Dogri (Dogra: 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮, Takri: 𑚖𑚴𑚌𑚤𑚯; Devanagari: डोगरी; Nasta'liq: ڈوگری; pronunciation: [ɖoɡɾi]) is a Northern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also spoken in the state of Himachal Pradesh, and in northern Punjab region, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, and the Dogri-speaking region is called Duggar. Although formerly treated as a Punjabi dialect, Dogri is now considered to be a member of the Western Pahari group of languages. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi.
|𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮 𑚖𑚴𑚌𑚤𑚯 डोगरी ڈوگَرِی ḍogrī|
|1.6 million (2011 census)|
(not counting those who reported their language as 'Pahari')
|Devanagari, Perso-Arabic script|
Formerly Dogri, Takri
Official language in
Dogri has several varieties, all with greater than 80% lexical similarity (within Jammu and Kashmir).
Dogri is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was added in the 8th schedule of the constitution in 2001.
Dogri was originally written in Dogra Akkhar script which is an adaptation of Takri Script. It is now more commonly written in Devanagari in India, and in the Nastaʿliq form of Perso-Arabic in Pakistan and Pakistani-administered Kashmir.
The Dogra Script was standardised from Chambeali Takri Script during the Dogra rule. This script was then called "Namme Dogra Akkhar " (Dogra: 𑠝𑠢𑠹𑠢𑠳 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬 𑠀𑠊𑠹𑠋𑠤).
- Gemination occurs in all consonants except the consonants /ɾ ʃ ɽ ɳ/.
- Retroflex consonants /ɽ ɳ/ rarely occur in word initial position.
- /f z/ only occur from Perso-Arabic loan words, and /f/ is also heard as an allophone of an aspirated /pʰ/.
- /ɾ/ can also marginally be heard as trilled [r] in some speech.
- In some words, /s/ can become more weakly pronounced, or even eliminated and replaced by a glottal fricative sound [h].
- A palatal nasal sound [ɲ] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a post-alveolar affricate consonant, rarely occurring in words word-initially or medially.
- A velar nasal sound [ŋ] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a velar plosive consonant, and rarely occurs word-initially or medially.
- There are nasalized variations of the following vowels [ĩ ʊ̃ ɔ̃ ɑ̃ ɛ̃].
- Vowel sounds are often nasalized when occurring before a word-medial or word-final /n/, except when /n/ occurs before a word-final vowel.
- /ʊ/ can have a marginal upgliding allophone [ʊᵛ] when occurring before a /ɑ/ vowel sound.
- A word-final /ɑ/ can also be realized as drifting toward a centralized [a] sound.
Some common wordsEdit
|Dogri Script||Devanagari||Perso-Arabic||Transliteration (ISO-15919)||English translation||Comparative|
|𑠁𑠪𑠵||आहो||آہو||āho||Yes||haan (Hindustani), aa (Kashmiri), haan/aho (Punjabi), ho (Pashto)|
|𑠊𑠝𑠹𑠝𑠳||कन्ने||کنّے||kanne||With||Saath (Hindi/Urdu), سٟتھؠ [sɨːtʰʲ] (Kashmiri), Naal (Punjabi)|
|𑠝𑠯𑠊𑠹𑠊𑠬𑠷||नुक्कां||نُکّاں||nukkāṃ||Shoes||Jootey (Hindi, Urdu), Nukke/Juttiaan (Punjabi), کھۄر بانہٕ [kʰʷaɾ baːnɨ] (Kashmiri)|
|𑠡𑠭𑠙𑠹𑠙||भित्त||بِھتّ||bhitta||Door||Darwaza (Persian/Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi/Kashmiri), Phaatak/Dvaar/Kiwaad (Hindi), Buha/Dar/Duar (Punjabi), بَر [baɾ] (Kashmiri)|
|𑠊𑠳𑠪𑠹||केह्||کَہہ||keh||What||Kya (Hindustani), کیہہ [kʲah] (Kashmiri), Ki (Punjabi)|
|𑠊𑠮||की||کى||kī||Why||Kyun (Hindi/Urdu), کیازِ [kʲaːzi] (Kashmiri), Kyon/Kahte/Kahnu (Punjabi)|
|𑠛𑠵𑠁𑠝𑠬||दोआना||دوأنہ||doāna||Watermelon||Tarbooz (Hindi/Urdu), Hindwana (Urdu/Persian), Hadwana/Mateera (Punjabi), ہؠندٕوؠندٕ [hʲãd̪ɨʋʲãd̪ɨ] (Kashmiri), Indwanna (Pashto)|
|𑠛𑠯𑠝𑠭𑠣𑠬||दुनिया||دُنيہ||duniyā||World||Duniya (Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi/Persian/Arabic), دُنیا [d̪unʲjaː] (Kashmiri), Jag (Sanskrit/Hindi/Punjabi), Sansaar (Sanskrit/Hindi/Punjabi)|
Western Pahari languages, Punjabi and Punjabi dialects are frequently tonal, which is very unusual for Indo-European languages (although Swedish and Norwegian are tonal also). This tonality makes it difficult for speakers of other Indo-Aryan languages to gain facility in Dogri, though native Punjabi speakers (especially speakers of Northern dialects such as Hindko and Mirpuri) may find it easier to make the transition. Some common examples are shown below.
|Dogri Script||Devanagari Script||Tone||English translation|
|𑠊𑠵𑠤𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||कोड़ा हा।||Equal||It was a whip.|
|𑠊𑠵𑠤𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||घोड़ा हा।||Falling||It was a horse.|
|𑠊𑠵𑠤𑠬 𑠪𑠬।||कोढ़ा हा।||Rising||It was bitter.|
|𑠛𑠩 𑠊𑠭𑠣𑠬𑠷 ?||द'स कीयां।||Falling||Why is it ten?|
|𑠛𑠩 𑠊𑠭𑠣𑠬𑠷 ।||दस कीयां।||Rising||Tell me how (it happened).|
The Greek astrologer Pulomi, accompanying Alexander in his 323 B.C. campaign into the Indian subcontinent, referred to some inhabitants of Duggar as "a brave Dogra family living in the mountain ranges of Shivalik." In the year 1317, Amir Khusro, the famous Urdu and Persian poet, referred to Duger (Dogri) while describing the languages and dialects of India as follows: "Sindhi-o-Lahori-o-Kashmiri-o-Duger."
Theories on name originEdit
Intellectuals in the court of Maharaja Ranbir Singh s/o Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, described 'Duggar' as a distorted form of the word 'Dwigart,' which means "two troughs," a possible reference to the Mansar and Sruinsar Lakes.
The linguist George Grierson connected the term 'Duggar' with the Rajasthani word 'Doonger,' which means 'hill,' and 'Dogra' with 'Dongar.' This opinion has lacked support because of the inconsistency of the ostensible changes from Rajasthani to Dogri (essentially the question of how Doonger became Duggar while Donger became Dogra), and been contradicted by some scholars.
Yet another proposal stems from the presence of the word 'Durger' in the Bhuri Singh Museum (in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). The word Durger means 'invincible' in several Northern Indian languages, and could be an allusion to the ruggedness of the Duggar terrain and the historically militarized and autonomous Dogra societies. In Himachal, Dogri is majorly spoken in Hamirpur, Barsar, Una, Chintpurni, Kangra, and Bilaspur regions.
In 1976, the experts attending the Language Session of the 'All India Oriental Conference' held in Dharwad, Karnataka, could not reach consensus on the 'Dwigart' and 'Durger' hypotheses, but did manage agreement on a Doonger-Duggar connection. In a subsequent 'All India Oriental Conference' held at Jaipur in 1982, the linguists agreed that the culture, language and history of Rajasthan and Duggar share some similarities. It was also suggested that the words 'Duggar' and 'Dogra' are common in some parts of Rajasthan. Specifically, it was asserted that areas with many forts are called Duggar, and their inhabitants are accordingly known as Dogras. The land of Duggar also has many forts, which may support the opinion above. An article by Dharam Chand Prashant in the literary magazine Shiraza Dogri suggested that "the opinion that the word 'Duggar' is a form of the word 'Duggarh' sounds appropriate."
The Turkish Döğer is also the name of a Turkmen Oğuz tribe originating in Central Asia and also found amongst the Kurds. In Turkey one of the towns named after them can be written as Doker, Duger, Döker and Düğer.[dubious ]
In modern times, a notable Dogri translation (in the Takri script) of the Sanskrit classic mathematical opus Lilavati, by the noted mathematician Bhaskaracharya (b. 1114 AD), was published by the Vidya Vilas Press, Jammu in 1873. As Sanskrit literacy remained confined to a few, the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh had the Lilavati translated into Dogri by Jyotshi Bisheshwar, then principal of Jammu Pathshala.
Dogri has an established tradition of poetry, fiction and dramatic works. Recent poets range from the 18th-century Dogri poet Kavi Dattu (1725–1780) in Raja Ranjit Dev's court to Professor Ram Nath Shastri and Mrs. Padma Sachdev. Kavi Dattu is highly regarded for his Barah Massa (Twelve Months), Kamal Netra (Lotus Eyes), Bhup Bijog and Bir Bilas. Shiraza Dogri is a Dogri literary periodical issued by the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, which is a notable publisher of modern Dogri literary work, another being the Dogri Sanstha. Popular recent songs include Pala Shpaiya Dogarya, Manney di Mauj and Shhori Deya. The noted Pakistani singer Malika Pukhraj had roots in the Duggar region, and her renditions of several Dogri songs continue to be popular in the region. Some devotional songs, or bhajans, composed by Karan Singh have gained increasing popularity over time, including Kaun Kareyaan Teri Aarti.
Dogri programming features regularly on Radio Kashmir (a division of All India Radio), and Doordarshan (Indian state television) broadcasts in Jammu and Kashmir. However, Dogri does not have a dedicated state television channel yet, unlike Kashmiri (which has the Doordarshan Koshur channel, available on cable and satellite television throughout India).
Official recognition of the language has been gradual, but progressive. On 2 August 1969, the General Council of the Sahitya Academy, Delhi recognized Dogri as an "independent modern literary language" of India, based on the unanimous recommendation of a panel of linguists. (Indian Express, New Delhi, 3 August 1969). Dogri is one of the state languages of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. On 22 December 2003, in a major milestone for the official status of the language, Dogri was recognized as a national language of India in the Indian constitution. In Pakistan, the language (under the name "Pahari") continues to thrive, but is not known to have received official patronage to date. The Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat (Global Pahari Cultural Association) is a Pakistani organization dedicated to the advancement and progress of the language.
In 2005, a collection of over 100 works of prose and poetry in Dogri published over the last 50 years was made accessible online at the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore. This included works of eminent writer Dhinu Bhai Panth, Professor Madan Mohan Sharma, B.P. Sathai and Ram Nath Shastri.
- Census India, Statement 1: Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues 2011
- "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Bill, 2020". prsindia. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kangri-Dogri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Sharma, Sita Ram (1992). Encyclopaedia of Teaching Languages in India, v. 20. Anmol Publications. p. 6. ISBN 9788170415459.
- Billawaria, Anita K. (1978). History and Culture of Himalayan States, v.4. Light & Life Publishers.
- Narain, Lakshmi (1965). An Introduction to Dogri Folk Literature and Pahari Art. Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.
- Barua, Jayanti (2001). Social Mobilisation And Modern Society. ISBN 9788170998075.
- Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 427. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
Ghai, Ved Kumari (1991). Studies in Phonetics and Phonology: With Special Reference to Dogri. Ariana Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-85347-20-2.
non-Dogri speakers, also trained phoneticians, tend to hear the difference as one of length only, perceiving the second syllable as stressed
- Brightbill, Jeremy D.; Turner, Scott B. (2007). "A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Dogri Language, Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). SIL International. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script in Unicode" (PDF).
- "NammeDograAkkhar" (PDF).
- Bahri, Ujjal Singh (2001). Dogri: Phonology and Grammatical Sketch. Series in Indian Languages and Linguistics, 24: New Delhi: Bahri Publications.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Gussenhoven, Carlos (2004). The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01200-3.
- Shastri, Balkrishan (1981). Dogri in the family of world languages (Translated). Dogri Research Centre, Jammu University.
- Shastri, Ram Nath (1981). Dogri Prose Writing before Independence (Translated). Dogri Research Centre, Jammu University.
- Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9780836422832.
- Pathik, Jyoteeshwar (1980). Cultural Heritage of the Dogras. Light & Life Publishers.
- Bahri, Ujjal Singh (2001). Dogri: Phonology and Grammatical Sketch. Bahri Publications.
- Prashant, Dharam Chand (April–May 1991). "Duggar Shabad di Vayakha". Shiraza Dogri.
- Bhāskarācārya (1873). Līlāvatī (Dogri translation). Jammu: Vidya Vilas.
- Sharma, B. P. Century Old Printed Dogri Literature. Jammu & Kashmir State Research Biannual.
- Jerath, Ashok (1988). Dogra Legends of Art & Culture. Indus Publishing. p. 236. ISBN 978-81-7387-082-8.
- Joseph, Suad; Najmabadi, Afsaneh (2003). Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. Leiden: Brill. p. 75. ISBN 978-90-04-12821-7.
- Rao, S. (2004). Five Decades; the National Academy of Letters, India: a Short History of Sahitya Akademi. Sahitya Akademi.
"Lok Sabha passes bill recognising Dogri, 3 other languages". Daily Excelsior. Jammu and Kashmir. 23 December 2003. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
Dogri among other three languages has been included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution when Lok Sabha unanimously approved an amendment in the Constitution
- Tsui, Amy (2007). Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5694-1.
- "Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat (Global Pahari Cultural Association)". Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Finally, a boost: Dogri literature now a click away". Indian Express. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Gopal Haldar (2000). Languages of India. New Delhi: National Book Trust
|Dogri language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- The Dogri Language, article by Ved Kumari Ghai
- Duggar Times.com, for more on Dogri language, literature and writers
- Dailyexcelsior.com, "One Hundredth Amendment," news report on the recognition of Dogri as a national language.
- Modifications to Devanagri to represent Dogri tones
- Pahari.org, Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat (Global Pahari Cultural Association)
- Ancientscripts.com, The Takri script.
- Crulp.org, paper on tonality and intonation in Punjabi.
- Dogri computing resources at TDIL (Devanagari Script)