978-0-559-23498-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
- Cribb, Robert, 'Development policy in the early 20th century [Indonesia]' in Jan-Paul Dirkse, Frans Hüsken and Mario Rutten, eds, Development and social welfare: Indonesia’s experiences under the New Order (1993)  Archived 23 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Taylor (2003), p. 286
- Taylor (2003), p. 287
- TU Delft Colonial influence remains strong in Indonesia[permanent dead link]
- Note: In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), Universitas Indonesia was the best university in Indonesia.
- "URAP - University Ranking by Academic Performance". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 108
- R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 140
- R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, pp. 87, 295
- Vickers (2005), p. 15
- Harry J. Benda, S.L. van der Wal, "De Volksraad en de staatkundige ontwikkeling van Nederlandsch-Indië: The Peoples Council and the political development of the Netherlands-Indies." (With an introduction and survey of the documents in English). (Publisher: J.B. Wolters, Leiden, 1965.)
- Note: The European legal class was not solely based on race restrictions and included Dutch people, other Europeans, but also native Indo-Europeans, Indo-Chinese and indigenous people.
- "Virtueel Indi". Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
- Note: Adat law communities were formally established throughout the archipelago e.g. Minangkabau. See: Cribb, R.B., Kahin, p. 140
- http://alterisk.ru/lj/IndonesiaLegalOverview.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Note: The female 'Boeloe' prison in Semarang, which housed both European and indigenous women, had separate sleeping rooms with cots and mosquito nets for elite indigenous women and women in the European legal class. Sleeping on the floor like the female peasantry was considered an intolerable aggravation of the legal sanction. See: Baudet, H., Brugmans I.J. Balans van beleid. Terugblik op de laatste halve eeuw van Nederlands-Indië. (Publisher: Van Gorcum, Assen, 1984)
- Baudet, H., Brugmans I.J. Balans van beleid. Terugblik op de laatste halve eeuw van Nederlands-Indië. (Publisher: Van Gorcum, Assen, 1984) P.76, 121, 130
- Cribb, R.B., Kahin, pp. 140 & 405
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), sourced from Cribb, R. B (2010), Digital atlas of indonesian history, Nias, ISBN 978-87-91114-66-3 from the earlier volume Cribb, R. B; Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (2000), Historical atlas of Indonesia, Curzon ; Singapore : New Asian Library, ISBN 978-0-7007-0985-4
- Blakely, Allison (2001). Blacks in the Dutch World: The Evolution of Racial Imagery in a Modern Society. Indiana University Press. p. 15 ISBN 0-253-31191-8
- Cribb, R.B. (2004) ‘Historical dictionary of Indonesia.’ Scarecrow Press, Lanham, USA.ISBN 0 8108 4935 6, p. 221 [https://web.archive.org/web/20160423234130/https://books.google.com/books?id=SawyrExg75cC&dq=number+of+javanese+in+KNIL&source=gbs_navlinks_s Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine]; [Note: The KNIL statistics of 1939 show at least 13,500 Javanese and Sundanese under arms compared to 4,000 Ambonese soldiers]. Source: Netherlands Ministry of Defense Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Nicholas Tarling, ed. (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Cambridge U.P. p. 104. ISBN 9780521355063. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Groen, Petra (2012). "Colonial warfare and military ethics in the Netherlands East Indies, 1816–1941". Journal of Genocide Research. 14 (3): 277–296. doi:10.1080/14623528.2012.719365.
- Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-33 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
- Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-36 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
- John Sydenham Furnivall, Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948), 236.
- Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Dutch East Indies 1941-1942". Dutch East Indies Campaign website. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- "Last Post – the End of Empire in the Far East", John Keay ISBN 0-7195-5589-2
- "plechtigheden in Djakarta bij de opheffing van het KNIL Polygoon 1950 3 min. 20;embed=1 Video footage showing the official ceremony disbanding the KNIL". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- John Keegan, page 314 "World Armies", ISBN 0-333-17236-1
- Taylor (2003), p. 288
- Sneddon, james (2003)The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society.(UNSW Press, Sydney, 2003) P.87-89  Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Taylor (2003), p. 289
- Groeneboer, Kees. Weg tot het Westen (Road to the West).; Corn, Charles (1999) [First publicshed 1998]. The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade. Kodansha America. p. 203. ISBN 1-56836-249-8.
The Portuguese language rolled more easily off Malay tongues than did Dutch or English. Ironically, if any European tongue was the language of merchant intercourse, even in Batavia, it was Portuguese.
- Meijer, Hans (2004) In Indie geworteld. Publisher: Bert bakker. ISBN 90-351-2617-3. P.33, 35, 36, 76, 77, 371, 389 
- Groeneboer, K (1993) Weg tot het westen. Het Nederlands voor Indie 1600–1950. Publisher: KITLEV, Leiden.
- Maier, H.M.J. "A Hidden Language – Dutch in Indonesia". Institute of European Studies, University of California. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Nieuwenhuys (1999) pp. 126, 191, 225.
- Note: In December 1958 American Time magazine praised the translation of Maria Dermoût's The Ten Thousand Things, and named it one of the best books of the year, among several (other) iconic literary works of 1958: 'Breakfast at Tiffany´s' by Truman Capote, 'Doctor Zhivago' by Pasternak and 'Lolita' by Nabokov. See: Official Maria Dermout Website. Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- 'International Conference on Colonial and Post-Colonial Connections in Dutch Literature.' University of California, Berkeley, Website, 2011. Archived 13 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 24 September 2011
- Nieuwenhuys, Rob. ‘Oost-Indische spiegel. Wat Nederlandse schrijvers en dichters over Indonesië hebben geschreven vanaf de eerste jaren der Compagnie tot op heden.’, (Publisher: Querido, Amsterdam, 1978) p.555  Archived 28 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Error". Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Biran 2009, p. 27.
- Biran 2009, p. 35.
- Biran 2009, p. 54.
- Biran 2009, pp. 61, 68.
- Biran 2009, p. 145.
- Biran 2009, pp. 319, 332.
- Biran 2009, pp. 334, 340.
- Biran 2009, pp. 367–370.
- Kahin 1952, p. 445.
- Heider (1991), p. 15
- Prayogo 2009, p. 14.
- Heider (1991), p. 14
- Biran 2009, p. 351.
- Geotravel Research Center. "The rise and fall of Indonesia's rice table". Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- Karin Engelbrecht. "Dutch Food Influences - History of Dutch Food - Culinary Influences on the Dutch Kitchen". About. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- Schoppert (1997), pp. 38–39
- Dawson, B., Gillow, J., The Traditional Architecture of Indonesia, p. 8, 1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, ISBN 0-500-34132-X
- W. Wangsadinata and T.K. Djajasudarma (1995). "Architectural Design Consideration for Modern Buildings in Indonesia" (PDF). INDOBEX Conf. on Building Construction Technology for the Future: Construction Technology for Highrises & Intelligence Buildings. Jakarta. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
- Schoppert (1997), pp. 72–77
- Schoppert (1997), pp. 104–105
- Schoppert (1997), pp. 102–105
- VIckers (2005), p. 24
- Schoppert (1997), p. 105
- Pentasari, R (2007). Chic in kebaya: catatan inspiratif untuk tampil anggun berkebaya. Jakarta: Esensi.
- Legêne, S.,, & Dijk, J. V (2011). The Netherlands East Indies at the Tropenmuseum: a colonial history. Amsterdam: KIT. p. 146.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Indonesian Batik - intangible heritage - Culture Sector - UNESCO". www.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- To this day the Dutch Royal family is in fact the wealthiest family of the Netherlands, one of the foundations of its wealth was the colonial trade."In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals". Forbes.com. 30 August 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Some of the university faculties still include: Indonesian Languages and Cultures; Southeast Asia and Oceania Languages and Cultures; Cultural Anthropology
- Note: 1927 garden party, at the country estate Arendsdorp on the Wassenaarse weg near The Hague, for the benefit of the victims of the storm disaster of 2 June 1927 in the Netherlands. The market is opened by the minister of Colonies dr. J.C. Koningsberger.
- Nieuwenhuys, Robert, (1973) Tempo doeloe : fotografische documenten uit het oude Indie, 1870–1914 [door] E. Breton de Nijs (pseud. of Robert Nieuwenhuys) Amsterdam : Querido, ISBN 90-214-1103-2 – noting that the era wasn't fixed by any dates – noting the use of Tio, Tek Hong,(2006) Keadaan Jakarta tempo doeloe : sebuah kenangan 1882–1959 Depok : Masup Jakarta ISBN 979-25-7291-0
- Nieuwenhuys (1999)
- Etty, Elsbeth literary editor for the NRC handelsblad "Novels: Coming to terms with Calvinism, colonies and the war." (NRC Handelsblad. July 1998)  Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008), ISBN 9971-69-373-9  Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Willems, Wim, ’De uittocht uit Indie 1945–1995’ (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) pp.12–13 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
- "Official CBS website containing all Dutch demographic statistics". Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- De Vries, Marlene. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. (Amsterdam University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)  Archived 7 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine P.369
- Startpagina B.V. "Indisch-eten Startpagina, verzameling van interessante links". Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
- Biran, Misbach Yusa (2009). Sejarah Film 1900–1950: Bikin Film di Jawa [History of Film 1900–1950: Making Films in Java] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Komunitas Bamboo working with the Jakarta Art Council. ISBN 978-979-3731-58-2.
- Cribb, R.B., Kahin, A. Historical dictionary of Indonesia (Scarecrow Press, 2004)
- Dick, Howard, et al. The Emergence of a National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000 (U. of Hawaii Press, 2002) online edition
- Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.
- Heider, Karl G (1991). Indonesian Cinema: National Culture on Screen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1367-3.
- Reid, Anthony (1974). The Indonesian National Revolution 1945–1950. Melbourne: Longman Pty Ltd. ISBN 0-582-71046-4.
- Nieuwenhuys, Rob Mirror of the Indies: A History of Dutch Colonial Literature - translated from Dutch by E. M. Beekman (Publisher: Periplus, 1999) Google Books
- Prayogo, Wisnu Agung (2009). "Sekilas Perkembangan Perfilman di Indonesia" [An Overview of the Development of Film in Indonesia]. Kebijakan Pemerintahan Orde Baru Terhadap Perfilman Indonesia Tahun 1966–1980 [New Order Policy Towards Indonesian Films (1966–1980)] (Bachelor's of History Thesis) (in Indonesian). University of Indonesia.
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A Modern History of Indonesia, 2nd edition. MacMillan. chapters 10–15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X.
- Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
- Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.
- Booth, Anne, et al. Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era (1990)
- Borschberg, Peter, The Dutch East Indies (2016), DOI: 10.1002/9781118455074.wbeoe276
- Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008), ISBN 9971-69-373-9 
- Bosma, Ulbe. Emigration: Colonial circuits between Europe and Asia in the 19th and early 20th century, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: 23 May 2011.
- Colombijn, Freek, and Thomas Lindblad, eds. Roots of violence in Indonesia: Contemporary violence in historical perspective (Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002)
- Dick, Howard, et al. The Emergence of a National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000 (U. of Hawaii Press, 2002) online edition
- Elson, Robert. The idea of Indonesia: A history (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
- Braudel, Fernand, The perspective of the World, vol III in Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
- Furnivall, J. S. (1944). Netherlands India: A Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge U.P. p. viii. ISBN 9781108011273., comprehensive coverage
- Gouda, Frances. Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942 (1996) online
- Nagtegaal, Luc. Riding the Dutch Tiger: The Dutch East Indies Company and the Northeast Coast of Java, 1680–1743 (1996) 250pp
- Robins, Nick. The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational (2006) excerpt and text search
- Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: Europeans and Eurasians in Colonial Indonesia (1983)
- Lindblad, J. Thomas (1989). "The Petroleum Industry in Indonesia before the Second World War". Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies. 25 (2): 53–77.
- Panikkar, K. M. (1953). Asia and Western dominance, 1498-1945, by K.M. Panikkar. London: G. Allen and Unwin.
Media related to Dutch East Indies at Wikimedia Commons
- 11 Dutch Indies objects in 'The European Library Harvest'
- Cribb, Robert, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History 
- Historical Documents of the Dutch Parliament 1814–1995
- Parallel and Divergent Aspects of British Rule in the Raj, French Rule in Indochina, Dutch Rule in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), and American Rule in the Philippines
- Yasuo Uemura, "The Sugar Estates in Besuki and the Depression" Hiroshima Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, Vol.4 page.30-78
- Yasuo Uemura, "The Depression and the Sugar Industry in Surabaya" Hiroshima Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, Vol.3 page.1-54
- . Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.