Divine twins

The Divine Twins are youthful horsemen, either gods or demigods, who serve as rescuers and healers in Proto-Indo-European mythology.[1]

Like other figures found in Indo-European myths, the Divine Twins are not directly attested by archaeological or written materials, but scholars of comparative mythology and Indo-European studies generally agree on the motif they have reconstructed by way of the comparative method.[2][3]

NameEdit

Although the Proto-Indo-European name of the Divine Twins cannot be reconstructed with certainty based on the available linguistic evidence, the most frequent epithets associated with the two brothers in liturgic and poetic traditions are the "Youthful" and the "Sons" (or "Grandsons") of the Sky-God (Dyēus).[4][5][3]

Two well-accepted descendants of the Divine Twins, the Vedic Aśvins and the Lithuanian Ašvieniai, are linguistic cognates ultimately deriving from the Proto-Indo-European word for the horse, *h₁éḱwos. They are related to Sanskrit áśva and Avestan aspā (both deriving from Indo-Iranian *aćua), and to Old Lithuanian ašva, which all share the meaning of "mare".[6][7]

RoleEdit

Represented as young men rescuing mortals from peril in battle or at sea, the Divine Twins rode the steeds that pull the sun across the sky and were sometimes depicted as horses themselves.[8] They shared a sister, the Dawn (*H₂éwsōs), also the daughter of the Sky-God (*Dyēus).[9] The two brothers are generally portrayed as healers and helpers, travelling in miraculous vehicles in order to save shipwrecked mortals.[1] They are often differentiated: one is represented as a physically strong and aggressive warrior, while the other is seen as a healer who rather gives attention to domestic duties, agrarian pursuits, or romantic adventures.[3]

In the Vedic, Greek and Baltic traditions, the Divine Twins similarly appear as the personifications of the morning and evening star.[1] They are depicted as the lovers or the companions of a solar female deity, preferably the Sun's daughter but sometimes also the Dawn. In the majority of stories where they appear, the Divine Twins rescue the Dawn from a watery peril, a theme that emerged from their role as the solar steeds.[10][3]

At night, the horses of the sun returned to the east in a golden boat, where they traversed the sea[a] to bring back the Sun into the sky each morning. During the day, they crossed the nocturnal sky in pursuit of their consort, the morning star. In what seems to be a later addition confined to Europe, they were said to take a rest at the end of the day on the "Isles of the Blessed", a land seating in the western sea which possessed magic apple orchards.[3] By the Bronze Age, the Divine Twins were also represented as the coachmen of the horse-driven solar chariots.[9]

EvidenceEdit

Linguistic cognatesEdit

 
Pair of Roman statuettes (3rd century AD) depicting the Dioscuri as horsemen.

Three Indo-European traditions (Greek, Indic and Baltic) attest the mytheme of equestrian twins, all associated with the dawn or the sun's daughter. Although their names do not form a complete group of cognates, they nonetheless share a similar epithet leading to a possible ancestral name, either the sons or grandsons of the sky-god Dyēus.[5][3][4]

Possible reflexesEdit

Since they cannot be linked together to a common linguistic origin, other reflexes found in the Indo-European myths are less secured, although their motifs can be compared to that of the Divine Twins.[16]

  • Celtic:[17]
    • Timaeus, in his interpretatio graeca, said that Atlantic Celts venerate "Dioskouroi" above all other gods and they [Dioskouroi] visit them from across the Ocean. Timaeus did not, however, give the names of the Celtic twins.[16] Perhaps it was about the Gallic gods of war Divanno and Dinomogetimarus, but the relationship was ultimately not proven,[18]
    • Historian Diodorus Siculus, in the fourth book of Bibliotheca historica, wrote that the Celts who dwell along the ocean worship the Dioscuroi "more than the other gods",[19]
    • Gaulish: Divanno (de) and Dinomogetimarus are said to be protective deities and "the Gallic equivalents" of the Greek Dioskouroi.[20] They seem to be represented in monuments and reliefs in France flanked by horses;[21] which would make them comparable to Gaulish Martes and the Germanic Alcis.[22] Scholarship suggests that the numerous Gallo-Roman dedicatory epigraphs to Castor and Pollux, more than any other region of the Roman Empire, attest a cult of the Dioskoroi,[23]
    • Welsh: Brân and Manawydan,[9]
    • Irish: Macha's twins;[24] in one of the myths of Macha, who is late pregnancy, is forced to race against the horses of King of Ulster. As a talented rider she wins the race, but immediately after crossing the finish line she starts giving birth. This is how Fír and Fial were born, who no longer appear in any other myth. The archetype is also partly matched by figures such as: the Gallic sun god Belenus, whose epithet Atepormaros meant "having good horses", Grannus, who is associated with the healing goddess Sirona (her name means "star"), Maponos ("Son of God"), considered in Irish mythology as the son of Dagda, associated with healing,[25]
  • Germanic:
  • Classical:
    • Greek: Amphion and Zethus, another pair of twins fathered by Zeus and Antiope; the legendary founders of Thebes, they are called "Dioskouroi, riders of white horses" (λευκόπωλος) by Euripedes in his play The Phoenician Women (the same epithet is used in Heracles and in the lost play Antiope); in keeping with the theme of distinction between the twins, Amphion was said to be the more contemplative, sensitive one, whereas Zethus was more masculine and tied to physical pursuits, like hunting and cattle-breeding.[27][28][29]
    • Rome/Greece: the Palici, a pair of Sicilian twin deities fathered by Zeus in one account.[30]
    • Roman: Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Their mother, Rhea Sylwia, placed them in a basket before her death, which she put in the river to protect them from murder, before they were found by the she-wolf who raised them.[31]
 
A copy of the twin statue from the island of Fischerinsel
  • Slavic:
    • Lel and Polel: first mentioned by Maciej Miechowita in 1519. Presented as Polish equivalents of Castor and Pollux, sons of the goddess Łada (counterpart of the Greek Leda) and an unknown male god. In 1969, on the Fischerinsel island, where the cult center of the Slavic tribe of Veleti was located, an idol was found, depicting two male figures joined with their heads. Scholars believe it may represent Lel and Polel. Lelek in Russian dialect means "strong youth".[32]
    • Waligóra (pl) ("Mountain Beater") and Wyrwidąb (pl) ("Oak Tearer")[33] – hero twins in Polish legends. During childbirth, their mother died in the forest, and wild animals took care of the twins. Waligóra was taken care of by a she-wolf and Wyrwidąb by a she-bear, which fed them with their own milk. Together, they defeated the dragon who tormented the kingdom, for which the grateful king gave each of them half of the kingdom and one of his two daughters as a wife. The sons of Krak: Krak II and Lech II also appear in Polish legends as the killers of the Wawel dragon.[34]
  • Vedic: another possible reflex may be found in Nakula and Sahadeva, in the Vedic religion and literature. Mothered by Princess Madri, who summoned the Aśvins themselves in a prayer to beget her sons (thus them being called Ashvineya (आश्विनेय)), the twins are two of the five Pandava brothers, married to the same woman, Draupadi. In the Mahabharata epic, Nakula is described in terms of his exceptional beauty, warriorship and martial prowess, while Sahadeva is depicted as patient, wise, intelligent and a "learned man". Nakula takes great interest in Virata's horses, and his brother Sahadeva become Virata's cowherd.[41][42][43][44][45][46]
  • Armenian: Sanasar and Baldasar, who appear as twins in the epic tradition; Sanasar finds a "fiery horse", is more warlike than his brother, and becomes the progenitor of a dynasty of heroes.[47][48] Scholar Armen Petrosyan also sees possible reflexes of the divine twins in other pairs of heroic brothers in Armenian epic tradition.[49]

LegacyEdit

 
Ašvieniai, commonly called the little horses, on the rooftop of a house in Nida, Lithuania

The mytheme of the Divine Twins was widely popular in the Indo-European traditions, and evidence for their worship can be found from Scandinavia to the Near East as early as the Bronze Age. The motif was also adopted in non-Indo-European cultures, as attested by the Etruscan Tinas Clenar, the "sons of Jupiter".[50]

Scholars have proposed that, in Myceanean times, there might have been a worship of twin deities, based on the presence of pairs of brothers or male twins in Attica and Boeotia.[51]

The most prevalent functions associated with the twins in later myths are magic healers and physicians, sailors and saviours at sea, warriors and providers of divine aid in battle, controllers of weather and keepers of the wind, assistants at birth with a connection to fertility, divinities of dance, protectors of the oath, and founders of cities, sometimes related to swans.[3][52]

Scholarship suggests that the mytheme of twins has echoes in the medieval legend of Amicus and Amelius,[53] and in Belarrussian folklore, with Saints George and Nicholas - both being paired up together, their having an association with horses and their dual nature as healers.[54]

Literary approaches to the mytheme of the Indo-European Divine Twins can be found in Zeus, a Study in Ancient Religion (1925), by Arthur Bernard Cook. The British scholar posits that some versions of The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird, collected from Greek and Albanian sources, contain some remnants of Helen and her brothers, the Dioskouroi, in the characters of the wonder-children (triplets or two male/one female siblings) with astronomical motifs on their bodies.[55] The idea is reiterated in Angelo de Gubernatis's Zoological Mythology, Vol. 1.[56] The Italian scholar analyses the twins in a variant of The Boys with the Golden Stars format as the "Açvinau" (Asvins) of Vedic lore.[57]

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ The northern Black Sea or the Sea of Azov.[11]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c Jackson 2002, p. 78.
  2. ^ a b c West 2007, p. 187.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 161.
  4. ^ a b c Jackson 2002, p. 67.
  5. ^ a b West 2007, p. 187–191.
  6. ^ Derksen 2015, p. 65.
  7. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander. "Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon". Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project. Leiden University. See entry áśva- (online database).
  8. ^ West 2007, p. 188.
  9. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 432.
  10. ^ a b c West 2007, p. 189.
  11. ^ West 2007, p. 191.
  12. ^ Beekes 2011, p. 35.
  13. ^ a b c d Parpola 2015, p. 109.
  14. ^ Prósper, Blanca María. “The Instrumental Case in the Thematic Noun Inflection of Continental Celtic.” Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics, vol. 124, 2011, pp. 250–267. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41553575. Accessed 21 Apr. 2020.
  15. ^ Weinstock, Stefan. “Two Archaic Inscriptions from Latium.” The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 50, 1960, pp. 112–118. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/298293. Accessed 21 Apr. 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d West 2007, p. 190.
  17. ^ Mackintosh, Majorie Carol (1992). The divine horseman in the art of the western Roman Empire. PhD thesis The Open University. pp. 113-116.
  18. ^ Maier, Bernhard, 1963- (1997). Dictionary of Celtic religion and culture. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-85115-698-3. OCLC 36074567.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Diodorus, Siculus. Diodorus of Sicily, with an English translation by C. H. Oldfather. Vol. II. London: Heinemann. 1933. pp. 522-523.
  20. ^ Kleiner, Fred S.; Kleiner, Diana E. "Two Romans Provençal portrait reliefs". In: Mélanges de l'École française de Rome. Antiquité, tome 88, n°1. 1976. p. 249. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/mefr.1976.1057]; www.persee.fr/doc/mefr_0223-5102_1976_num_88_1_1057
  21. ^ Picard, Charles. "Le bas-relief funéraire de Saint-Julien-lès-Martigues". In: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 87ᵉ année, N. 3, 1943. pp. 453-454. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/crai.1943.77671]; www.persee.fr/doc/crai_0065-0536_1943_num_87_3_77671
  22. ^ Hatt, J. J. "Essai sur l'évolution de la religion gauloise". In: Revue des Études Anciennes. Tome 67, 1965, n°1-2. p. 93. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/rea.1965.373]; www.persee.fr/doc/rea_0035-2004_1965_num_67_1_3739
  23. ^ Duval, Paul Marie. "Cultes gaulois et gallo-romains. 3. Dieux d'époque gallo-romaine". In: Travaux sur la Gaule (1946-1986). Rome: École Française de Rome, 1989. p. 259. (Publications de l'École française de Rome, 116). www.persee.fr/doc/efr_0000-0000_1989_ant_116_1_3667
  24. ^ Dexter, Miriam Robbins. "The hippomorphic goddess and her offspring". In: JIES 18/3-4 (Fall/Winter, 1990). pp. 285–307.
  25. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 161-162.
  26. ^ Verena Höfig. "A Pre-Modern Nation? Icelanders' Ethnogenesis and Its Mythical Foundations." In: Scandinavian Studies 90, no. 1 (2018): 110-32. Accessed August 4, 2020. doi:10.5406/scanstud.90.1.0110.
  27. ^ Sanko, Siarhei (2018). "Reflexes of Ancient Ideas about Divine Twins in the Images of Saints George and Nicholas in Belarusian Folklore". Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore. 72: 15–40. doi:10.7592/fejf2018.72.sanko. ISSN 1406-0957.
  28. ^ Roman, Luke; Roman, Monica (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology. Infobase Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4381-2639-5.
  29. ^ "Apollodorus, Library, book 3, chapter 5, section 5". www.perseus.tufts.edu.
  30. ^ Witczak, K. T.; Zawiasa, D. "The Sicilian Palici as representatives of the indo-european divine twins". In: ΜΥΘΟΣ, n. 12, 2004-2005. pp. 93-106.
  31. ^ Roman, Luke. (2010). Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman mythology. Román, Mónica. New York: Facts On File. pp. 429–430. ISBN 978-1-4381-2639-5. OCLC 607553701.
  32. ^ Gieysztor, Aleksander. (2006). Mitologia Słowian. Modzelewski, Karol, 1937-2019., Słupecki, Leszek Paweł, 1956-, Pieniądz-Skrzypczak, Aneta. (Wyd. 3., zm., rozszerz ed.). Warszawa: Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. ISBN 83-235-0234-X. OCLC 212627528.
  33. ^ Wójcicki, Kazimierz Władysław. Klechdy: starożytne podania i powieści ludu polskiego i Rusi. Tom I. w Warszawie: w Drukarni Piotra Baryckiego. 1837. pp. 167-173 and 203-204. [1]
  34. ^ Niedzielski, Grzegorz. (2011). Królowie z gwiazd : mitologia plemion prapolskich. Sandomierz: Wydawnictwo Armoryka. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-83-62661-17-6. OCLC 802060512.
  35. ^ Latvian Ūsiņš ‘bee-god and patron of horses’. Václav Blažek. BALTISTICA XLVII(2) 2012. pp. 359–366
  36. ^ Lichtgott der alten Letten. Haralds Biezais. Almquist & Wiksell. 1976. pp. 155-189
  37. ^ Priede, Janis. Development of the Study of Religion in Latvian in the 20th Century. In: Studying Religions with the Iron Curtain Closed and Opened: the academia study of religion in eastern Europe. Leiden: Brill. 2015. p. 225.
  38. ^ Christensen, Lisbeth Bredholt; Hammer, Olav; Warburton, David (2014). The Handbook of Religions in Ancient Europe. Routledge. p. 368. ISBN 978-1-317-54452-4.
  39. ^ Leeming, David Adams (2003). From Olympus to Camelot: The World of European Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 125–126. ISBN 0-19-514361-2
  40. ^ The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. David Leeming. Oxford University Press. 2005. pp. 101-102
  41. ^ Poet and Hero in the Persian Book of Kings. Olga M. Davidson. Cornell University Press. 1994. p. 143
  42. ^ Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q., eds. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5, (EIEC) pp. 164-165
  43. ^ The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological Assessment of the Theories of Georges Dumézil - Revised Edition. C. Scott Littleton. University of California Press. 1973. p. 209.
  44. ^ Stealing Helen: The Myth of the Abducted Wife in Comparative Perspective. Lowell Edmunds. Princeton University Press. 2016. p. 77
  45. ^ Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism. Volume II M-Z. Benjamin Walker. Routledge. 2019. Entry: "Pandava"
  46. ^ Frame, Douglas. "Hippota Nestor — Chapter 3. Vedic". Center for Hellenic Studies
  47. ^ Petrosyan, Armen (2002). The Indo‑european and Ancient Near Eastern Sources of the Armenian Epic. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Study of Man. ISBN 9780941694810.
  48. ^ Sargis Haroutyunian. "Armenian Epic Tradition and Kurdish Folklore". In: Iran & the Caucasus 1 (1997): 85-87. Accessed August 6, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/4030741.
  49. ^ Petrosyan, Armen. "First Capitals of Armenia and Georgia: Armawir and Armazi (Problems of Early Ethnic Associations)". In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) Volume 40, Number 3 & 4, Fall/Winter 2012. pp. 269-270.
  50. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 165.
  51. ^ Buck, Robert J. A History of Boeotia. the University of Alberta Press. 1979. p. 57. Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Missing ISBN.
  52. ^ Shapiro 1982.
  53. ^ Shapiro, Marianne. “‘AMI ET AMILE’ AND MYTHS OF DIVINE TWINSHIP.” Romanische Forschungen, vol. 102, no. 2/3, 1990, pp. 131–148. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27940080. Accessed 21 Apr. 2020.
  54. ^ Sanko, Siarhei. (2018). "Reflexes of Ancient Ideas about Divine Twins in the Images of Saints George and Nicholas in Belarusian Folklore". In: Folklore: Electronic Journal of Folklore. 72. 15-40. [DOI: 10.7592/FEJF2018.72.sanko.]
  55. ^ Cook, Arthur Bernard. Zeus, A Study In Ancient Religion. Cambridge University Press. 1925. Vol. II, Part I. Appendix F. pp. 1003–1019.
  56. ^ de Gubernatis, Angelo. Zoological mythology; or, The legends of animals. London: Trübner & Co. 1872. p. 412.
  57. ^ Jones, W. Henry; Kropf, Lajos. The Folk-Tales of the Magyars. London: Published for the Folk-lore society by Elliot Stock. 1889. Notes on Folk-tale nr. 11. pp. 338.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Davidson, Olga M. (1987). "Aspects of Dioscurism in Iranian kingship: The case of Lohrasp and Goshtasp in the Shāhnāme of Ferdowsi". Edebiyāt. 1: 103–115.
  • Derksen, Rick (2015). Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-27898-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Frame, Douglas (2007). "Hippota Nestor". Greek Mythology and Poetics. Harvard University.
  • Frame, Douglas. "Achilles and Patroclus as Indo-European Twins: Homer's Take". Greek Mythology and Poetics. Harvard University.
  • Goetinck, Glenys, “The divine twins and mediaeval Welsh literature”, in: Hily, Gaël, Patrice Lajoye, and Joël Hascoët (eds.), Deuogdonion: mélanges offerts en l’honneur du professeur Claude Sterckx, Publication du CRBC Rennes 2, Rennes: Tir, 2010. 259–276.
  • Joseph, Brian D. (1983). "Old English Hengest as an Indo-European Twin Hero". The Mankind Quarterly. 24: 105–115.
  • Nagy, Gregory. "Achilles and Patroklos as models for the twinning of identity". Greek Mythology and Poetics. Harvard University.
  • Nagy, Gregory (1990). "Patroklos "Concepts of afterlife, and the Indic triple fire" and "Phaethon, Sappho's Phaon, and the White Rock of Leukas: 'Reading' the symbols of Greek lyric"". Greek Mythology and Poetics. Harvard University.
  • Nikolaev, Alexander (2012). "Avestan Haēcat̰.aspa-, Rigveda 4.43, and the Myth of the Divine Twins". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 132 (4): 567–575. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.132.4.0567. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 10.7817/jameroriesoci.132.4.0567.
  • Ward, Donald (1968). The Divine Twins: An Indo-European myth in Germanic tradition. University of California Press.
  • Walker, Henry John. The Twin Horse Gods: The Dioskouroi in Mythologies of the Ancient World. London: I.B. Tauris, 2015, 271 pp.
  • Walker, Henry John. The Greek Aśvins. In: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Vol. 88 (2007), pp. 99–118.
  • Wikander, S. Nakula et Sahadeva. Orientalia Suecana 6 (1957). pp. 66–96.
  • Alberro, Manuel. Las tres funciones dumezilianas y el mito de los mellizos divinos de la tradición indoeuropea en el Compendio Historial de Diego Rodríguez Almela. En la España Medieval (27). 2004. pp. 317–337. ISSN 0214-3038
  • Kruta, Venceslas. "«Têtes jumelées» et jumeaux divins: essai d’iconographie celtique". In: Études Celtiques, vol. 42, 2016. pp. 33–57. [DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.2016.2468] ; [www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_2016_num_42_1_2468]
  • Sergent, B. "De quelques jumeaux indo-européens" Topique. In: Revue freudienne, numéro 22 (50). 1992. pp. 205–238.
  • Bianchi, U. "I Dioscuri: una versione della coppia divina". In: Il senso del culto dei Dioscuri in Italia. Atti del Convegno svoltosi a Taranto nell’aprile del 1979. pp. 23–40. 1979
  • York, M. "The Divine Twins in the Celtic Pantheon". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES). Volume 23 (1-2). 1995. pp. 83–112.
  • Frauenfelder, D.W. The Spartan Dioscuri: Their origins and development in the Hellenic world. University of North Carolina. 1991.
  • Grottanelli, C. "Yoked Horses, Twins, and the Powerful Lady: India, Greece, Ireland and Elsewhere". In: Journal of Indo-European Studies (JIES) 14 (1-2), 1986. pp. 125–152.
  • Ward, D.J. "The Separate Functions of the Indo-European Divine Twins". in: Puhvel, J. (ed.). Myth and Law Among the Indo-Europeans. Studies in Indo-European Comparative Mythology. Berkeley – Los Angeles – London. 1970. pp. 193–202.
  • Hankoff L. D. (1977). Why the healing gods are twins. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 50(3), 307–319.
  • Danka, Ignacy Ryszard & Witczak, Krzysztof Tomasz. 2010. Deis Equeunubo – The Divine Twins in Asturia. In Stalmaszczyk, Piotr & fomin, Maxim (eds.), Dimensions and Categories of Celticity: Studies in Language. (Studia celto-Slavica 4), 17–26. Łódź: Łódź University Press.
  • Sternberg, Leo. "Der Antike Zwillingskult Im Lichte Der Ethnologie." Zeitschrift Für Ethnologie 61, no. 1/3 (1929): 152–200. www.jstor.org/stable/23032863.
  • Niedner, Felix. "Die Dioskuren Im Beowulf." Zeitschrift Für Deutsches Altertum Und Deutsche Literatur 42, no. 3 (1898): 229–58. www.jstor.org/stable/20651615.
  • Wenzel, Marian. "The Dioscuri in the Balkans." Slavic Review 26, no. 3 (1967): 363–81. Accessed June 29, 2020. doi:10.2307/2492722.
  • Blakely, Sandra. "Starry Twins and Mystery Rites: From Samothrace to Mithras". In: Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae Acta Antiqua 58, 1-4 (2018): 427-463. accessed Sep 28, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1556/068.2018.58.1-4.26
  • Parpola, Asko. "The Nāsatyas, the chariot and Proto-Aryan religion". In: "Journal of Indological Studies", 16-17 (2004-2005). pp. 1-63.

See alsoEdit