Dimitrios Gounaris

Dimitrios Gounaris (Greek: Δημήτριος Γούναρης; 5 January 1867 – 15 November 1922[1]) was the Prime Minister of Greece from 25 February to 10 August 1915 and 26 March 1921 to 3 May 1922. Leader of the People's Party, he was the main right-wing opponent of his contemporary Eleftherios Venizelos.

Dimitrios Gounaris
Δημήτριος Γούναρης
Dimitrios Gounaris.jpg
Prime Minister of Greece
In office
February 25, 1915 – August 10, 1915
Preceded byEleftherios Venizelos
Succeeded byEleftherios Venizelos
In office
March 26, 1921 – May 3, 1922
Preceded byNikolaos Kalogeropoulos
Succeeded byNikolaos Stratos
Personal details
Born(1867-01-05)January 5, 1867
Patras, Greece
DiedNovember 15, 1922(1922-11-15) (aged 55)
Goudi, Athens, Greece
NationalityGreek
Political partyPeople's Party

Early lifeEdit

He studied law at Athens University and continued his studies in Germany, France and England,[2] before returning to his native Patras. He was elected deputy for Achaea in 1902 and distinguished himself as an orator and a member of the so-called "Japanese Group"[2] that opposed the Georgios Theotokis government in 1906–1908. Gounaris himself, however, joined the government in 1908 as Finance Minister, hoping to implement a reformist program,[2] thereby causing the dissolution of the group, although he was soon forced to resign.[3] Despite his progressive views (he was an admirer of the Bismarckian German social laws), his conservative political thinking turned him into a leading opponent of Eleftherios Venizelos.[4]

First premiershipEdit

He was appointed Prime Minister after Venizelos' first resignation in 1915 by King Constantine I.[3] For his anti-Venizelist, pro-neutrality role he was exiled with other prominent anti-Venizelists to Corsica in 1917 after Venizelos' return to power in Athens.[3] He managed to escape to Sardinia, Italy in 1918, but was able to return to Greece only in 1920, as to partake in the crucial November elections as the de facto leader of the "United Opposition",[5] amidst the ongoing 1919–1922 Greco-Turkish War.

 
Gounaris with officers in Asia Minor, 1921

Second premiership and catastrophic decision to march on AnkaraEdit

After Venizelos' defeat, he controlled most deputies in the parliament, and was the main driving force of the following royalist governments,[5] but himself only assumed the office of Prime Minister in March 1921. Despite his pre-electoral promises over a withdrawal from Asia Minor, unable to find a way for an 'honourable' extrication, he continued the war against Turkey.[2] Although he was willing to compromise with the Turks, as he showed in the London talks in early 1921, in order to step up pressure on the Kemalist Turks, he agreed to the launch of the Greek offensive of March 1921. The Greek Army was not prepared, and the attack was repulsed in the Second Battle of İnönü, resulting in the first Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War. After the successful Greek advance towards Eskişehir and Afyon in July, he urged the continuation of the advance towards Ankara,[5] which was however stopped in the Battle of Sakarya. After the Greeks retreated to form a new front, he appealed to the Allies, and especially Great Britain, for assistance and mediation.

Although he threatened the British with unilateral withdrawal, his government maintained the Greek Army's positions, not being able to shoulder the political cost of abandoning Asia Minor and the many Greeks living there to Turkish reprisals. The deepening political crisis caused the fall of Gounaris' government in May 1922, after marginally surviving a vote of confidence, but the predominance of his followers in the National Assembly meant that he only exchanged the post of Prime Minister with that of Justice Minister in the government of Petros Protopapadakis.[6]

Death and legacyEdit

After the disaster of August 1922 and the rout of the Greeks by Mustafa Kemal's forces, the remnants of the Greek Army revolted in September, and the government was deposed. The predominantly Venizelist rebels, under the leadership of Colonel Nikolaos Plastiras, formed a military tribunal to try those that were considered as responsible for the catastrophe. The so-called "Trial of the Six", convened in November 1922, found the defendants, Gounaris among them, guilty of treason. He was executed along with the others at Goudi on the same day of the verdict, on November 28. Although Gounaris undoubtedly bears a measure of responsibility for the military and diplomatic actions that led to the Greek defeat in 1922, his trial and execution are widely perceived[citation needed] to be more an act of scapegoating in order to vent the anger of the people, as well as being mostly motivated by the hatred of the Venizelist faction towards him.[7]

Gounaris was the uncle of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos.[8]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Note: Greece officially adopted the Gregorian calendar on 16 February 1923 (which became 1 March). All dates prior to that, unless specifically denoted, are Old Style.
  2. ^ a b c d Keridis, Dimitris (2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Greece. Scarecrow Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9780810863125. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Dalby, Andrew (2011). Eleftherios Venizelos: Greece. Haus Publishing. ISBN 9781907822339. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  4. ^ Mazower, Mark (1992). "The Messiah and the Bourgeoisie: Venizelos and Politics in Greece, 1909- 1912". The Historical Journal. 35 (4): 893–895. doi:10.1017/S0018246X00026200. ISSN 0018-246X. JSTOR 2639443.
  5. ^ a b c Dragostinova, Theodora K. (2011). Between Two Motherlands: Nationality and Emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900–1949. Cornell University Press. pp. 134, 141. ISBN 9780801461163. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  6. ^ Laughland, John (2008). A history of political trials: from Charles I to Saddam Hussein. Peter Lang. p. 59. ISBN 9781906165055. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  7. ^ Clogg, Richard (2002). "4: Catastrophe and occupation and their consequences". A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge University Press. pp. 98–100. ISBN 9780521004794. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  8. ^ Alikaniotis, Dion P. (2009). Η πολιτική και κοινωνική Ιδεολογία του Δημητρίου Γούναρη. Athens. p. 301.
Political offices
Preceded by
Eleftherios Venizelos
Prime Minister of Greece
25 February 1915 – 10 August 1915
Succeeded by
Eleftherios Venizelos
Preceded by
Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos
Prime Minister of Greece
26 March 1921 – 3 May 1922
Succeeded by
Nikolaos Stratos