|45th President of the United States|
|Assumed office |
January 20, 2017
|Vice President||Mike Pence|
|Preceded by||Barack Obama|
Donald John Trump
June 14, 1946
Queens, New York City
|Political party||Republican (1987–1999, 2009–2011, 2012–present)|
|Alma mater||The Wharton School (BS in Econ.)|
|Net worth||US$3.1 billion (March 2018)[a]|
|Awards||List of honors and awards|
Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School. He was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, and expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products. He managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion.
Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries. His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. He became the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, and the fifth to have won the election while losing the popular vote.[b] His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist.
During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which also rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge. He partially repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, and negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization. He successfully nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh.
After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, the Justice Department appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with investigating links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference, and any matters arising from the probe. The ongoing investigation has led to guilty pleas by several Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, and tax fraud. Trump has repeatedly denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt".
Family and personal life
Early life and education
Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the Queens borough of New York City. His parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, and Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, and attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University. After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at the family business, Elizabeth Trump & Son. He graduated in May 1968 with a BSc in economics.
While in college from 1964 to 1968, Trump obtained four student deferments from serving in the military. In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, after graduating from college, was briefly classified as eligible to serve by a local draft board. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment which he later attributed to spurs in both heels, and classified as 1-Y: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number which would have given him a low probability to be called to military service even without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F, disqualifying him from service.
Ancestry and parents
Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of Kallstadt in the Palatinate on his father's side, and from the Outer Hebrides in Scotland on his mother's side. All of his grandparents and his mother were born in Europe.
Trump's paternal grandfather, Frederick Trump, first immigrated to the United States in 1885 at the age of 16 and became a citizen in 1892. He amassed a fortune operating boomtown restaurants and boarding houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of Canada during its gold rush. On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and married her in 1902. The couple permanently settled in New York in 1905. Frederick died from influenza during the 1918 pandemic.
Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in the Bronx. Fred started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after his father's death. Their company, "E. Trump & Son",[c] founded in 1923, was primarily active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Fred eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments. In spite of his German ancestry, "Fred Trump sought to pass himself off as Swedish amid anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II." Donald Trump "reaffirmed the myth" in The Art of the Deal.
Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Tong, Lewis, Scotland. At age 18 in 1930, she immigrated to New York, where she worked as a maid. Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.
Wives, siblings, and descendants
Trump has five children by three marriages, as well as nine grandchildren. In 1977, Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, in a ceremony performed by the Reverend Norman Vincent Peale. They had three children: Donald Jr. (born 1977), Ivanka (born 1981), and Eric (born 1984). Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988. The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples. In October 1993, Maples gave birth to Trump's daughter, who was named Tiffany in honor of high-end retailer Tiffany & Company. Maples and Trump were married two months later in December 1993. They divorced in 1999, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in California.
Having first met in 1998, Trump married his third wife, Slovenian model Melania Knauss, at Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Palm Beach, Florida, in 2005. In 2006, she gained United States citizenship and gave birth to a son, Barron. Melania became First Lady when Trump took office as president in January 2017.
Upon his inauguration, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his two adult sons, Eric and Don Jr. His daughter Ivanka resigned from the Trump Organization and moved to Washington, D.C., with her husband Jared Kushner. She serves as an assistant to the president, and he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.
Trump is a Presbyterian. His ancestors were Lutheran on his paternal grandfather's side in Germany and Presbyterian on his mother's side in Scotland. His parents married in a Manhattan Presbyterian church in 1936. As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, where he had his confirmation. In the 1970s, his parents joined the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, part of the Reformed Church. The pastor at Marble, Norman Vincent Peale, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993. In August 2015 Trump told reporters, "I am Presbyterian Protestant. I go to Marble Collegiate Church," adding that he attends many different churches because he travels a lot. The Marble Collegiate Church then issued a statement noting that Trump and his family have a "longstanding history" with the church, but that he "is not an active member".
Trump said he was "not sure" whether he ever asked God for forgiveness, stating "If I do something wrong, I just try and make it right. I don't bring God into that picture." He said he tries to take Holy Communion as often as possible because it makes him "feel cleansed". While campaigning, Trump referred to The Art of the Deal as his second favorite book after the Bible, saying, "Nothing beats the Bible." The New York Times reported that evangelical Christians nationwide thought "that his heart was in the right place, that his intentions for the country were pure."
Trump has associations with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called his "closest spiritual confidant." In 2015, he released a list of religious advisers, including James Dobson, Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, Michele Bachmann, Robert Jeffress, and others.
Trump does not drink alcohol, a reaction to his older brother Fred Trump Jr.'s alcoholism and early death. He has stated that he has never smoked cigarettes or consumed drugs, including marijuana. In December 2015, Trump's personal physician, Harold Bornstein, released a superlative-laden letter of health which stated that Trump's "physical strength and stamina are extraordinary." Bornstein later said that Trump himself had dictated the contents. A follow-up medical report showed Trump's blood pressure, liver and thyroid functions to be in normal ranges, and that he takes a statin. In January 2018, Trump was examined by White House physician Ronny Jackson, who stated that he was in excellent health and that his cardiac assessment revealed no medical issues, although his weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended. Several outside cardiologists commented that Trump's weight, lifestyle, and LDL cholesterol level ought to have raised serious concerns about his cardiac health.
Trump was listed on the initial Forbes List of wealthy individuals in 1982 as having a share of his family's estimated $200 million net worth. His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995, and reportedly obliged him to borrow from his siblings' trusts in 1993. In its 2018 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $3.1 billion[a] (766th in the world, 248th in the U.S.) making him one of the richest politicians in American history. During the three years since Trump announced his presidential run in 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth declined 31% and his ranking fell 138 spots. When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth over $50 million, yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million. Trump reported hundreds of millions of dollars of yearly income from 2014 to 2018. Trump stated in a 2007 deposition, "My net worth fluctuates, and it goes up and down with markets and with attitudes and with feelings, even my own feelings."
Journalist Jonathan Greenberg reported in April 2018 that Trump, using a pseudonym "John Barron," called him in 1984 to falsely assert he then owned "in excess of 90 percent" of the Trump family's business in an effort to secure a higher ranking on the Forbes 400 list of wealthy Americans.
Trump has often said that he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father, and that he had to pay it back with interest. In October 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump "was a millionaire by age 8", borrowed at least $60 million from his father, and largely failed to reimburse him, and had received $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father's business empire over his lifetime. According to the report, Trump and his family committed tax fraud, which a lawyer for Trump denied; the tax department of New York says it is "vigorously pursuing all appropriate avenues of investigation" into it. Analyses by The Economist and The Washington Post have concluded that Trump's investments have under-performed the stock market. Forbes estimated in October 2018 that the value of Trump's personal brand licensing business had declined by 88% since 2015, to $3 million.
In 1968, Trump began his career at his father Fred's real estate development company, E. Trump & Son, which, among other interests, owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs. Trump worked for his father to revitalize the Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, which the elder Trump had bought in 1964. The management of the property was sued for racial discrimination in 1969; the suit "was quietly settled at Fred Trump's direction." The Trumps sold the property in 1972, with vacancy on the rise.
When his father became chairman of the board in 1971, Trump was promoted to president of the company and renamed it The Trump Organization. In 1973, he and his father drew wider attention when the Justice Department contended in a lawsuit that their company systematically discriminated against African Americans who wished to rent apartments. The Department alleged that the Trump Organization had screened out people based on race and not low income as the Trumps had stated. Under an agreement reached in 1975, the Trumps made no admission of wrongdoing and made the Urban League an intermediary for qualified minority applicants. Trump's attorney at the time was Roy Cohn, who valued both positive and negative publicity, and responded to attacks with forceful counterattacks; Trump later emulated Cohn's style.
In 1978, Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by purchasing a 50 percent stake in the derelict Commodore Hotel, located next to Grand Central Terminal. The purchase was funded largely by a $70 million construction loan that was guaranteed jointly by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain. When the remodeling was finished, the hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel.
The same year, Trump obtained the rights to develop Trump Tower, a 58-story, 664-foot-high (202 m) skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan. To make way for the new building, a crew of undocumented Polish workers demolished the historic Bonwit Teller store, including art deco features that had initially been marked for preservation. The building was completed in 1983 and houses both the primary penthouse condominium residence of Trump and the headquarters of The Trump Organization. Architectural critic Paul Goldberger said in 1983 that he was surprised to find the tower's atrium was "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in New York in some years".
Repairs on the Wollman Rink in Central Park, built in 1955, were started in 1980 by a general contractor unconnected to Trump, with an expected 2 1⁄2-year construction schedule, but were not completed by 1986. Trump took over the project, completed it in three months for $1.95 million, which was $775,000 less than the initial budget, and then operated the rink for one year with some profits going to charity in exchange for the rink's concession rights. According to journalist Joyce Purnick, Trump's "Wollman success was also the stuff of a carefully crafted, self-promotional legend."
In 1988, Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for $407 million and appointed his wife Ivana to manage its operation. Trump invested $50 million to restore the building, which he called "the Mona Lisa". According to hotel expert Thomas McConnell, the Trumps boosted it from a three-star to a four-star ranking. They sold it in 1995, by which time Ivana was no longer involved in the hotel's day-to-day operations.
In 1994, Trump's company refurbished the Gulf and Western Building on Columbus Circle with design and structural enhancements turning it into a 44-story luxury residential and hotel property known as Trump International Hotel and Tower.
In 1996, Trump acquired the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, which was a vacant seventy-one story skyscraper on Wall Street. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street. In 1997, he began construction on Riverside South, which he dubbed Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. He and the other investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for $1.8 billion in 2005 in what was then the biggest residential sale in the history of New York City. From 1994 to 2002, Trump owned a 50 percent share of the Empire State Building. He intended to rename it "Trump Empire State Building Tower Apartments" if he had been able to boost his share. In 2001, Trump completed Trump World Tower. In 2002, Trump acquired the former Hotel Delmonico, which was renovated and reopened in 2004 as the Trump Park Avenue; the building consisted of 35 stories of luxury condominiums.
Palm Beach estate
In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida, for $10 million, $7 million for the real estate and $3 million for the furnishings. His initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he was able to obtain the property for the lower price after a real-estate market "slump". The home was built in the 1920s by heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post. After her death, her heirs unsuccessfully tried to donate the property to the government before putting it up for sale. In addition to using a wing of the estate as a home, Trump turned Mar-a-Lago into a private club. In order to join, prospective members had to pay an initiation fee and annual dues. The initiation fee was $100,000 until 2016; it was doubled to $200,000 in January 2017.
Atlantic City casinos
After New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, Trump traveled to Atlantic City to explore new business opportunities. Seven years later, he opened Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino; the project was built by Trump with financing from the Holiday Corporation, who also managed its operation. It was renamed "Trump Plaza" soon after it opened. The casino's poor financial results exacerbated disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corp., which led to Trump's paying $70 million in May 1986 to buy out their interest in the property. Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million; when completed in 1985, that hotel and casino became Trump Castle, and Trump's wife Ivana managed that property until 1988.
Trump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal, in 1988 while it was under construction, through a complex transaction with Merv Griffin and Resorts International. It was completed at a cost of $1.1 billion and opened in April 1990. The project was financed with $675 million in junk bonds and was a major gamble by Trump. The project underwent debt restructuring the following year, leaving Trump with 50 percent ownership. Facing "enormous debt", he gave up control of his money-losing airline, Trump Shuttle, and sold his 282-foot (86 m) megayacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.
In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary, Indiana. THCR purchased Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent bankruptcy restructuring in 2004 and 2009, leaving Trump with 10 percent ownership in the Trump Taj Mahal and other Trump casino properties. Trump remained chairman of THCR until 2009.
As of December 2016[update], the Trump Organization owns or operates 18 golf course and golf resorts in the United States and abroad. According to Trump's FEC personal financial disclosure, his 2015 golf and resort revenue amounted to $382 million, while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.
Trump began acquiring and constructing golf courses in 1999; his first property was the Trump International Golf Club, West Palm Beach in Florida. By 2007, he owned four courses around the U.S. Following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, he began purchasing existing golf courses and re-designing them. His use of these courses during his presidency was controversial. Despite frequently criticizing his predecessor Barack Obama for his numerous golf outings, Trump golfed 11 times during his first eight weeks in office. According to CNN, Trump visited Trump-owned golf courses 91 times in 2017, although the White House does not disclose whether or not the president actually played on each of those visits.
Branding and licensing
The Trump Organization expanded its business into branding and management by licensing the Trump name for a large number of building projects that are owned and operated by other people and companies. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, The Trump Organization expanded its footprint beyond New York with the branding and management of various developers' hotel towers around the world. These included projects in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City, Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-branded buildings in Dubai, Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.
The Trump name has also been licensed for various consumer products and services, including foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings. In 2011, Forbes' financial experts estimated the value of the Trump brand at $200 million. Trump disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about $3 billion. According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than 50 licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies. The Post reported in April 2018 that — of the 19 consumer goods companies Trump said in 2015 were licensing his name — only two continue to do so, in Panama and Turkey.
Lawsuits and bankruptcies
As of April 2018[update], Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today. As of 2016[update], he or one of his companies had been the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.
Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, although in 1990 he came within one missed bank loan payment of doing so, agreeing to a deal that temporarily ceded management control of his company to his banks and put him on a spending allowance. Trump claimed to have initiated this deal with his banks as he saw the downturn in the real estate market, but bankers involved in the matter stated they initiated the negotiations before Trump had realized there was a problem. His hotel and casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds. Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws – they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt. The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).
During the 1980s, more than 70 banks had lent Trump $4 billion, but in the aftermath of his corporate bankruptcies of the early 1990s, most major banks declined to lend to him, with a notable exception of Deutsche Bank.
After Trump took over the family real estate firm in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization, he expanded its real estate operations and ventured into other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.
In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals—an American football team that played in the United States Football League (USFL). After the 1985 season, the league folded largely due to Trump's strategy of moving games to a fall schedule where they competed with the NFL for audience, and trying to force a merger with the NFL by bringing an antitrust lawsuit against the organization.
Trump operated golf courses in several countries. He hosted several boxing matches at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, including Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael Spinks. He also acted as a financial advisor to Mike Tyson. In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia.
From 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe pageants. The pageants include Miss USA and Miss Teen USA. His management of this business involved his family members—daughter Ivanka once hosted Miss Teen USA. He became dissatisfied with how CBS scheduled the pageants, and took both Miss Universe and Miss USA to NBC in 2002. In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work as producer of Miss Universe.
Following Trump's controversial statements about illegal Mexican immigrants during his 2015 presidential campaign kickoff speech, NBC ended its business relationship with him, stating that it would no longer air the Miss Universe or Miss USA pageants on its networks. In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization and then sold the entire company to the WME/IMG talent agency.
Trump University was a for-profit education company that was founded by Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny. The company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500 and $35,000 per course. In 2005, New York State authorities notified the operation that its use of the word "university" was misleading and violated state law. After a second such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the "Trump Entrepreneurial Institute". Trump was also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.
Ronald Schnackenberg, a sales manager for Trump University, said in a testimony that he was reprimanded for not trying harder to sell a $35,000 real estate class to a couple who could not afford it. Schnackenberg said that he believed "Trump University was a fraudulent scheme" which "preyed upon the elderly and uneducated to separate them from their money."
In 2013, New York State filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers. In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to Trump University; they named Trump personally as well as his companies. During the presidential campaign, Trump criticized presiding Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel, alleging bias in his rulings because of his Mexican heritage. Shortly after Trump won the presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases, whereby Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any wrongdoing.
The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundation that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal. The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump, who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.
The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups. In 2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the New York–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000). From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of WWE, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007.
In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion. Also in 2016, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the Trump Foundation that the foundation appeared to be in violation of New York laws regarding charities, ordering it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York. A Trump spokesman called the Attorney General's investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with [his] role as President." According to an IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intended to shut down and distribute its assets (about $970,000) to other charities. However, the New York Attorney General's office had to complete their ongoing investigation before the foundation could legally shut down, and in June 2018 they filed a civil suit against the foundation for $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties. The suit names Trump himself as well as his adult children Donald Jr., Eric, and Ivanka.
Conflicts of interest
Before being inaugurated as president, Trump moved his businesses into a revocable trust run by his eldest sons and a business associate. According to ethics experts, as long as Trump continues to profit from his businesses, the measures taken by Trump do not help to avoid conflicts of interest. Because Trump would have knowledge of how his administration's policies would affect his businesses, ethics experts recommend that Trump sell off his businesses. While Trump has said that his organization would eschew "new foreign deals", the Trump Organization has since pursued expansions of its operations in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic. Multiple lawsuits have been filed alleging that Trump is violating the emoluments clause of the United States Constitution, which forbids presidents from taking money from foreign governments, due to his business interests; they argue that these interests allow foreign governments to influence him. Previous presidents in the modern era have either divested their holdings or put them in blind trusts, and he is the first president to be sued over the emoluments clause. A suit, D.C. and Maryland v. Trump, brought in June 2017 by the attorneys general of Maryland and the District of Columbia, cleared three judicial hurdles to proceed to the discovery phase during 2018, with prosecutors issuing 38 subpoenas to Trump's businesses and cabinet departments in December before the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a stay days later at the behest of the Justice Department, pending hearings in March 2019.
Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987 was Trump: The Art of the Deal, in which Trump is credited as co-author with Tony Schwartz, who has stated that he did all the writing for the book. It reached the top of the New York Times Best Seller list, stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list for 48 weeks. According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful dealmaker and tycoon." Trump's published writings shifted post-2000 from stylized memoirs to financial tips and political opinion.
Film and television
In 1988 and 1989, Trump hosted WrestleMania IV and V at Boardwalk Hall, and he has been an active participant in several World Wrestling shows. In 2013, he was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame at Madison Square Garden for his contributions to the promotion.
In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a one-year management job with the Trump Organization; applicants were successively eliminated from the game with the catchphrase "You're fired". He went on to be co-host of The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities.
In February 2015, Trump stated that he was "not ready" to sign on for another season of the show because of the possibility of a presidential run. Despite this, NBC announced they were going ahead with production of a 15th season. In June, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, "Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."
Trump has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television series, including as the father of one of the characters in The Little Rascals. He performed a song with Megan Mullally at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2005.
Radio and television commentary
Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show on talk radio. Trump also had his own short-form talk radio program called Trumped! (one to two minutes on weekdays) from 2004 to 2008. In 2011, Trump was given a weekly unpaid guest commentator spot on Fox & Friends that continued until he started his presidential candidacy in 2015.
Presidential approval polls taken during the first ten months of Trump's term have shown him to be the least popular U.S. president in the history of modern opinion polls. A Pew Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a median of just 22 percent has confidence in Trump to do the right thing when it comes to international affairs". This compares to a median of 64 percent rate of confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama. Trump received a higher rating in only two countries: Russia and Israel. An August 2017 POLITICO/Morning consult poll found on some measures "that majorities of voters have low opinions of his character and competence". By December 2018, Trump's approval ratings, averaged over many polls, stood at roughly 42%, two points below Obama's 44% at the same time in his presidency, and one point above Ronald Reagan. Trump's two-year average Gallup approval rating was the lowest of any president since World War II.
Trump is the only elected president who did not place first on Gallup's poll of men Americans most admired in his first year in office, coming in second behind Obama. The Gallup poll near the end of Trump's second year in office named him the second most admired man in America – behind Obama – for the fourth consecutive year.
As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks. Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post. By Trump's 730th day in office, the Post's tally exceeded 8,000 false or misleading claims, and—in the seven weeks leading up to the midterm elections—it had risen to an average of 30 per day from 4.9 during his first 100 days in office. The Post found that Trump averaged 15 false statements per day during 2018.
Trump has a history of making racially controversial remarks and taking actions that are perceived as racially motivated. In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters. He was accused of racism for insisting that a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger attack, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. He continued to maintain this position as late as 2016.
Starting in 2011, Trump was a major proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama was born in Kenya, and questioned his eligibility to serve as president. Trump later took credit for pushing the White House to release the "long-form" birth certificate from Hawaii, and he stated during his presidential campaign that his stance had made him "very popular". In September 2016, he publicly acknowledged that Obama was born in the United States, and falsely asserted that the rumors had been started by Hillary Clinton and her 2008 presidential campaign.
According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly, Trump made "explicitly racist appeals to whites" during his 2016 presidential campaign. Trump launched his campaign with a speech in which he stated: "When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending their best. ... They're bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists, and some, I assume, are good people." Later, his attacks on a Mexican-American judge were criticized as racist. His comments following a 2017 far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, were seen as implying a moral equivalence between the white supremacist marchers and those who protested them. In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation with Congressional leaders, Trump reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African countries as "shitholes". His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress. Trump has denied accusations of racism multiple times, saying he is the "least racist person".
Trump's racially insensitive statements and actions have been condemned by many observers in the U.S. and around the world, but accepted by his supporters either as a rejection of political correctness or because they harbor similar racial sentiments. Several studies and surveys have stated that racist attitudes and racial resentment have fueled Trump's political ascendance, and have become more significant than economic factors in determining party allegiance of voters. In a June 2018 Quinnipiac University poll, 49 percent of respondents believed that Trump is racist while 47 percent believed he is not. Additionally, 55 percent said he "has emboldened people who hold racist beliefs to express those beliefs publicly."
Relationship with the press
Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention. His interactions with the press turned into what some sources called a "love-hate" relationship. Trump began promoting himself in the press in the 1970s.
Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign and his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused the press of intentionally misinterpreting his words and of being biased, calling them "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people". In the campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. After winning the election, Trump told journalist Lesley Stahl that he intentionally demeaned and discredited the media "so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you". Into his presidency, much of the press coverage of Trump and his administration was negative. Trump has privately and publicly mused about taking away critical reporters' White House press credentials (despite, during his campaign, promising not to do so once he became president).
A study found that between October 7 and November 14, 2016, while one in four Americans visited a fake news website, "Trump supporters visited the most fake news websites, which were overwhelmingly pro-Trump" and "almost 6 in 10 visits to fake news websites came from the 10 percent of people with the most conservative online information diets". Brendan Nyhan, one of the authors of the study, stated in an interview on NBC News: "People got vastly more misinformation from Donald Trump than they did from fake news websites".
Trump has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Garrison. The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a future Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called The President Show debuted in April 2017 on Comedy Central, while another one called Our Cartoon President debuted on Showtime in February 2018.
Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip hop lyrics since the 1980s, as he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone. Mentions of Trump turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015.
Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily on Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's Twitter activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as president. He uses Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press. Many of the assertions he tweeted have been proven false.
In 2015, Robert Gordon University revoked the honorary Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) it had granted Trump in 2010, stating that "Mr. Trump has made a number of statements that are wholly incompatible with the ethos and values of the university." In December 2016, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year". In an interview on The Today Show, he said he was honored by the "award", but he took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America." In the same month, he was named Financial Times Person of the Year and was ranked the second most powerful person in the world after Vladimir Putin, by Forbes.
Political activities up to 2015
Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over the years. He registered as a Republican in Manhattan in 1987, switched to the Reform Party in 1999, the Democratic Party in 2001, and back to the Republican Party in 2009. He made donations to both the Democratic and the Republican party, party committees, and candidates until 2010 when he stopped donating to Democrats and increased his donations to Republicans considerably.
In 1987 Trump spent $94,801 (equivalent to $209,068 in 2018) to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, proclaiming that "America should stop paying to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves." The advertisements also advocated for "reducing the budget deficit, working for peace in Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union." After rumors of a presidential run, Trump was invited by then U.S. Senator John Kerry (Democrat from Massachusetts), House Speaker Jim Wright of Texas, and Arkansas congressman Beryl Anthony Jr., to host a fundraising dinner for Democratic Congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony told The New York Times that "the message Trump has been preaching is a Democratic message." Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump denied being a candidate, but said, "I believe that if I did run for President, I'd win." According to a Gallup poll in December 1988, Trump was the tenth most admired man in America.
2000 presidential campaign
In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election. A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support. Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but still went on to win the Reform Party primaries in California and Michigan. After his run, Trump left the party due to the involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani. Trump also considered running for president in 2004. In 2005, Trump said that he voted for George W. Bush. In 2008, he endorsed Republican John McCain for president.
2012 presidential speculation
Trump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012 election, and made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party. On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election. In February 2012, Trump endorsed Mitt Romney for president.
Trump's presidential ambitions were generally not taken seriously at the time. Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice. Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump "accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world" after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in April 2011.
In 2013, Trump was a featured CPAC speaker. In a sparsely-attended speech, he railed against illegal immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested that the government "take" Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers. He spent over $1 million that year to research a possible 2016 candidacy.
In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship. A February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election. In February 2015, Trump told NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The Apprentice, as he mulled his political future.
2016 presidential campaign
On June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump discussed illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt, and Islamic terrorism, which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan: "Make America Great Again". Trump said his wealth would make him immune to pressure from campaign donors. He declared that he was funding his own campaign, but according to The Atlantic, "Trump's claims of self-funding have always been dubious at best and actively misleading at worst."
In the primaries, Trump was one of seventeen candidates vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American history. Trump's campaign was initially not taken seriously by political analysts, but he quickly rose to the top of opinion polls.
On Super Tuesday, Trump won the plurality of the vote, and he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump was poised to win the Republican nomination. After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016—which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns—RNC Chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee.
General election campaign
After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump shifted his focus to the general election. Trump began campaigning against Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016.
Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy.
On July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his running mate. Four days later on July 19, Trump and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention. The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the other prior nominees did not attend.
Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech. The historically long speech received mixed reviews, with net negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.
On September 26, 2016, Trump and Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate, which was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, and moderated by NBC News anchor Lester Holt. The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential debate in United States history. The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The beginning of that debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of Trump making sexually explicit comments, which Trump countered by referring to alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the debate, Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference. The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy.
Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countries to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. During the campaign Trump repeatedly called NATO "obsolete".
His political positions have been described as populist, and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation, consistent with Republican Party policies, along with significant infrastructure investment, usually considered a Democratic Party policy. According to political writer Jack Shafer, Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.
Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time. Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign.
In his campaign, Trump said that he disdained political correctness; he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias. In part due to his fame, and due to his willingness to say things other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is gaining ground automatically provides a compelling news story, Trump received an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.
Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of false statements compared to other candidates. At least four major publications—Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times—have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements, with the Los Angeles Times saying that "Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has". NPR said that Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive.
Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and where puffery abounds. Trump has called his public speaking style "truthful hyperbole", an effective political tactic that may, however, backfire for overpromising.
Support from white supremacists
According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream. During his presidential campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists. He retweeted open racists, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying that he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists. Duke himself was an enthusiastic supporter of Trump throughout the 2016 primary and election, and has stated that he and like-minded people voted for Trump because of his promises to "take our country back".
After repeated questioning by reporters, Trump said that he disavowed David Duke and the KKK. Trump said on MSNBC's Morning Joe: "I disavowed him. I disavowed the KKK. Do you want me to do it again for the 12th time? I disavowed him in the past, I disavow him now."
The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration. Members of the alt-right enthusiastically supported Trump's campaign. In August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon—the executive chairman of Breitbart News—as his campaign CEO; Bannon described Breitbart News as "the platform for the alt-right." In an interview days after the election, Trump condemned supporters who celebrated his victory with Nazi salutes.
As a presidential candidate, Trump disclosed details of his companies, assets, and revenue sources to the extent required by the FEC. His 2015 report listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $265 million. The 2016 form showed little change.
Trump did not release his tax returns during his presidential campaign or afterward, contrary to usual practice by every candidate since Gerald Ford in 1976 and to his promise in 2014 to do so if he ran for office. Trump's refusal led to speculation that he was hiding something. He said that his tax returns were being audited, and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them. Trump has told the press that his tax rate was none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible".
In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times. They show that Trump declared a loss of $916 million that year, which could have let him avoid taxes for up to 18 years. During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied. He said that he did use the tax code to avoid paying taxes.
On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to Rachel Maddow and shown on MSNBC. The document states that Trump had a gross adjusted income of $150 million and paid $38 million in federal taxes. The White House confirmed the authenticity of these documents and stated: "Despite this substantial income figure and tax paid, it is totally illegal to steal and publish tax returns."
Sexual misconduct allegations
A total of 19 women have accused Trump of sexual misconduct as of December 2017[update]. Trump has denied all of the accusations, which he has called "false smears", and alleged a conspiracy against him.
Two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women. The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the tape, Trump said: "I just start kissing them ... I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy." During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily".
Trump's language on the tape was described by the media as "vulgar", "sexist", and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident prompted him to make his first public apology during the campaign, and caused outrage across the political spectrum, with many Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some urging him to quit the race. Subsequently, at least 15 women came forward with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media coverage. In his two public statements in response to the controversy, Trump alleged that former president Bill Clinton had "abused women" and that Hillary had bullied her husband's victims.
Election to the presidency
On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides. Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote.[d] Clinton was ahead nationwide by 2.1 percentage points, with 65,853,514 votes ( 48.18%) to 62,984,828 votes ( 46.09%); neither candidate reached a majority.
Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset by most observers, as polls had consistently showed Hillary Clinton with a nationwide—though diminishing—lead, as well as a favorable advantage in most of the competitive states. Trump's support had been modestly underestimated throughout his campaign, and many observers blamed errors in polls, partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters. The polls were relatively accurate, but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite a large number of undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states.
Trump won 30 states, including Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been considered a blue wall of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and the District of Columbia. Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with control of both chambers of Congress.
Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after adjusting for inflation. He is also the first president without prior government or military service. Of the 43[e] previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not held elective office but had served in the Cabinet, and three had never held public office but had been commanding generals.
Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice versa both inside and outside the venues. Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that these were "professional protesters, incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country."
In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which gathered 2,600,000 people worldwide, including 500,000 in Washington alone. Moreover, marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just nine days after his inauguration.
Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. During his first week in office, he signed six executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, unlocking the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, reinforcing border security, and beginning the planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border with Mexico.
Economy and trade
In December 2017, Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax credit, doubled the estate tax threshold to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000. The reduction in individual tax rates ends in 2025. While people would generally get a tax cut, those with higher incomes would see the most benefit. Households in the lower or middle class would also see a small tax increase after the tax cuts expire. The bill is estimated to increase deficits by $1.5 trillion over 10 years.
Trump adopted his current views on trade issues in the 1980s. Trump has been described as a protectionist because he criticized NAFTA, cancelled negotiations towards the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum, and proposed to significantly raise tariffs on Chinese and Mexican exports to the United States. He has also been critical of the World Trade Organization, threatening to leave unless his proposed tariffs are accepted.
In March 2018, Trump signed an order imposing import tariffs of 25 percent on steel and 10 percent on aluminum, with exemptions for Canada, Mexico, and possibly other countries. In response, the EU imposed retaliatory tariffs targeting $3.4 billion in U.S. exports.
In September the U.S. introduced a 10% tariff on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods, poised to increase to 25% by the end of the year, and threatened further tariffs on an additional $267 billion if China retaliates. China countered the move with a 10% tariff on $60 billion of U.S. imports, which, combined with the previous round of tariffs, covers almost all $110 billion of U.S. imports to China. According to some analysts, the escalating trade war with China could impact $2 trillion in global trade.
Energy and climate
While campaigning Trump's energy policy advocated domestic support for both fossil and renewable energy sources in order to curb reliance on Middle-Eastern oil and possibly turn the U.S. into a net energy exporter. However, following his election his "America First Energy Plan" did not mention renewable energy and instead focused on fossil fuels. Environmentalists expressed concerns after he announced plans to make large budget cuts to programs that research renewable energy and to roll back Obama-era policies directed at curbing climate change and limiting environmental pollution.
Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change and his first Environmental Protection Agency chief, Scott Pruitt, does not believe that carbon emissions are the main cause of global warming. While acknowledging the climate is warming, Pruitt claimed this warming is not necessarily harmful and could be beneficial. Based on numerous studies, climate experts disagree with his position. On June 1, 2017, Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, making the U.S. the only nation in the world to not ratify the agreement.
Government size and deregulation
Trump's early policies have favored rollback and dismantling of government regulations. He signed a Congressional Review Act disapproval resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall. During his first six weeks in office, he delayed, suspended or reversed ninety federal regulations.
On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze, except for those working in certain areas. Unlike some past freezes, it barred agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving. The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs. The hiring freeze was lifted in April 2017.
A week later Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue. Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying that the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups.
In 1999, Trump told Larry King Live: "I believe in universal healthcare." Trump's 2000 book, The America We Deserve, argued strongly for a single-payer healthcare system based on the Canadian model, and he has voiced admiration for the Scottish National Health Service.
During his campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA or "Obamacare"). Shortly after taking office, he urged Congress to repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the House of Representatives voted to repeal it. Over the course of several months' effort, however, the Senate was unable to pass any version of a repeal bill. Trump has expressed a desire to "let Obamacare fail", and the Trump administration has cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment. The tax reform Trump signed into law at the end of his first year in office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate that was a major element of the Obamacare health insurance system; this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.
Trump favored modifying the 2016 Republican platform opposing abortion, to allow for exceptions in cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. He has said that he is committed to appointing pro-life justices. He says he personally supports "traditional marriage" but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue.
Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general, although his views have shifted over time. Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana. He favors capital punishment, as well as the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods.
Trump's proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for it. He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies". He said that deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security threats.
Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented. He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a "proven history of terrorism".
On January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning and took effect immediately. Confusion and protests caused chaos at airports. The administration then clarified that visitors with a green card were exempt from the ban.
On January 30, Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, which she deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional; Trump immediately dismissed her. Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its implementation. On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed priorities for Christian minorities. Again federal judges in three states blocked its implementation. On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States."
The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, and certain Venezuelan officials. After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions with injunctions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4. In January 2018, the Supreme Court announced that it would hear a challenge to the travel ban. The Court heard oral arguments on April 25, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June ruling.
While running for president, Trump said that he intended to repeal the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) on "day one" of his presidency. The program, introduced in 2012, allowed people who had either entered or remained in the United States illegally as minors to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and be eligible for a work permit.
In September 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the DACA program would be repealed after six months. Trump argued that "top legal experts" believed that DACA was unconstitutional, and called on Congress to use the six-month delay to pass legislation solving the "Dreamers" issue permanently. As of March 2018[update], when the delay expired, no legislation had been agreed on DACA. Several states immediately challenged the DACA rescission in court. Two injunctions in January and February 2018 allowed renewals of applications and stopped the rolling back of DACA, and in April 2018 a federal judge ordered the acceptance of new applications; this would go into effect in 90 days.
Family separation at border
In April 2018, Trump enacted a "zero tolerance" immigration policy that took adults irregularly entering the U.S. into custody for criminal prosecution and forcibly separated children from parents, eliminating the policy of previous administrations that made exceptions for families with children. By mid-June, more than 2,300 children had been placed in shelters, including "tender age" shelters for babies and toddlers, culminating in demands from Democrats, Republicans, Trump allies, and religious groups that the policy be rescinded. Trump falsely asserted that his administration was merely following the law. On June 20, Trump signed an executive order to end family separations at the U.S. border. On June 26 a federal judge in San Diego issued a preliminary injunction requiring the Trump administration to stop detaining immigrants parents separately from their minor children, and to reunite family groups that had been separated at the border.
2018–2019 federal government shutdown
On December 22, 2018, the federal government was partially shut down after Trump declared that any funding extension must include $5.6 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall to partly fulfill his campaign promise. The shutdown was caused by a lapse in funding for nine federal departments, affecting about one-fourth of federal government activities. Trump said he would not accept any bill that does not include funding for the wall, and Democrats, who control the House, said they would not support any bill that does. Senate Republicans have said they will not advance any legislation that Trump would not sign. In earlier negotiations with Democratic leaders, Trump commented that he would be "proud to shut down the government for border security".
On January 25, 2019, Congress passed and Trump signed a 3-week appropriation bill to fund the government while negotiations on border security funding take place. This ended the 31-day shutdown, the longest such shutdown in U.S. history. On February 14 both houses of Congress passed, and on February 15 Trump signed, a bill to fund the government until September 30, the balance of the fiscal year. At the same time he signed a declaration that there is a national emergency at the country's southern border, ordering that funds from drug interdiction programs and military construction projects be used to build barriers along the border.
Trump has been described as a non-interventionist and as an American Nationalist. He has repeatedly stated that he supports an "America First" foreign policy. He supports increasing United States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region. He says America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs. Trump has praised China's president Xi Jinping, Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Turkey's president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Italy's prime minister Giuseppe Conte and Brazil's president Jair Bolsonaro. Trump also praised Poland under the EU-skeptic, anti-immigrant Law and Justice party (PiS) as a defender of Western civilization.
ISIS and foreign wars
In order to confront the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), in 2015 Trump called for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground troops. In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region, a position he later retracted.
In April 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack. According to investigative journalist Bob Woodward, Trump had ordered his Defense Secretary James Mattis to assassinate Syrian president Bashar al-Assad after the chemical attack, but Mattis declined; Trump denied doing so. In April 2018, he announced missile strikes against Assad's regime, following a suspected chemical attack near Damascus.
In December 2018, Trump declared "we have won against ISIS," and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria, contradicting Department of Defense assessments. Mattis resigned the next day over disagreements in foreign policy, calling this decision an abandonment of Kurd allies that had played a key role in fighting ISIS. One week after his announcement, Trump asserted he would not approve any extension of the American deployment in Syria. On January 6, 2019, national security advisor John Bolton announced America would remain in Syria until ISIS is eradicated and Turkey guaranteed it would not strike America's Kurdish allies.
Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia. Trump also praised his relationship with Saudi Arabia's powerful Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman.
U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan increased from 8,500 to 14,000, as of January 2017[update]. reversing Trump's pre-election position critical of further involvement in Afghanistan. U.S. officials said then that they aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in January 2018, however, Trump spoke against talks with the Taliban.
Trump has described the regime in Iran as "the rogue regime". He has repeatedly criticized the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or "Iran nuclear deal") that was negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015, calling it "terrible" and saying that the Obama administration negotiated the agreement "from desperation." At one point Trump said that despite opposing the content of the deal, he would attempt to enforce it rather than abrogate it.
Following Iran's ballistic missile tests on January 29, 2017, the Trump administration imposed sanctions on 25 Iranian individuals and entities in February 2017. Trump reportedly lobbied "dozens" of European officials against doing business with Iran during the May 2017 Brussels summit; this likely violated the terms of the JCPOA, under which the U.S. may not pursue "any policy specifically intended to directly and adversely affect the normalization of trade and economic relations with Iran." The Trump administration certified in July 2017 that Iran had upheld its end of the agreement. On May 18, 2018, Trump announced the United States' unilateral departure from the JCPOA.
Regarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Trump has stated the importance of being a neutral party during potential negotiations, while also having stated that he is "a big fan of Israel". During the campaign he said he would relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem from its current location, Tel Aviv. On May 22, 2017, Trump was the first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip, which included Israel, Italy, the Vatican, and Belgium. Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and warnings from world leaders. Trump added that he would initiate the process of establishing a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem, which was later opened on May 14, 2018. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the move, adopting a resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem" in an emergency session on December 21, 2017.
On August 11, 2017, Trump said that he is "not going to rule out a military option" to confront the government of Nicolás Maduro. In September 2018, Trump called "for the restoration of democracy in Venezuela" and said that "socialism has bankrupted the oil-rich nation and driven its people into abject poverty." On January 23, 2019, Maduro announced that Venezuela was breaking ties with the United States following Trump's announcement of recognizing Juan Guaidó, the Venezuelan opposition leader, as the interim president of Venezuela.
During the campaign and the early months of his presidency, Trump said he hoped that China would help to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions and missile tests. However, North Korea accelerated their missile and nuclear tests leading to increased tension. In July, the country tested two long-range missiles identified by Western observers as intercontinental ballistic missiles, potentially capable of reaching Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland. In August, Trump dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that further provocation against the U.S. would be met with "fire and fury like the world has never seen." North Korean leader Kim Jong-un then threatened to direct the country's next missile test toward Guam.
On June 12, 2018, after several rounds of preliminary staff-level meetings, Trump and Kim held a bilateral summit in Singapore. In a joint declaration, both countries vowed to "join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula", while North Korea repeated its April 2018 promise to "work towards the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula." Six months later, North Korea said they would not cease their nuclear weapons program until the U.S. removes its nuclear threat from the Korean peninsula and "all neighboring areas".
During his campaign and as president, Trump repeatedly said that he wants better relations with Russia, and he has praised Russian president Vladimir Putin as a strong leader. Trump had pledged to hold a summit meeting with Putin, stating that Russia could help the U.S. in fighting ISIS. According to Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.
Trump and Putin met in a 2018 Russia–United States summit in Helsinki on July 16, 2018. Trump drew harsh bipartisan criticism in the United States for appearing to side with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community. His comments were strongly criticized by many congressional Republicans and most media commentators, even those who normally support him.
In November 2017, the Trump administration tightened the rules on trade with Cuba and individual visits to the county, undoing the Obama administration's loosening of restrictions. According to an administration official, the new rules were intended to hinder trade with businesses with ties to the Cuban military, intelligence and security services.
As a candidate Trump questioned whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members, and suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance. As president, he reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO in March 2017. However, he has repeatedly accused fellow NATO members of paying less than their fair share of the expenses of the alliance.
In January 2019 The New York Times quoted senior administration officials as saying that Trump has privately suggested on multiple occasions that the United States should withdraw from NATO. The next day Trump said the United States is going to "be with NATO 100 percent" but repeated that the other countries have to "step up" and pay more.
The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned. As of early July 2018[update], 61 percent of Trump's senior aides had left and 141 staffers had left in the past year. Both figures set a record for recent presidents—more change in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two years. Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Mike Flynn (after just 25 days in office), Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, replaced by retired Marine General John F. Kelly on July 28, 2017, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close personal aides to Trump such as Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee and Keith Schiller, have quit or been forced out.
Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying that many of the positions are unnecessary. As of October 2017[update], there were hundreds of sub-cabinet positions without a nominee. By January 8, 2019, of 706 key positions, 433 had been filled and Trump had no nominee for 264.
Trump's cabinet nominations included U.S. Senator from Alabama Jeff Sessions as Attorney General, financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury, retired Marine Corps General James Mattis as Secretary of Defense, and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State. Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, such as neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations.
Two of Trump's 15 original cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy. EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt resigned in July 2018 amidst multiple investigations into his conduct, while Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke resigned five months later as he also faced multiple investigations.
In January 2017, American intelligence agencies—the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence—jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump. In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts." Later, in testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee on June 8, he affirmed he has "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, adding "they did it with purpose and sophistication".
Trump's connections to Russia have been widely reported by the press. One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych win the Ukrainian presidency. Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials. Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump. Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election. On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Trump later fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions.
Dismissal of James Comey
On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey. He first attributed this action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein, which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails. On May 11, Trump stated that he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing" and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier, regardless of DoJ advice.
According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into Michael Flynn. In March and April, Trump had told Comey that the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation. He also asked intelligence chiefs Dan Coats and Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election. Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal. Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself. In a statement on Twitter Trump implied that he had "tapes" of conversations with Comey, before later stating that he did not in fact have such tapes.
On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former Director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). In this capacity, Mueller oversees the investigation into "any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation". Trump has repeatedly denied any collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government. Mueller is also investigating the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China.
The Washington Post reported that days after Comey's dismissal the special counsel started investigating whether Trump had obstructed justice. Trump's lawyer Jay Sekulow stated that he had not been notified of any such investigation. ABC News later reported that the special counsel was gathering preliminary information about possible obstruction of justice but had not launched a full-scale investigation.
In January 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump had ordered Mueller to be fired in June 2017, after learning that Mueller was investigating possible obstruction of justice, but backed down after White House Counsel Don McGahn said he would quit; Trump called the report "fake news". The New York Times reported in April 2018 that Trump had again wanted the investigation shut down in early December 2017, but stopped after learning the news reports on which he based his decision were incorrect. In April 2018, following an FBI raid on the office and home of Trump's private attorney Michael Cohen, Trump mused aloud about firing Mueller. In August 2018, Trump wrote that Attorney General Jeff Sessions "should stop" the special counsel investigation "right now"; he also referred to it as a "rigged witch hunt".
In January 2018 it was reported that Mueller wants to interview Trump about the removal of Flynn and Comey. For most of 2018 there was discussion between Mueller's office and White House attorneys about whether Trump would give Mueller an in-person interview or written answers to questions, and what subjects would be covered. Trump himself said publicly he was willing to be interviewed. In November 2018 he said he was preparing written answers to a set of questions, and in late November his legal team said he had submitted answers to the counsel's written questions about "issues regarding the Russia-related topics of the inquiry."
The New York Times reported on January 11, 2019, that FBI counterintelligence grew concerned about Trump's ties to Russia during the 2016 campaign but held off opening an investigation because of uncertainty about how to proceed on such a sensitive matter. Trump's behavior during the days immediately before and after Comey's firing caused them to begin investigating whether Trump had been working on behalf of Russia against American interests, knowingly or unknowingly. The FBI merged that counterintelligence investigation with a criminal obstruction of justice investigation related to Comey's firing. Mueller took over that investigation upon his appointment, although it was not immediately clear if he had pursued the counterintelligence angle.
On August 21, 2018, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud. Trump said he felt very badly for Manafort and praised him for resisting the pressure to make a deal with prosecutors, saying "Such respect for a brave man!" According to Giuliani, Trump had sought advice about pardoning Manafort but was counseled against it.
In September Manafort faced a second trial on multiple charges, but reached a plea bargain under which he pleaded guilty to conspiracy and witness tampering and agreed to cooperate fully with investigators. In November, Mueller's office said in a court filing that Manafort had repeatedly lied to investigators, thus violating the terms of the plea agreement. It was also revealed that Manafort, through his attorney, had been briefing White House attorneys about his interactions with the special counsel's office. Trump publicly hinted that he might pardon Manafort, but the incoming chair of the House Judiciary Committee warned that "dangling a pardon in front of Manafort" could lead to charges of obstruction of justice.
On November 29, Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to lying to Congress about Trump's 2016 attempts to reach a deal with Russia to build a Trump Tower in Moscow. Cohen said that he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as "Individual-1" in the court documents.
The five Trump associates who have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in Mueller's investigation or related cases include Paul Manafort, Rick Gates, George Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn, and Michael Cohen. The charges against them were not related to collusion with Russia. On January 25, 2019, Trump adviser Roger Stone was arrested at his home in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and indicted on seven criminal charges.
Adult film actress Stormy Daniels has alleged that she and Trump had an affair in 2006, which Trump denied. In January 2018, it was reported that just before the 2016 presidential election Daniels was paid $130,000 by Trump's attorney Michael Cohen as part of a non-disclosure agreement (NDA); Cohen later said he paid her with his own money. In February 2018, Daniels sued Cohen's company asking to be released from the NDA and be allowed to tell her story. Cohen obtained a restraining order to keep her from discussing the case. In March, Daniels claimed in court that the NDA never came into effect because Trump did not sign it personally.
In April 2018, Trump said that he did not know about Cohen paying Daniels, why Cohen had made the payment or where Cohen got the money from. In May, Trump's annual financial disclosure revealed that he reimbursed Cohen in 2017 for payments related to Daniels. In August 2018, in a case brought by the office of the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Cohen pleaded guilty in federal court to breaking campaign finance laws, admitting to paying hush money of $130,000 to Daniels and $150,000 indirectly to Playboy model Karen McDougal, and said that he did it at the direction of Trump, with the aim of influencing the presidential election. In response, Trump said that he only knew about the payments "later on", and that he paid back Cohen personally, not out of campaign funds. Cohen also said he would cooperate fully with the special counsel investigation.
In a December 7, 2018 sentencing memorandum for Cohen, federal prosecutors implicated Trump in directing Cohen to commit the campaign finance law felonies for which Cohen had pleaded guilty. Shortly after the memorandum court filing, Trump tweeted, "Totally clears the president. Thank you!" Cohen was sentenced to three years in federal prison, stemming from his guilty pleas to five counts of tax evasion and one count each of excessive campaign contribution, unlawful corporate contribution and false statements to a bank. Trump denied directing Cohen to make the payments. That same day, NBC News reported that Trump was present in an August 2015 meeting with Cohen and David Pecker when they discussed how American Media could help counter negative stories about Trump's relationships with women, confirming previous reporting by The Wall Street Journal.
Formal efforts to start the process of impeachment against Trump, who took office in January 2017, have been initiated by Representatives Al Green and Brad Sherman, both Democrats. Other people and groups have asserted that Trump has engaged in impeachable activity during his presidency. Talk of impeachment began before Trump took office.
Serious proposals to impeach Trump for obstruction of justice were made in May 2017, after Trump fired FBI Director James Comey and allegations surfaced that Trump had asked Comey to drop the investigation against Michael Flynn. A December 2017 resolution of impeachment failed in the House by a 58–364 margin. Since the Republicans controlled both the House and the Senate, the likelihood of impeachment during the 2017–2019 115th Congress was considered remote.
Trump has argued against his own impeachment because "I don't think they can impeach somebody that's doing a great job."
2020 presidential campaign
Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency. This transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one. Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a rally in Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office. By January 2018, Trump's reelection committee had $22 million in hand and it had raised a total amount exceeding $50 million towards the 2020 campaign as of July 2018[update].
- This estimate is by Forbes in their annual ranking. Bloomberg Billionaires Index listed Trump's net worth as $2.48 billion on May 31, 2018, and Wealth-X listed it as at least $3.8 billion on July 16, 2018.
- Presidential elections in the United States are decided by the Electoral College, in which each state names a number of electors equivalent to its representation in Congress, and all delegates from each state are bound to vote for the winner of the local state vote. Consequently, it is possible for the president-elect to have received fewer votes from the country's total population (the popular vote). This situation has occurred five times since 1824.
- Some modern sources, including Donald Trump's The Art of the Deal, refer to the company as "Elizabeth Trump & Son." Contemporary sources, however, refer to it as "E. Trump & Son."
- Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no-one had a majority in the electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality).
- Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.
- "Certificate of Birth". Department of Health – City of New York – Bureau of Records and Statistics. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2018 – via ABC News.
- "Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump" (PDF). The Jamaica Hospital. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2018 – via Fox News.
- Rozhon, Tracie (June 26, 1999). "Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 32.
- Horowitz, Jason (September 22, 2015). "Donald Trump's Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 45.
- The 75th Anniversary Shrapnel. NYMA. Spring 1964. p. 107. Archived from the original on January 22, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 31, 37.
- Schwartzman, Paul; Miller, Michael E. (June 22, 2016). "Confident. Incorrigible. Bully: Little Donny was a lot like candidate Donald Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Viser, Matt (August 28, 2015). "Even in college, Donald Trump was brash". The Boston Globe. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Blair 2005, p. 16.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (September 3, 2015). "The real reason Donald Trump is so rich". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- "The Best Known Brand Name in Real Estate". The Wharton School. Spring 2007. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- "Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. May 20, 1968.
- Lee, Kurtis (August 4, 2016). "How deferments protected Donald Trump from serving in Vietnam". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Montopoli, Brian (April 29, 2011). "Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show". CBS News. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Whitlock, Craig (July 21, 2015). "Questions linger about Trump's draft deferments during Vietnam War". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Eder, Steve; Philipps, Dave (August 1, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
- Goldman, Russell (April 29, 2011). "Donald Trump's Own Secret: Vietnam Draft Records". ABC News. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Emery, David (August 2, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft Deferments". Snopes.com. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 19.
- Panetta, Alexander (September 19, 2015). "Donald Trump's grandfather ran Canadian brothel during gold rush". CBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 23–25.
- Blair 2015a, p. 5.
- Trump, Donald; Schwartz, Tony (1987). The Art of the Deal. Random House. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-345-47917-4.
- Knight, Gladys L. (August 11, 2014). Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 874. ISBN 978-0-313-39883-4.
- "Advertisement for E. Trump & Son". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 6, 1927. p. D3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Real estate news". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 5, 1930. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
- Blair, Gwenda (December 4, 2001). The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7432-1079-9.
- Blair, Gwenda (August 24, 2015). "The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is". Politico. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Hansler, Jennifer (November 28, 2017). "Trump's family denied German heritage for years". CNN.
- Carlström, Vilhelm (November 28, 2017). "Donald Trump claimed he was of Swedish ancestry – but it's a lie". Business Insider.
- Horowitz, Jason (August 21, 2016). "For Donald Trump's Family, an Immigrant's Tale With 2 Beginnings". The New York Times.
- Pilon, Mary (June 24, 2016). "Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- McGrane, Sally (April 29, 2016). "The Ancestral German Home of the Trumps". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Mannion, Cara (February 3, 2017). "3rd Circ. Judge, Trump's Sister, Stops Hearing Cases". Law360. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
- Puente, Maria (September 12, 2017). "Eric and Lara Trump announce birth of son, POTUS' ninth grandchild". USA Today. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- "Trump's daughter, Ivanka, gives birth to third child". Fox News. Associated Press. March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Brenner, Marie (September 1990). "After The Gold Rush". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
They were married in New York during Easter of 1977. Mayor Beame attended the wedding at Marble Collegiate Church. Donald had already made his alliance with Roy Cohn, who would become his lawyer and mentor.
- Barron, James (September 5, 2016). "Overlooked Influences on Donald Trump: A Famous Minister and His Church". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
Mr. Trump married his first wife, Ivana, at Marble, in a ceremony performed by one of America's most famous ministers, the Rev. Norman Vincent Peale.
- "Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen". The Lewiston Journal. Associated Press. May 27, 1988. Retrieved August 21, 2015 – via Google News.
- "Ivana Trump to write memoir about raising US president's children". The Guardian. Associated Press. March 16, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Graham, Ruth (July 20, 2016). "Tiffany Trump's Sad, Vague Tribute to Her Distant Father". Slate. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "The Donald Bids Hearts For Marla Trump Wedding Draws 1,100 Friends, But Not Many Stars". The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 21, 1993. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- Baylis, Sheila Cosgrove (August 7, 2013). "Marla Maples Still Loves Donald Trump". People. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Stanley, Alessandra (October 1, 2016). "The Other Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Waterson, Jim (January 26, 2019). "Telegraph apologises and pays damages to Melania Trump". The Guardian. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Brown, Tina (January 27, 2005). "Donald Trump, Settling Down". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Charles, Marissa (August 16, 2015). "Melania Trump would be a first lady for the ages". The New York Post. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Choron, Harry; Choron, Sandy (2011). Money. Chronicle Books. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4521-0559-8.
- "Donald Trump Fast Facts". CNN. March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Flegenheimer, Matt; Barbaro, Michael (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the Establishment". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
- Lipton, Eric; Craig, Susanne (February 12, 2017). "Trump Sons Forge Ahead Without Father, Expanding and Navigating Conflicts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- V.v.B (March 31, 2017). "Ivanka Trump's new job". The Economist. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Lipton, Eric; Savage, Charlie (January 21, 2017). "Jared Kushner, Trump's Son-in-Law, Is Cleared to Serve as Adviser". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- Scott, Eugene (July 19, 2015). "Trump believes in God, but hasn't sought forgiveness". CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Glueck, Katie (December 7, 2016). "Trump's religious dealmaking pays dividends". Politico. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
Trump is a Presbyterian, and speculation is already underway over whether, and where, he might go to church regularly in Washington.
- Mattera, Jason (March 14, 2011). "Trump Unplugged". Human Events. Archived from the original on March 16, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
I am a Protestant. I am a Presbyterian within the Protestant group and I go to Church as much as I can.
- Blair 2015b, p. 28–29.
- Geoghegan, Peter (May 28, 2016). "Few rooting for Donald Trump on his mother's Scottish island". The Irish Times. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 29.
- Schwartzman, Paul (January 21, 2016). "How Trump got religion – and why his legendary minister's son now rejects him". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Blair, Leonardo (August 28, 2015). "Marble Collegiate Church Says Donald Trump Is Not an Active Member". The Christian Post. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 81.
- Scott, Eugene (August 28, 2018). "Church says Donald Trump is not an 'active member'". CNN. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Weigel, David (August 11, 2015). "In Michigan, Trump attacks China, critiques auto bailout, and judges Bernie Sanders 'weak'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
- Haberman, Maggie; Kaplan, Thomas (January 18, 2016). "Evangelicals See Donald Trump as Man of Conviction, if Not Faith". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Burke, Daniel (October 24, 2016). "The guilt-free gospel of Donald Trump". CNN. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Trump campaign announces evangelical executive advisory board" (Press release). Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. June 21, 2016. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Who's Who of Trump's 'Tremendous' Faith Advisers". Christianity Today. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Horowitz, Jason (January 2, 2016). "For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- McAfee, Tierney (October 8, 2015). "Donald Trump Opens Up About His Brother's Death from Alcoholism: It Had a "Profound Impact on My Life"". People.
[T]here are a few hard and fast principles that he himself lives by: no drugs, no cigarettes and no alcohol. Trump's abstinence from alcohol was largely shaped by the death of his brother, Fred Jr., from alcoholism in 1981.
- "Part 2: Donald Trump on 'Watters' World'". Watters' World. Fox News. February 6, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
WATTERS: "Have you ever smoked weed?" TRUMP: "No, I have not. I have not. I would tell you 100 percent because everyone else seems to admit it nowadays, so I would actually tell you. This is almost like, it's almost like 'Hey, it's a sign'. No, I have never. I have never smoked a cigarette, either."
- Herreria, Carla (May 1, 2018). "Trump's Doctor Says Trump Basically Wrote That Glowing Health Letter: Report". HuffPost. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
- Bornstein, Harold (December 4, 2015). "Statement on Donald J. Trump record of health" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- Marquardt, Alex; Crook, Lawrence III (May 1, 2018). "Bornstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- Frizell, Sam (September 15, 2016). "Donald Trump's Doctor's Letter Reveals He is Overweight, But 'In Excellent Health'". Time. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (September 18, 2016). "A Doctor's Assessment of Whether Donald Trump's Health Is 'Excellent'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Barclay, Eliza; Belluz, Julia (January 16, 2018). "Trump's first full presidential physical exam, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Ducharme, Jamie (January 17, 2018). "The White House Doctor Called President Trump's Health 'Excellent.' Here's the Full Summary of His Physical Exam". Time. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
- Shear, Michael D.; Kolata, Gina (January 17, 2018). "Trump's Physical Revealed Serious Heart Concerns, Outside Experts Say". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- O'Brien, Timothy L. (October 23, 2005). "What's He Really Worth?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- "Bloomberg Billionaires Index – Donald Trump". Bloomberg News. May 31, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Donald John Trump – Wealth-X Dossiersier". Wealth-X. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "The World's Billionaires – No. 766 Donald Trump". Forbes. 2018. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
- Walsh, John (October 3, 2018). "Trump has fallen 138 spots on Forbes' wealthiest-Americans list, his net worth down over $1 billion, since he announced his presidential bid in 2015". Business Insider. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Lewandowski, Corey R.; Hicks, Hope (July 15, 2015). "Donald J. Trump Files Personal Financial Disclosure Statement With Federal Election Commission" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
- Alesci, Cristina; Frankel, Laurie; Sahadi, Jeanne (May 19, 2016). "A peek at Donald Trump's finances". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Harwood, John (June 29, 2018). "Trump's money-making power as unprecedented as his words". CNBC. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (August 10, 2016). "Trump: A True Story". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- Greenberg, Jonathan (April 20, 2018). "Trump lied to me about his wealth to get onto the Forbes 400. Here are the tapes". The Washington Post.
- Stump, Scott (October 26, 2015). "Donald Trump: My dad gave me 'a small loan' of $1 million to get started". CNBC. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2018). "11 Takeaways From The Times's Investigation Into Trump's Wealth". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2018). "Trump Engaged in Suspect Tax Schemes as He Reaped Riches From His Father". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- Campbell, Jon; Spector, Joseph (October 3, 2018). "New York could levy hefty penalties if Trump tax fraud is proven". USA Today. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
- Woodward, Calvin; Pace, Julie (December 16, 2018). "Scope of investigations into Trump has shaped his presidency". Associated Press. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "From the Tower to the White House". The Economist. February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
Mr Trump's performance has been mediocre compared with the stockmarket and property in New York.
- Swanson, Ana (February 29, 2016). "The myth and the reality of Donald Trump's business empire". The Washington Post.
- Breuninger, Kevin (October 2, 2018). "Trump tumbles down the Forbes 400 as his net worth takes major hit". CNBC. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Trump & Schwartz 2009, p. 46.
- Mahler, Jonathan; Eder, Steve (August 27, 2016). "'No Vacancies' for Blacks: How Donald Trump Got His Start, and Was First Accused of Bias". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Korte, Gregory (September 1, 2002). "Complex was troubled from beginning". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
- Kelly, Meg (February 28, 2018). "The tall tale of President Trump's Cincinnati 'success'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- Blair 2005, p. 23.
- Kelly, Conor (July 27, 2015). "Meet Donald Trump: Everything You Need To Know (And Probably Didn't Know) About The 2016 Republican Presidential Candidate". ABC News.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 30, 2015). "1973: Meet Donald Trump". The New York Times.
Trump Management ... was also to allow the league to present qualified applicants for every fifth vacancy ... Trump himself said he was satisfied that the agreement did not 'compel the Trump Organization to accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant.'
- Kranish, Michael; O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (January 23, 2016). "Inside the government's racial bias case against Donald Trump's company, and how he fought it". The Washington Post.
Civil rights groups in the city viewed the Trump company as just one example of a nationwide problem of housing discrimination. But targeting the Trumps provided a chance to have an impact, said Eleanor Holmes Norton, who was then chairwoman of the city's human rights commission. 'They were big names.'
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 64–69, 104.
- Kessler, Glenn (March 3, 2016). "Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father". The Washington Post.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 84.
- Wooten 2009, p. 32–35.
- Geist, William (April 8, 1984). "The Expanding Empire of Donald Trump". The New York Times.
- Dohan, William C. (September 28, 2015). "Decades-Old Questions Over Trump's Wealth and Education". The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 86–88.
- Flegenheimer, Matt; Haberman, Maggie (March 29, 2016). "With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- Burns, Alexander (December 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Loves New York. But It Doesn't Love Him Back". The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 95.
- Goldberger, Paul (April 4, 1983). "Architecture: Atrium of Trump Tower is a Pleasant Surprise". The New York Times.
- Freedlander, David (September 29, 2015). "A 1980s New York City Battle Explains Donald Trump's Candidacy". Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Lyman, Rick (November 1, 1986). "Faster and cheaper, Trump finishes N.Y.C. ice rink". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (October 29, 2016). "Trump boasts about his philanthropy. But his giving falls short of his words". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Purnick, Joyce (May 1, 2011). "The Donald Trump we know (and don't love): He's riding high in polls, but NYC's seen his bad side". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
- Wooten 2009, p. 65–66.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 190.
- Stout, David; Gilpin, Kenneth (April 12, 1995). "Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 17, 1994). "For a Troubled Building, a New Twist". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Muschamp, Herbert (June 21, 1995). "Trump Tries to Convert 50's Style into 90's Gold; Makeover Starts on Columbus Circle Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Wooten 2009, p. 108.
- Wooten 2009, p. 81–82.
- Bagli, Charles V. (June 1, 2005). "Trump Group Selling West Side Parcel for $1.8 billion". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Elstein, Aaron (April 17, 2016). "Trump's lost Empire: The deal that marked the Donald's turn from New York real estate". Crain's New York Business.
- Pacelle 2001, p. 18.
- "Trump World Tower". Emporis. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Wooten 2009, p. 86–87.
- Peterson-Withorn, Chase (April 23, 2018). "Donald Trump Has Gained More Than $100 Million On Mar-a-Lago". Forbes. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- "Trump Fights Property Taxes". Associated Press. March 29, 1988. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Dangremond, Sam (December 22, 2017). "A History of Mar-a-Lago, Donald Trump's American Castle". townandcountrymag.com. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Luongo, Michael (November 2017). "The Ironic History of Mar-a-Lago". Smithsonian. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- Jordan, Mary; Helderman, Rosalind S. (October 14, 2015). "Inside Trump's Palm Beach castle and his 30-year fight to win over the locals". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Lee, Robert. "How Do Golf Initiation Fees Work?". Golfweek. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 161.
- Dangremond, Sam (October 9, 2017). "Here's What We Know About the Membership of Mar-a-Lago". Town&Country. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Frank, Robert (January 25, 2017). "Mar-a-Lago membership fee doubles to $200,000". CNBC. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Wooten 2009, p. 57–58.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 128.
- "Trump Stake in Holiday". The New York Times. September 5, 1986. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Crudele, John (November 13, 1986). "Holiday Corp. Plans Restructuring". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Wooten 2009, p. 59–60.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 137.
- Cuff, Daniel (December 18, 1988). "Seven Acquisitive Executives Who Made Business News in 1988: Donald Trump – Trump Organization; The Artist of the Deal Turns Sour into Sweet". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2011.
- Glynn, Lenny (April 8, 1990). "Trump's Taj – Open at Last, With a Scary Appetite". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- Parry, Wayne (May 20, 2016). "New owner wants to make Trump's Taj Mahal casino great again". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- "Trump reaches agreement with bondholders on Taj Mahal". United Press International. April 9, 1991. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 135.
- Bingham, Amy (April 21, 2011). "Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times". ABC News. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Taj Mahal is out of Bankruptcy". The New York Times. October 5, 1991. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Hylton, Richard (May 11, 1990). "Trump Is Reportedly Selling Yacht". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
- Schneider, Karen S. (May 19, 1997). "The Donald Ducks Out". People. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 132–133.
- Norris, Floyd (June 7, 1995). "Trump Plaza casino stock trades today on Big Board". The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- McQuade, Dan (August 16, 2015). "The Truth About the Rise and Fall of Donald Trump's Atlantic City Empire". Philadelphia. Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- "How Donald Trump Made Millions Off His Biggest Business Failure". Fortune. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- Garcia, Ahiza (December 29, 2016). "Trump's 17 golf courses teed up: Everything you need to know". CNNMoney. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
- "Donald Trump Personal Financial Disclosure Form 2015" (PDF). The Washington Post. July 15, 2015.
- Melby, Caleb (July 19, 2016). "Trump Is Richer in Property and Deeper in Debt in New Valuation". Bloomberg News.
In the year that Donald Trump was transformed ... into the presumptive Republican nominee, the value of his golf courses and his namesake Manhattan tower soared ... His net worth rose to $3 billion on the Bloomberg Billionaires Index ...
- "Donald Trump: King of Clubs". Golf. February 21, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- DiMeglio, Steve (March 3, 2015). "Donald Trump brings new life to world of golf". USA Today. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Beall, Joel (March 20, 2017). "President Trump appears to still really like golf, makes 11th trip to course in eight weeks in office". Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Cillizza, Chris (January 3, 2018). "Donald Trump's huge golf hypocrisy". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- Wang, Jennifer (March 20, 2017). "From Manila to Hawaii, Meet The Licensing Partners Who Paid Trump The Most". Forbes. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Blankfeld, Keren. "Donald Trump on His Brand Value: Forbes' Numbers Are Ridiculous". Forbes.
- Williams, Aaron; Narayanswamy, Anu (January 25, 2017). "How Trump has made millions by selling his name". Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Anthony, Zane; Sanders, Kathryn; Fahrenthold, David A. (April 13, 2018). "Whatever happened to Trump neckties? They're over. So is most of Trump's merchandising empire". The Washington Post.
- "Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits". USA Today. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
- Penzenstadler, Nick; Page, Susan (June 2, 2016). "Exclusive: Trump's 3,500 lawsuits unprecedented for a presidential nominee". USA Today. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
About 100 additional disputes centered on other issues at the casinos. Trump and his enterprises have been named in almost 700 personal-injury claims and about 165 court disputes with government agencies ... Due to his branding value, Trump is determined to defend his name and reputation.
- Savransky, Rebecca (June 2, 2016). "Trump brags about winning record in lawsuits". The Hill.
- Hylton, Richard D. (June 27, 1990). "Banks Approve Loans for Trump, But Take Control of His Finances". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Flitter, Emily (July 17, 2016). "Art of the spin: Trump bankers question his portrayal of financial comeback". Reuters. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- Hood, Bryan (June 29, 2015). "4 Times Donald Trump's Companies Declared Bankruptcy". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Li, Hao (April 12, 2011). "Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies". International Business Times. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Stone, Peter (May 5, 2011). "Donald Trump's lawsuits could turn off conservatives who embrace tort reform". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Kurtz, Howard (April 24, 2011). "Kurtz: The Trump Backlash". Newsweek. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
- Winter, Tom. "Trump Bankruptcy Math Doesn't Add Up". NBC News. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- O'Connor, Clare (April 29, 2011). "Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him". Forbes. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Smith, Allan (December 8, 2017). "Trump's long and winding history with Deutsche Bank could now be at the center of Robert Mueller's investigation". Business Insider. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- Zurcher, Anthony (July 23, 2015). "Five take-aways from Donald Trump's financial disclosure". BBC. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Markazi, Arash (July 14, 2015). "5 things to know about Donald Trump's foray into doomed USFL". ESPN.
- Morris, David (September 24, 2017). "Donald Trump Fought the NFL Once Before. He Got Crushed". Fortune. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
- "Trump Gets Tyson Fight". The New York Times. February 25, 1988. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Anderson, Dave (July 12, 1988). "Sports of The Times; Trump: Promoter Or Adviser?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Hogan, Kevin (April 10, 2016). "The Strange Tale of Donald Trump's 1989 Biking Extravaganza". Politico. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
- "Donald Trump just sold off the entire Miss Universe Organization". Business Insider. September 14, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 164.
- Rutenberg, Jim (June 22, 2002). "Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- De Moraes, Lisa (June 22, 2002). "There She Goes: Pageants Move to NBC". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
- Zara, Christopher (October 29, 2016). "Why the heck does Donald Trump have a Walk of Fame star, anyway? It's not the reason you think". Fast Company. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- Stanhope, Kate (June 29, 2015). "NBC Cuts Ties With Donald Trump Over "Derogatory Statements," Pulls Miss USA and Miss Universe Pageants". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency". The New York Times. September 15, 2015. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Gitell, Seth (March 8, 2016). "I Survived Trump University". Politico. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Cohan, William D. "Big Hair on Campus: Did Donald Trump Defraud Thousands of Real-Estate Students?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Barbaro, Michael (May 19, 2011). "New York Attorney General Is Investigating Trump's For-Profit School". The New York Times.
- Halperin, David (March 1, 2016). "NY Court Refuses to Dismiss Trump University Case, Describes Fraud Allegations". The Huffington Post.
- Freifeld, Karen (October 16, 2014). "New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school". Reuters. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Barbaro, Michael; Eder, Steve (May 31, 2016). "Former Trump University Workers Call the School a 'Lie' and a 'Scheme' in Testimony". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (February 27, 2016). "Donald Trump's misleading claim that he's 'won most of' lawsuits over Trump University". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- McCoy, Kevin (August 26, 2013). "Trump faces two-front legal fight over 'university'". USA Today.
- Rappeport, Alan (June 3, 2016). "That Judge Attacked by Donald Trump? He's Faced a Lot Worse". The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- Ford, Matt (June 3, 2016). "Why Is Donald Trump So Angry at Judge Gonzalo Curiel?". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Eder, Steve (November 18, 2016). "Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement". The New York Times. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement". New York Daily News. November 18, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Tigas, Mike; Wei, Sisi. "Nonprofit Explorer – ProPublica". ProPublica. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Donald J Trump Foundation Inc – GuideStar Profile". GuideStar. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (September 1, 2016). "Trump pays IRS a penalty for his foundation violating rules with gift to aid Florida attorney general". The Washington Post.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; Helderman, Rosalind S. (April 10, 2016). "Missing from Trump's list of charitable giving: His own personal cash". The Washington Post.
- Solnik, Claude. "Taking a peek at Trump's (foundation) tax returns", Long Island Business News (September 15, 2016): "charitable giving to conservative political groups, healthcare and sports-related charities."
- Fahrenthold, David A.; Rindler, Danielle (August 18, 2016). "Searching for evidence of Trump's personal giving". The Washington Post.
- Qiu, Linda. "Yes, Donald Trump has given to the Clinton Foundation". PolitiFact. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- Cillizza, Chris; Fahrenthold, David A. (September 15, 2016). "Meet the reporter who's giving Donald Trump fits". The Washington Post.
- Bradner, Eric; Frehse, Rob (September 14, 2016). "NY attorney general is investigating Trump Foundation practices". CNN. Retrieved September 25, 2016.
The Post had reported that the recipients of five charitable contributions listed by the Trump Foundation had no record of receiving those donations. But the newspaper updated its report after CNN questioned the accuracy of three of the five donations it had cited.
- Toh, Michelle (September 14, 2016). "Trump Foundation Falls Under Investigation By New York Attorney General". Fortune. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (October 3, 2016). "Trump Foundation ordered to stop fundraising by N.Y. attorney general's office". The Washington Post.
- Jacobs, Ben (December 24, 2016). "Donald Trump to dissolve his charitable foundation after mounting complaints". The Guardian. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
- "Donald Trump is shutting down his charitable foundation". NBC News. November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris; Schuman, Melanie (June 14, 2018). "New York attorney general sues Trump Foundation". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (June 14, 2018). "Five things to know about the lawsuit against the Trump Foundation". The Hill. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- Geewax, Marilyn (January 20, 2018). "Trump Has Revealed Assumptions About Handling Presidential Wealth, Businesses". NPR.
- "A list of Trump's potential conflicts". BBC News. April 18, 2017.
- Venook, Jeremy (August 9, 2017). "Trump's Interests vs. America's, Dubai Edition". The Atlantic.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (January 25, 2018). "Lawsuit on Trump Emoluments Violations Gains Traction in Court". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (March 28, 2018). "Lawsuit Over Trump's Ties to His Businesses Is Allowed to Advance". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (July 25, 2018). "In Ruling Against Trump, Judge Defines Anticorruption Clauses in Constitution for First Time". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (November 2, 2018). "Judge Orders Evidence to Be Gathered in Emoluments Case Against Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- O'Connell, Jonathan; Marimow, Ann E.; Fahrenthold, David A. "2 attorneys general issue subpoenas to Trump entities in Washington hotel case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (December 17, 2018). "Justice Department Asks Court to Halt Emoluments Case Against Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
- Wolfe, Jan (December 21, 2018). "U.S. appeals court grants Trump request for halt to emoluments case". Reuters. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Kruse, Michael (June 1, 2018). "He Pretty Much Gave In to Whatever They Asked For". Politico. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
- Mayer, Jane (July 25, 2016). "Donald Trump's Ghostwriter Tells All". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- Mayer, Jane (July 20, 2016). "Donald Trump Threatens the Ghostwriter of "The Art of the Deal"". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
- Lozada, Carlos (July 30, 2015). "I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- "Donald Trump bio". WWE. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
- Murphy, Ryan. "Donald Trump announced for WWE Hall of Fame". WWE.
- Koffler, Jacob (August 7, 2015). "Donald Trump's 16 Biggest Business Failures and Successes". Time.
- Grynbaum, Michael M.; Parker, Ashley (July 16, 2016). "Donald Trump the Political Showman, Born on 'The Apprentice'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Nussbaum, Emily (July 31, 2017). "The TV That Created Donald Trump". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Feely, Paul (February 27, 2015). "Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run". New Hampshire Union Leader. Archived from the original on July 10, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Byers, Dylan (March 18, 2015). "NBC still planning for 'Apprentice,' despite Donald Trump's presidential claims". Politico. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Siegel, Jacob (June 29, 2015). "NBC Just Fired Presidential Hopeful Donald Trump from 'The Apprentice'". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Fischer, Russ (November 30, 2009). "Casting Notes: Donald Trump Cameos in Wall Street 2; Jeremy Piven and Kate Walsh go to Canada". Slashfilm.com. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- LaFrance, Adrienne (December 21, 2015). "Three Decades of Donald Trump Film and TV Cameos". The Atlantic.
- Lockett, Dee (June 21, 2016). "Yes, Donald Trump Did Actually Play a Spoiled Rich Kid's Dad in The Little Rascals". Vulture. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Shanley, Patrick (September 15, 2016). "Emmys Flashback: When Trump Sang the 'Green Acres' Theme in Overalls". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Nededog, Jethro (December 15, 2016). "Megan Mullally regrets helping Trump with a 'landslide' win: 'I'm not giving him any points'". Business Insider. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Handel, Jonathan (July 22, 2015). "How Did Donald Trump Get a $110K SAG Pension?". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Palmeri, Christopher (July 22, 2015). "Inside Donald Trump's $110,000 Hollywood Pension Disclosure". Bloomberg News. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
- Handler, Jonathan (June 16, 2017). "Trump Ethics Filing Reveals SAG Pension, Entertainment Income". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 166.
- Massie, Christopher; Kaczynski, Andrew (March 16, 2016). "There Are Hours Of Audio Of Donald Trump's Nationally Syndicated Radio Show In The 2000s". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Silverman, Stephen M. (April 29, 2004). "The Donald to Get New Wife, Radio Show". People. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Tedeschi, Bob (February 6, 2006). "Now for Sale Online, the Art of the Vacation". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Grynbaum, Michael M. (July 1, 2018). "Fox News Once Gave Trump a Perch. Now It's His Bullhorn". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Gertz, Matthew (January 5, 2018). "I've Studied the Trump-Fox Feedback Loop for Months. It's Crazier Than You Think". Politico. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Montopoli, Brian (April 1, 2011). "Donald Trump gets regular Fox News spot". CBS News. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
- Grossman, Matt; Hopkins, David A. (September 9, 2016). "How the conservative media is taking over the Republican Party". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- Langer, Gary (November 5, 2017). "ABC News/Washington Post Poll: A year after his surprise election, 65 percent say Trump's achieved little" (PDF). Langer Research Associates. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- Jones, Jeffrey M. (October 20, 2017). "Trump Job Approval Slips to 36.9% in His Third Quarter". Gallup. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Balz, Dan; Clement, Scott (November 5, 2017). "Poll: Trump's performance lags behind even tepid public expectations". The Washington Post.
- Wike, Richard; Stokes, Bruce; Poushter, Jacob; Fetterolf, Janell (June 26, 2017). "U.S. Image Suffers as Publics Around World Question Trump's Leadership". Pew Research Center. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "Poll: Trump hits new low after Charlottesville". Politico. August 23, 2017.
- Silver, Nate (December 20, 2018). "How popular is Donald Trump? – How Trump compares with past presidents". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- Kwong, Jessica (January 16, 2019). "Donald Trump Approval Rating Average in First Two Years is Lowest For Any President Since World War II". Newsweek. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- Bach, Natasha (December 28, 2017). "Trump Is the Only Elected U.S. President Not to Be Named America's Most Admired Man In His First Year". Fortune. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
- "Most Admired Man and Woman". Gallup. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- Shamsian, Jacob. "Barack and Michelle Obama top Gallup's list of most-admired men and women in the world, trouncing the Trumps". Business Insider. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Qiu, Linda (April 29, 2017). "Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days". The New York Times.
- Kessler, Glenn; Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (May 1, 2017). "President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally". The Washington Post.
- Qiu, Linda (June 22, 2017). "In One Rally, 12 Inaccurate Claims From Trump". The New York Times.
- Lee, Michelle Ye Hee; Kessler, Glenn; Kelly, Meg (October 10, 2017). "President Trump has made 1,318 false or misleading claims over 263 days". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
- "In 730 days, President Trump has made 8,158 false or misleading claims". The Washington Post. January 20, 2019. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Kessler, Glenn; Rizzo, Salvador; Kelly, Meg (November 2, 2018). "President Trump has made 6,420 false or misleading claims over 649 days". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
- Kessler, Glenn; Rizzo, Salvador; Kelly, Meg (September 13, 2018). "President Trump has made more than 5,000 false or misleading claims". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
- Feldman, Josh (December 31, 2018). "'Unprecedented Deception': Washington Post Analysis Finds Trump Averaged 15 False Claims a Day in 2018". Mediaite. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- * Baker, Peter (January 12, 2018). "A President Who Fans, Rather Than Douses, the Nation's Racial Fires". The New York Times.
- Warren, Dorian (January 11, 2018). "We Must Denounce Trump's Racist Actions, Not Just His Racist Words". The Nation. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- D'Antonio, Michael (June 7, 2016). "Is Donald Trump Racist? Here's What the Record Shows". Fortune. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Berney, Jesse (August 15, 2017). "Trump's Long History of Racism". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- "Every moment in Trump's charged relationship with race". PBS NewsHour. January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Lopez, German (January 14, 2018). "Donald Trump's long history of racism, from the 1970s to 2018". Vox.
- Sarlin, Benjy (October 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Says Central Park Five Are Guilty, Despite DNA Evidence". NBC News. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Parker, Ashley; Eder, Steve (July 2, 2016). "Inside the Six Weeks Donald Trump Was a Nonstop 'Birther'". The New York Times.
- Abramson, Alana (September 16, 2016). "How Donald Trump Perpetuated the 'Birther' Movement for Years". ABC News.
- Shear, Michael D. (April 27, 2011). "With Document, Obama Seeks to End 'Birther' Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- Madison, Lucy (April 27, 2011). "Trump takes credit for Obama birth certificate release, but wonders 'is it real?'". CBS News. Retrieved May 9, 2011.
- "Donald J. Trump – Biography". The Trump Organization. Archived from the original on August 28, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
In 2011, after failed attempts by both Senator McCain and Hillary Clinton, Mr. Trump single handedly forced President Obama to release his birth certificate, which was lauded by large segments of the political community.
- Keneally, Meghan (September 18, 2015). "Donald Trump's History of Raising Birther Questions About President Obama". ABC News. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
- Haberman, Maggie; Rappeport, Alan (September 16, 2016). "Trump Drops False 'Birther' Theory, but Floats a New One: Clinton Started It". The New York Times.
- Schaffner, Brian F.; Macwilliams, Matthew; Nteta, Tatishe (March 2018). "Understanding White Polarization in the 2016 Vote for President: The Sobering Role of Racism and Sexism". Political Science Quarterly. 133 (1): 9–34. doi:10.1002/polq.12737.
- "Donald Trump Presidential Campaign Announcement Full Speech (C-SPAN)" (Video). YouTube. C-SPAN. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- Trump, Donald (June 16, 2015). Here's Donald Trump's Presidential Announcement Speech (Speech). Trump Tower, New York City – via Time. Transcript of full speech
- "Here Are All the Times Donald Trump Insulted Mexico". Time. August 31, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Five Insults Donald Trump Has Fired At Mexicans In The Presidential Race". Sky News. September 1, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer; Martin, Jonathan; Herszenhorn, David M. (June 7, 2016). "Paul Ryan Calls Donald Trump's Attack on Judge 'Racist,' but Still Backs Him". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Merica, Dan (August 26, 2017). "Trump: 'Both sides' to blame for Charlottesville". CNN. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Kiely, Eugene (January 16, 2018). "What Did Trump Say at Immigration Meeting?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
Durbin quoted the president as saying of African nations, 'Those shitholes send us the people that they don't want.'
- Beauchamp, Zack (January 11, 2018). "Trump's "shithole countries" comment exposes the core of Trumpism". Vox. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Dawsey, Josh (January 11, 2018). "Trump's history of making offensive comments about nonwhite immigrants". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- Weaver, Aubree Eliza (January 12, 2018). "Trump's 'shithole' comment denounced across the globe". Politico. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Pace, Julie (January 12, 2018). "Trump's own words revive debate over whether he's racist". Associated Press.
- "Donald Trump denies being a racist after 'shithole' row". BBC News. January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
- Wintour, Patrick; Burke, Jason; Livsey, Anna (January 13, 2018). "'There's no other word but racist': Trump's global rebuke for 'shithole' remark". The Guardian. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Raymond, Adam K. (November 30, 2017). "British MPs Condemn 'Racist,' 'Incompetent' Trump for Endorsing 'Vile Fascist' Group". New York. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Salama, Vivian (January 12, 2018). "Trump's history of breaking decorum with remarks on race, ethnicity". NBC News. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Nichols, Laura (June 29, 2017). "Poll: Majority of Trump Voters Say His Political Correctness Is 'About Right'". Morning Consult. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- "Trump's 'shithole' comment is his new rock bottom". CNN. January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- McElwee, Sean; McDaniel, Jason (May 8, 2017). "Economic Anxiety Didn't Make People Vote Trump, Racism Did". The Nation. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Lopez, German (December 15, 2017). "The past year of research has made it very clear: Trump won because of racial resentment". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- "Harsh Words For U.S. Family Separation Policy, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Voters Have Dim View Of Trump, Dems On Immigration". Quinnipiac University Polling Institute. July 3, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Marcin, Tim (July 5, 2018). "44 Percent Of White Americans Think Donald Trump Is Racist, New Poll Finds". Newsweek. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Parnes, Amy (April 28, 2018). "Trump's love-hate relationship with the press". The Hill. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Ingram, Mathew (March 1, 2016). "Love and Hate: The Media's Co-Dependent Relationship With Donald Trump". Fortune. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- "Trump's love-hate relationship with media intensifies". Arab News. January 24, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- D'Antonio, Michael (July 10, 2016). "Who is Donald Trump?" (Interview). CNN. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- Walsh, Kenneth T. (August 15, 2016). "Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt'". U.S. News & World Report.
'If the disgusting and corrupt media covered me honestly and didn't put false meaning into the words I say, I would be beating Hillary by 20 percent,' Trump also tweeted Sunday.
- Bondarenko, Veronika. "Trump keeps saying 'enemy of the people' — but the phrase has a very ugly history". Business Insider. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Cillizza, Chris (June 14, 2016). "This Harvard study is a powerful indictment of the media's role in Donald Trump's rise". The Washington Post.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline. "'60 Minutes' correspondent: Trump said he attacks the press so no one believes negative coverage". The Hill. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
- Bump, Philip (May 9, 2018). "Trump makes it explicit: Negative coverage of him is fake coverage". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- "Trump Calls Media 'Enemy Of The American People' In Latest Attack". San Francisco, California: KPIX-TV. Associated Press. February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
- Stelter, Brian; Collins, Kaitlan. "Trump's latest shot at the press corps: 'Take away credentials?'". CNNMoney. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
- Guess, Andrew; Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason (January 9, 2018). "Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign" (PDF). Dartmouth.edu. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- H. Allcott; M.Gentzkow (2017). "Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 election" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. 31 (2): 211–236. doi:10.1257/jep.31.2.211. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Sarlin, Benjy (January 14, 2018). "'Fake news' went viral in 2016. This professor studied who clicked". NBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- Garber, Megan (April 3, 2017). "'Donald Trump' Gets a Comedy Central Series". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- McCann, Allison (July 14, 2016). "Hip-Hop Is Turning On Donald Trump". FiveThirtyEight.
- mantolius (February 25, 2016). 25 years of Donald Trump mentions in hip hop. Retrieved November 15, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (December 20, 2017). "Eminem attacks Donald Trump: 'He's got people brainwashed'". The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- Zaru, Deena (July 28, 2018). "Why top protest songs in hip-hop don't mention Donald Trump: 'He's irrelevant to the movement'". ABC News. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- Steeve, Dustin (January 23, 2017). "Donald Trump's Social Media Use Is Key To Sidelining The Press". The Federalist. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Qui, Linda (April 27, 2017). "Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Kessler, Glenn; Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (May 1, 2017). "Fact Checker Analysis – President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- Drinkard, Jim; Woodward, Calvin (June 24, 2017). "Fact check: Trump's missions unaccomplished despite his claims". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- "Donald Trump: Robert Gordon University strips honorary degree". BBC News. May 3, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Gibbs, Nancy (December 7, 2016). "Why Donald Trump is TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Kim, Eun Kyung (December 7, 2016). "Donald Trump: Mitt Romney is still in the running for secretary of state". Today. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld (December 7, 2016). "Mitt Romney Still in the Running for Secretary of State, Trump Says". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2016.
- Luce, Edward (December 12, 2016). "FT Person of the Year: Donald Trump". Financial Times. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. December 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Gillin, Joshua (August 24, 2015). "Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade'". PolitiFact. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Kurtzleben, Danielle (July 28, 2015). "Most of Donald Trump's Political Money Went To Democrats — Until 5 Years Ago". NPR. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Oreskes, Michael (September 2, 1987). "Trump Gives a Vague Hint of Candidacy". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Butterfield, Fox (November 18, 1987). "Trump Urged To Head Gala Of Democrats". The New York Times.
- Kranish & Fisher 2017, p. 3.
- Gallup 1990, p. 3.
- Trump, Donald J. (February 19, 2000). "What I Saw at the Revolution". The New York Times.
- Winger, Richard (December 25, 2011). "Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries". Ballot Access News.
- Johnson, Glen. "Donald Trump eyeing a run at the White House". Standard-Speaker. Hazelton, Pennsylvania.
- "Ballot Access News – Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries". ballot-access.org. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- "CA Secretary of State – Primary 2000 – Statewide Totals". ca.gov. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
- Travis, Shannon (May 17, 2011). "Was he ever serious? How Trump strung the country along, again". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- "Donald Trump in the No Spin Zone". Fox News. January 20, 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "Trump endorses McCain". CNN. September 18, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- "GOProud Leads 'Trump in 2012' Movement at CPAC". Towleroad.com. February 10, 2011.
- CNN Political Unit (May 16, 2011). "Trump not running for president". CNN. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- "Trump endorses Romney, cites tough China position and electability". Fox News. February 2, 2012.
- MacAskill, Ewen (May 16, 2011). "Donald Trump bows out of 2012 US presidential election race". The Guardian.
Few US political commentators took his campaign seriously and many suggested he was only in it for the publicity.
- "Donald Trump says he might run for president. Three reasons he won't". The Christian Science Monitor. February 10, 2011. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Linkins, Jason (February 11, 2011). "Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President' Act To CPAC". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Haberman, Maggie; Burns, Alexander (March 12, 2016). "Donald Trump's Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- "Donald Trump to address CPAC". Yahoo! News. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Madison, Lucy (March 15, 2013). "Trump: Immigration reform a "suicide mission" for GOP". CBS News.
- Amira, Dan (March 15, 2013). "Photos of Donald Trump Delivering His Self-Aggrandizing CPAC Speech to a Half-Empty Ballroom". New York (magazine).
- "Trump researching 2016 run". Page Six. May 27, 2013.
- Spector, Joseph (October 14, 2013). "N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor". USA Today. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- Miller, Jake (February 13, 2014). "Trump trumped by Cuomo in N.Y. governor race, poll finds". CBS News. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Feely, Paul (February 27, 2015). "Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run". New Hampshire Union Leader. Archived from the original on July 12, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- Lerner, Adam B. (June 16, 2015). "The 10 best lines from Donald Trump's announcement speech". Politico. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (September 5, 2015). "By self-funding my campaign, I am not controlled by my donors, special interests or lobbyists. I am only working for the people of the U.S.!" (Tweet). Retrieved June 7, 2018 – via Twitter.
- Graham, David A. (May 13, 2016). "The Lie of Trump's 'Self-Funding' Campaign". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Linshi, Jack (July 7, 2015). "More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever". Time. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Reeve, Elspeth (October 27, 2015). "How Donald Trump Evolved From a Joke to an Almost Serious Candidate". The New Republic. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
- Bump, Philip (March 23, 2016). "Why Donald Trump is poised to win the nomination and lose the general election, in one poll". The Washington Post.
- Nussbaum, Matthew (May 3, 2016). "RNC Chairman: Trump is our nominee". Politico. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Hartig, Hannah; Lapinski, John; Psyllos, Stephanie (July 19, 2016). "Poll: Clinton and Trump Now Tied as GOP Convention Kicks Off". NBC News.
- "2016 General Election: Trump vs. Clinton". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "General Election: Trump vs. Clinton". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- Levingston, Ivan (July 15, 2016). "Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence for VP". CNBC.
- "Trump closes the deal, becomes Republican nominee for president". Fox News. July 19, 2016.
- Timm, Jane C. (July 17, 2016). "9 Elephants in the Room at RNC: Who's Missing From the Speakers List". NBC News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Raju, Manu (May 5, 2016). "Flake, McCain split over backing Trump". CNN. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
- Battaglio, Stephen (July 22, 2016). "35 million TV viewers watch Donald Trump's acceptance speech at GOP convention". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Agiesta, Jennifer. "Trump bounces into the lead". CNN. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Newport, Frank (July 26, 2016). "For First Time, Trump's Image on Par With Clinton's". Gallup News. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "2016 Presidential Debate Schedule". September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Stelter, Brian (September 27, 2016). "Debate breaks record as most-watched in U.S. history". CNNMoney. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- "US presidential debate: Trump won't commit to accept election result". BBC News. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "How US media reacted to the third presidential debate". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Trump's promises before and after election". BBC News. September 19, 2017.
- Edwards, Jason A. (2018). "Make America Great Again: Donald Trump and Redefining the U.S. Role in the World". Communication Quarterly. 66 (2): 176. doi:10.1080/01463373.2018.1438485. ISSN 0146-3373.
On the campaign trail, Trump repeatedly called North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 'obsolete,'
- Muller, Jan-Werner (2016). What Is Populism?. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8122-9378-4.
- Kazin, Michael (March 22, 2016). "How Can Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Both Be 'Populist'?". The New York Times Magazine.
- Becker, Bernie (February 13, 2016). "Trump's 6 populist positions". Politico.
- "Tax Reform | Donald J Trump for President". Donaldjtrump.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (December 16, 2015). "Liberals will love something Donald Trump said last night". The Washington Post.
- Sharman, Jon (December 21, 2016). "Democrats can finally agree with Donald Trump on something". The Independent. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Williams, Mason B. (January 7, 2017). "Would Trump's Infrastructure Plan Fix America's Cities?". The Atlantic.
- Shafer, Jack (May 2016). "Did We Create Trump?". Politico.
... Trump's outrageous comments about John McCain, Muslims, the 14th Amendment and all the rest ...
- Trump & Schwartz 2009, p. 56.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (August 17, 2015). "20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June". The Washington Post.
- Hensch, Mark (July 12, 2015). "'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops". The Hill.
- Noah, Timothy (July 26, 2015). "Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?". Politico.
- Timm, Jane C. "A Full List of Donald Trump's Rapidly Changing Policy Positions". NBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Koppel, Ted (July 24, 2016). "Trump: "I feel I'm an honest person"". CBS News.
'Well, I think that I'm an honest person,' Trump said. 'I feel I'm an honest person. And I don't mind being criticized at all by the media, but I do wanna – you know, I do want them to be straight about it.'
- Blake, Aaron (July 6, 2015). "Donald Trump is waging war on political correctness. And he's losing". The Washington Post.
- "The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump". FactCheck.org. December 21, 2015.
- Holan, Angie Drobnic; Qiu, Linda (December 21, 2015). "2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump". PolitiFact.
- Farhi, Paul (February 26, 2016). "Think Trump's wrong? Fact checkers can tell you how often. (Hint: A lot.)". The Washington Post.
- Stelter, Brian (September 26, 2016). "The weekend America's newspapers called Donald Trump a liar". CNN.
- McCammon, Sarah (August 10, 2016). "Donald Trump's controversial speech often walks the line". NPR.
Many of Trump's opaque statements seem to rely on suggestion and innuendo.
- Flitter, Emily; Oliphant, James (August 28, 2015). "Best president ever! How Trump's love of hyperbole could backfire". Reuters.
Trump's penchant for exaggeration could backfire – he risks promising voters more than he can deliver ... Optimistic exaggeration ... is a hallmark of the cutthroat New York real estate world where many developers, accustomed to ramming their way into deals, puff up their portfolios. 'A little hyperbole never hurts,' he wrote ... For Trump, exaggerating has always been a frequent impulse, especially when the value of his Trump brand is disputed.
- Barkun, Michael (2017). "President Trump and the Fringe". Terrorism and Political Violence. 29 (3): 437. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1313649. ISSN 1556-1836.
- Lopez, German (August 14, 2017). "We need to stop acting like Trump isn't pandering to white supremacists". Vox. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Blow, Charles M. (September 18, 2017). "Is Trump a White Supremacist?". The New York Times.
- Kharakh, Ben; Primack, Dan (March 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists". Fortune.
- White, Daniel (January 26, 2016). "Trump Criticized for Retweeting Racist Account". Time.
- "White Nationalists and the Alt-Right Celebrate Trump's Victory". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Chan, Melissa (February 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Refuses to Condemn KKK, Disavow David Duke Endorsement". Time. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
- Lozada, Carlos (December 30, 2016). "Donald Trump and the alt-right: A marriage of convenience". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Nelson, Libby (August 12, 2017). ""Why we voted for Donald Trump": David Duke explains the white supremacist Charlottesville protests". Vox. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Cummings, William (August 15, 2017). "Former KKK leader David Duke praises Trump for his 'courage'". USA Today. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
- Haberman, Maggie (May 5, 2016). "Donald Trump 'Disavows' David Duke's Remarks on 'Jewish Extremists'". The New York Times.
- "Trump disavows 'alt-right' supporters". BBC News. November 23, 2016.
- Scott, Eugene (March 3, 2016). "Trump denounces David Duke, KKK". CNN.
- Ohlheiser, Abby (June 3, 2016). "Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme". The Washington Post.
- Weigel, David (August 20, 2016). "'Racialists' are cheered by Trump's latest strategy". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
- Krieg, Gregory (August 25, 2016). "Clinton is attacking the 'Alt-Right' – What is it?". CNN. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
- Sevastopulo, Demetri. "'Alt-right' movement makes mark on US presidential election". Financial Times.
- Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54600-3.
- Wilson, Jason (November 15, 2016). "Clickbait scoops and an engaged alt-right: everything to know about Breitbart News". The Guardian. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's New York Times Interview: Full Transcript". The New York Times. November 23, 2016.
- Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (U.S. OGE Form 278e). Bloomberg Businessweek. July 15, 2015.
- "Romney calls decision by Trump not to release tax returns 'disqualifying'". Fox News. May 11, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Cillizza, Chris (April 17, 2018). "Happy Tax Day! Donald Trump still has never released his tax returns!". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Rappeport, Alan (May 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Breaks With Recent History by Not Releasing Tax Returns". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Disis, Jill (January 26, 2017). "Presidential tax returns: It started with Nixon. Will it end with Trump?". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Erb, Kelly Phillip (August 12, 2016). "Trump Won't Release Tax Returns, Citing IRS Audit: Is It A Legitimate Excuse?". Forbes. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Collinson, Stephen; Diamond, Jeremy; Khan, Hasan (February 25, 2016). "Donald Trump rejects Mitt Romney's ironic tax attack". CNN. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- Isidore, Chris; Sahadi, Jeanne (February 26, 2016). "Trump says he can't release tax returns because of audits". CNN. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Browning, Lynnley (February 26, 2016). "Trump's 12 Years of Audits 'Very Unusual,' Ex-IRS Agent Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- Kopan, Tal (May 13, 2016). "Trump on his tax rate: 'None of your business'". CNN.
- Wilhelm, Colin (January 24, 2016). "Trump vows to release his tax returns". Politico. Retrieved February 22, 2016.
It's a little tax
- Zarroli, Jim (February 26, 2016). "Fact-Check: Donald Trump Can't Release His Taxes While Being Audited?". NPR.
- Eder, Steve; Twohey, Megan (October 10, 2016). "Donald Trump Acknowledges Not Paying Federal Income Taxes for Years". The New York Times.
- Politico Staff (October 10, 2016). "Full transcript: Second 2016 presidential debate". Politico.
- "Pages From Donald Trump's 1995 Income Tax Records". The New York Times. October 1, 2016.
- Barstow, David; Craig, Susanne; Buettner, Russ; Twohey, Megan (October 1, 2016). "Donald Trump Tax Records Show He Could Have Avoided Taxes for Nearly Two Decades, The Times Found". The New York Times.
- Baker, Peter; Drucker, Jesse; Craig, Susanne; Barstow, David (March 15, 2017). "Trump Wrote Off $100 Million in Business Losses in 2005". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Jagoda, Naomi. "WH releases Trump tax info ahead of MSNBC report: He paid $38M in federal taxes in '05". The Hill. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
- Ford, Matt (December 7, 2017). "What About the 19 Women Who Accused Trump of Sexual Misconduct?". The Atlantic.
- Byers, Dylan (October 12, 2016). "Donald Trump threatens to sue New York Times over sexual harassment report". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- "Trump demands NYT retracts 'libelous article' about alleged assault as new claims emerge". Fox News. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Healy, Patrick; Rappeport, Alan (October 13, 2016). "Donald Trump Calls Allegations by Women 'False Smears'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Sakuma, Amanda (October 26, 2016). "Donald Trump Surrogates Have Their Own Baggage With Women Voters". NBC News.
... newly unearthed audio recordings showed Trump bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals.
- Jan, Tracy (October 14, 2016). "More women accuse Trump of aggressive sexual behavior". The Boston Globe.
Trump has been confronted with a slew of allegations of sexual misconduct over the past week, starting with a report in The Washington Post of a 2005 tape featuring him bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals.
- Lawler, David; Henderson, Barney; Allen, Nick; Sherlock, Ruth (October 13, 2016). "US presidential debate recap: Polls split on whether Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton won poisonous argument". The Daily Telegraph.
... it was a matter of minutes before the lewd tape, in which Mr. Trump brags about 'grabbing p----' and forcibly kissing women, was brought up.
- Timm, Jane C. (October 7, 2016). "Trump caught on hot mic making lewd comments about women in 2005". NBC News. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
- Burns, Alexander; Haberman, Maggie; Martin, Jonathan (October 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Apology Caps Day of Outrage Over Lewd Tape". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Jensen, Salvatore (October 8, 2016). "Donald Trump's vulgar conversation about women caught on hot mic". Cosumnes Connection. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Hagen, Lisa (October 7, 2016). "Kaine on lewd Trump tapes: 'Makes me sick to my stomach'". The Hill. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Stacey, Madison (October 8, 2016). "Pence to fill in for Donald Trump Saturday following video leak". Indianapolis, Indiana: WXIN-TV. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (October 8, 2016). "Here's the fast-growing list of Republicans calling for Donald Trump to drop out". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Nelson, Libby; Frostenson, Sarah (October 20, 2016). "A brief guide to the 17 women Trump has allegedly assaulted, groped or harassed". Vox. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Helderman, Rosalind S. "The growing list of women who have stepped forward to accuse Trump of touching them inappropriately". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
- Stableford, Dylan (October 17, 2016). "The women who have accused Donald Trump". Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- ""I never said I'm a perfect person," Trump says about lewd comments". CBS News. Associated Press. October 7, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Schmidt, Kiersten; Andrews, Wilson (December 19, 2016). "A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Desilver, Drew (December 20, 2017). "Trump's victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones". Pew Research Center.
- Thomas, G. Scott (2015). Counting the Votes: A New Way to Analyze America's Presidential Elections. ABC-CLIO. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-4408-3883-5.
- Cheney, Kyle (December 14, 2016). "Trump lawyer cites 1876 crisis to rebuke Electoral College suit". Politico.
- "Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. December 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
- Tani, Maxwell (November 9, 2016). "Trump pulls off biggest upset in U.S. history". Politico. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Cohn, Nate (November 9, 2016). "Why Trump Won: Working-Class Whites". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Silver, Nate (January 17, 2017). "Can You Trust Trump's Approval Rating Polls?". FiveThirtyEight.
- Silver, Nate (September 21, 2017). "The Media Has A Probability Problem". FiveThirtyEight.
- Martin, Emmie (January 23, 2017). "Donald Trump is officially the richest US president in history". Business Insider. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
- Weber, Peter (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump will be the first U.S. president with no government or military experience". The Week.
- Yomtov, Jesse (November 8, 2016). "Where Trump ranks among least experienced presidents". USA Today.
- Crockett, Zachary (November 11, 2016). "Donald Trump will be the only US president ever with no political or military experience". Vox. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- "Will Trump Be The 44th Or 45th President? Yes And Yes NPR Ethics Handbook". NPR. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Moyer, Justin Wm.; Starrs, Jenny; Larimer, Sarah (March 11, 2016). "Trump supporter charged after sucker-punching protester at North Carolina rally". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Sullivan, Sean; Miller, Michael E. (June 3, 2016). "Ugly, bloody scenes in San Jose as protesters attack Trump supporters outside rally". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Diamond, Jeremy (May 28, 2016). "Pro-Trump, anti-Trump groups clash in San Diego". CNN. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
- Cummings, William (November 11, 2016). "Trump calls protests 'unfair' in first controversial tweet as president-elect". USA Today. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Colson, Thomas (November 11, 2016). "Trump says protesters have 'passion for our great country' after calling demonstrations 'very unfair'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
- Przybyla, Heidi M.; Schouten, Fredreka (January 22, 2017). "At 2.6 million strong, Women's Marches crush expectations". USA Today (online ed.). Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Buncombe, Andrew (January 22, 2017). "We asked ten people why they felt empowered wearing a pink 'pussy' hat". The Independent. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- "Here's your list of all the protests happening against the Muslim Ban – ThinkProgress". Thinkprogress.org. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Quigley, Aidan (January 25, 2017). "All of Trump's executive actions so far". Politico. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Barnes, Robert (January 31, 2017). "Trump picks Colo. appeals court judge Neil Gorsuch for Supreme Court". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Andrews, Wilson; Parlapiano, Alicia (December 15, 2017). "What's in the Final Republican Tax Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
- Sherman, Natalie; Palumbo, Daniele (January 26, 2018). "Can Trump claim credit for bonus rush?". BBC News.
- Kurtzleben, Danielle. "CHARTS: See How Much Of GOP Tax Cuts Will Go To The Middle Class". NPR.
- Seipel, Arnie; Kurtzleben, Danielle (December 20, 2017). "Trump Celebrates Legislative Win After Congress Passes $1.5 Trillion Tax Cut Bill". NPR.
- Berman, Russell (December 12, 2017). "What's in—and Out of—the Final Republican Tax Bill". The Atlantic.
- Schlesinger, Jacob M. (November 15, 2018). "Trump Forged His Ideas on Trade in the 1980s—And Never Deviated". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- "Lawrence Solomon: Donald Trump's protectionism fits right in with Republicans". Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Epstein, Reid J.; Nelson, Colleen McCain (June 28, 2016). "Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech". The Wall Street Journal (subscription required). Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Appelbaum, Binyamin (March 10, 2016). "On Trade, Donald Trump Breaks With 200 Years of Economic Orthodoxy". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Trump calls NAFTA a "disaster"". CBS News. September 25, 2015.
- "Election 2016: Your money, your vote. Yes, 'President Trump' really could kill NAFTA – but it wouldn't be pretty". CNN. July 6, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- Bradner, Eric (January 23, 2017). "Trump's TPP withdrawal: 5 things to know". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- Turak, Natasha (March 2, 2018). "'Straight up stupid,' 'incompetent' and 'misguided': Economist Adam Posen rips Trump's tariffs". CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Inman, Phillip (March 10, 2018). "The war over steel: Trump tips global trade into new turmoil". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Lane, Charles (October 21, 2015). "Donald Trump's contempt for the free market". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Haberman, Maggie (January 7, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Dann, Carrie (July 23, 2016). "Trump: I'm Running Against Clinton, Not 'Rest of the World'". NBC News. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Needham, Vicki (July 24, 2016). "Trump suggests leaving WTO over import tax proposal". The Hill. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- "Trump tariffs: US President imposes levy on steel and aluminium". BBC News. March 8, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
- "EU's retaliatory tariffs on US products come into effect". Deutsche Welle. June 22, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Ewing, Jack (June 21, 2018). "Europe Retaliates Against Trump Tariffs". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Boudreau, Catherine (July 6, 2018). "Trump country hit hard by Chinese tariffs". Politico. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Hjelmgaard, Kim (July 6, 2018). "Trump launches $34 billion trade war and China 'immediately' fires back". USA Today. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Wei, Han; Qi, Zhang (June 15, 2018). "Trade War Back on Stage With New U.S. Tariffs - Caixin Global". Caixin. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- Chen, Yawen; Lawder, David (September 18, 2018). "China says Trump forces its hand, will retaliate against new U.S. tariffs". Reuters. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
- Kim, Tae (September 18, 2018). "China hits back: It will impose tariffs on $60 billion worth of US goods effective Sept. 24". CNBC.
- Zaharia, Marius (July 6, 2018). "How trade war with US can hurt China and economies including Australia". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Kool, Tom (July 6, 2018). "Analysis: Tariffs from China, US have potential for $2 trillion trade war fallout". USA Today. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
- Chang, Sue (July 3, 2018). "Fitch warns President Trump's trade fight could cost the world $2 trillion in global trade". Market Watch. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- "An America first energy plan" (Press release). May 26, 2016. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (March 3, 2017). "Trump Got Nearly $1 Million in Energy-Efficiency Subsidies in 2012". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- "Trump proposes cuts to climate and clean-energy programs". National Geographic Society. February 12, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- Parker, Ashley; Davenport, Coral (May 26, 2016). "Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules". The New York Times.
- Samenow, Jason (March 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's unsettling nonsense on weather and climate". The Washington Post.
- Embury-Dennis, Tom. "Trump's environment chief Scott Pruitt suggests climate change could be good for humanity". The Independent. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
- Bacon, John. "Scientists rebuff EPA chief's claim that global warming may be good". USA Today. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- "In Their Own Words: 2016 Presidential Candidates on Climate Change" (PDF). League of Conservation Voters. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2016. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Liptak, Kevin; Acosta, Jim (June 1, 2017). "Trump on Paris accord: 'We're getting out'". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- Dennis, Brandy. "As Syria embraces Paris climate deal, it's the United States against the world". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Adriance, Sam (February 16, 2017). "President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years". The National Law Review. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Farand, Chloe (March 6, 2017). "Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House". The Independent. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples". The New York Times. March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017 – via DocumentCloud.
More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target.
- Shear, Michael D. (January 23, 2017). "Trump Orders Broad Hiring Freeze for Federal Government". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- "Trump Orders Hiring Freeze for Much of Federal Government". Fox News. January 24, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Yoder, Eric (February 16, 2017). "Hiring freeze could add to government's risk, GAO chief warns". The Washington Post.
'We've looked at hiring freezes in the past by prior administrations and they haven't proven to be effective in reducing costs and they cause some problems if they're in effect for a long period of time', Comptroller General Gene Dodaro told a House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing.
- Rappeport, Alan (April 11, 2017). "Trump's Directive Will Lift Hiring Freeze, as It Asks Agencies for Cuts". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "Trump Signs Executive Order to Drastically Cut Federal Regs". Fox News. January 30, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (January 30, 2017). "Presidential Executive Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs". Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Calabresi, Massimo (March 9, 2017). "Inside Donald Trump's War against the State". Time.
Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests.
- Kertscher, Tom (September 11, 2015). "Donald Trump wants to replace Obamacare with a single-payer health care system, GOP congressman says". Politifact Wisconsin. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Trump, Donald (2000). The America We Deserve. Los Angeles: Renaissance Books. pp. 258–278. ISBN 978-1-58063-131-0. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Millward, David (August 7, 2015). "Trump under attack as he praises NHS care". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Learmonth, Andrew (August 8, 2015). "US presidential hope Donald Trump hails the NHS in Scotland". The National. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Kodjak, Alison (November 9, 2016). "Trump Can Kill Obamacare With Or Without Help From Congress". All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Walsh, Deirdre; Lee, MJ (January 10, 2017). "Trump wants Obamacare repeal 'quickly,' but Republicans aren't ready". CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Sullivan, Peter (May 4, 2017). "House passes Obamacare repeal". The Hill. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "GOP Obamacare repeal bill fails in dramatic late-night vote". CNN. July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Nelson, Louis (July 18, 2017). "Trump says he plans to 'let Obamacare fail'". Politico. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Young, Jeffrey (August 31, 2017). "Trump Ramps Up Obamacare Sabotage With Huge Cuts To Enrollment Programs". HuffPost. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Pradhan, Rachana (August 31, 2017). "Trump administration slashes Obamacare outreach". Politico. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
- Pear, Robert (December 18, 2017). "Without the Insurance Mandate, Health Care's Future May Be in Doubt". The New York Times.
- Sullivan, Peter (December 2, 2017). "Senate GOP repeals ObamaCare mandate". The Hill.
- Jost, Timothy (December 20, 2017). "The Tax Bill And The Individual Mandate: What Happened, And What Does It Mean?". Health Affairs. doi:10.1377/hblog20171220.323429 (inactive 2018-12-14).
- Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion". CNN.
- De Vogue, Ariane (November 15, 2016). "Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled,' but Roe v Wade can be changed". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
- Ehrenfreund, Max (July 22, 2015). "Here's what Donald Trump really believes". The Washington Post.
- Gorman, Michele (May 20, 2016). "A brief history of Donald Trump's stance on gun rights". Newsweek.
- "Second Amendment Rights". Donald J. Trump for President. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended.
- Krieg, Gregory (June 20, 2016). "The times Trump changed his positions on guns". CNN.
- "Donald Trump on Marijuana". C-SPAN. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- Diamond, Jeremy (December 11, 2015). "Trump: Death penalty for cop killers". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Foderaro, Lisa (May 1, 1989). "Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return of the Death Penalty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- McCarthy, Tom. "Donald Trump: I'd bring back 'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding'". The Guardian. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding". ABC News. February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- "Who pays for Donald Trump's wall?". BBC News. February 6, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
- "Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. August 19, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Oh, Inae (August 19, 2015). "Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- "Trump retreats on deportations, vows no amnesty". Houston, Texas: KTRK-TV. Associated Press. September 1, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Scott, Eugene (December 13, 2015). "Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban". CNN.
- Barro, Josh (December 15, 2015). "How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask". The New York Times.
Donald J. Trump's proposal to bar Muslim noncitizens from entering the United States ...
- Colvin, Jill; Barrow, Bill (December 14, 2015). "Donald Trump's supporters see plenty of sense in views that his critics denounce". U.S. News & World Report.
He said American citizens, including Muslim members of the military, would be exempt, as would certain world leaders and athletes coming to the U.S. to compete.
- Johnson, Jenna (June 25, 2016). "Trump now says Muslim ban only applies to those from terrorism-heavy countries". Chicago Tribune.
[A] reporter asked Trump if [he] would be OK with a Muslim from Scotland coming into the United States and he said it 'wouldn't bother me.' Afterward, [spokeswoman] Hicks said in an email that Trump's ban would now just apply to Muslims in terror states ...
- Detrow, Scott (June 13, 2016). "Trump Calls To Ban Immigration From Countries With 'Proven History Of Terrorism'". NPR.
I will suspend immigration from areas of the world where there's a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies until we fully understand how to end these threats.
- Park, Haeyoun (July 22, 2016). "Trump Vows to Stop Immigration From Nations 'Compromised' by Terrorism. How Could It Work?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- "Trump signs new travel ban directive". BBC News. March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Grinberg, Emanuella; Park, Madison (January 30, 2017). "2nd day of protests over Trump's immigration policies". CNN. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- "US airports on frontline as Donald Trump's travel ban causes chaos and protests". The Guardian. January 28, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Cooper, Helene (January 27, 2017). "Trump Bars Refugees and Citizens of 7 Muslim Countries". The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Baker, Peter (January 29, 2017). "Travelers Stranded and Protests Swell Over Trump Order". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- Perez, Evan; Diamond, Jeremy (January 30, 2017). "Trump fires acting AG after she declines to defend travel ban". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- "Statement on the Appointment of Dana Boente as Acting Attorney General". The White House. January 30, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Landler, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt; Lichtblau, Eric (January 30, 2017). "Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him". The New York Times. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Barrett, Devlin; Frosch, Dan (February 4, 2017). "Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees". The Wall Street Journal.
- Liptak, Adam (February 5, 2017). "Where Trump's Travel Ban Stands". The New York Times.
- Chakraborty, Barnini (March 6, 2017). "Trump Signs New Immigration Order, Narrows Scope of Travel Ban". Fox News. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Levine, Dan; Rosenberg, Mica (March 15, 2017). "Hawaii judge halts Trump's new travel ban before it can go into effect". Reuters.
- Sherman, Mark (June 26, 2017). "Trump says Supreme Court decision on travel ban a 'clear victory for our national security'". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- Laughland, Oliver (September 25, 2017). "Trump travel ban extended to blocks on North Korea, Venezuela and Chad". The Guardian. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Hurley, Lawrence (December 4, 2017). "Supreme Court lets Trump's latest travel ban go into full effect". Reuters.
- Liptak, Adam (January 19, 2018). "Supreme Court to Consider Challenge to Trump's Latest Travel Ban". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Biskupic, Joan (April 25, 2018). "Key moments from the Supreme Court travel ban hearing". CNN. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Wagner, Meg; Ries, Brian (June 26, 2018). "Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban". CNN. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Bennett, Brian; Memoli, Michael A. (February 16, 2017). "The White House has found ways to end protection for 'Dreamers' while shielding Trump from blowback". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 22, 2017.