Detailed logarithmic timeline

This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and mankind in one table. Each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. In each table cell on the right, references to events or notable people are given, more or less in chronological order within the cell.

Each row corresponds to a change in log(time before present) of about 0.1 (using log base 10). The dividing points are taken from the R′′20 Renard numbers.

The table is divided into sections with subtitles. Note that each such section contains about 68% of all the time from the beginning of the section until now.

Contents

PastEdit

13,799 million years ago to 5 500 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
13,799,997,982 Ga – 11 Ga

Big Bang, Stars and galaxies, earliest quasars, habitable epoch[1][2]NGC 6522 star cluster forms. Omega Centauri star cluster forms.

11 Ga – 9 Ga

Formation of the Gliese 581 planetary system, BX442 (oldest grand design spiral galaxy observed), NGC 2808 globular cluster, giant red star Mu Cephei, and the Andromeda Galaxy. Barnard's Star (nearby red dwarf star) may have formed.

9 Ga – 7 Ga

A galaxy collides with the Milky Way giving rise to the so-called Gaia Sausage population of stars. Gliese 876 and its planets form[3]

7 Ga – 5.5 Ga

Birth of Alpha Centauri

5 500 million years ago to 1 800 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ga – 4.5 Ga

Formation of Sun, Solar System, Earth

4.5 Ga – 3.5 Ga

Hadean eon,

beginning of Archaean eon

Late Heavy Bombardment (possibly). Origin of life. Earliest known life forms: unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life, found in mineral deposits aged 4.25 Ga located in the Jack Hills of Western Australia;[4][5] evidence for hydrothermal vent microbes;[6][7] Biogenic graphite in metasedimentary rocks aged 3.7 Ga discovered in Western Greenland.[8] Apparent stromatolites in Greenland.[9][10]

3.5 Ga – 2.8 Ga Archaean eon

Microbial mat fossils[11][12] and signs of life on land[13] in Western Australia. Stromatolites, possible Cyanobacteria (photosynthesis).[14] Stabilization of cratons. Sterane biomarkers possibly indicate first eukaryotes. Possible largest crater on earth near Maniitsoq, Greenland.[15]

2.8 Ga – 2.2 Ga End of Archaean, beginning of Paleoproterozoic era

Oxygen revolution. Beginning of Huronian glaciation. Continents form.[16][17]

2.2 Ga – 1.8 Ga Paleoproterozoic era

End of Huronian glaciation. Grypania fossils. First unambiguous Cyanobacteria fossils, in Belcher Islands.[14]Bolide over 10 km in size creates Vredefort crater. Milky Way perturbed by collision.[18] Oxygen levels briefly plummet (possibly).[14] 10-km diameter bolide creates Sudbury Basin. Columbia supercontinent. Traces of 24-isopropylcholestane, possibly from sponges.

1 800 million years ago to 550 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ga – 1.4 Ga End of Paleoproterozoic, beginning of Mesoproterozoic era

Fossils of red algae.[19] Erosion of granite introduces copper, zinc, and molybdenum into surface waters.[20]

1.4 Ga – 1.1 Ga Mesoproterozoic era

Eukaryotes found in lakes.[21]

1.1 Ga – 900 Ma End of Mesoproterozoic, beginning of Neoproterozoic era. Tonian period

Coming together of Rodinia supercontinent. Appearance of sex (possibly). Traces of sponge-like animals.[22][23]

900 Ma – 700 Ma Cryogenian period

Breakup of Rodinia, Sturtian glaciation begins, possible Snowball Earth, volcanism on Venus practically stops

700 Ma – 550 Ma End of Cryogenian, beginning of Ediacaran period

Pannotia supercontinent forms, then breaks up into Laurentia, Gondwana, Angaraland and Baltica. Marinoan glaciation. First non-microscopic life (Ediacaran biota). Rangeomorphs. First fossils of animals.

550 million years ago to 180 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 Ma – 450 Ma

End of Ediacaran. Cambrian period (541–485 Ma) – Ordovician (485–443 Ma)

Cambrian explosion. Fish-like Myllokunmingia, Haikouichthys, & Pikaia. First conodonts. All modern mineralized phyla present.[24]Bivalves. Arthropods dominant until arrival of chambered nautili.[25] Stifling hot "Dead Interval".[26]End-Botomian mass extinction. Appalachian Mountains form. First fossils of plants and fungi on land.[27]Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. First eurypterids or "sea scorpions". Collision of asteroids gives rise to L chondrite group of meteoroids and several craters ca. 470 Ma ago (Ordovician meteor event).[28] Andean-Saharan glaciation. First starfish, sea urchins, placoderms, cartilaginous fish (such as sharks) and bony fish. First clear evidence of land arthropods (scorpions).[27]

450 Ma – 350 Ma

Silurian (443–419 Ma) – Devonian (416–359 Ma)

Ordovician-Silurian extinction events. Prototaxites, tree-like organism, probably a fungus or lichen. First wood.[29][30]Jaekelopterus, giant "sea scorpion". First Labyrinthodontia, the group that now includes reptiles and mammals. Tiktaalik (lungfish) walks on land. Ichthyostega. First amphibians, archaeopteris (tree ferns), seeds, coelacanths. Late Devonian extinctions, culminating in the Hangenberg event and atmospheric oxygen falling to 13%. Few arthropods left on land.[27] Beginning of Karoo Ice Age. Romer's gap in the tetrapod record.

350 Ma – 280 Ma

Carboniferous (359–299 Ma), beginning of Permian (299–252 Ma)

Karoo Ice Age. Formation of Pangaea supercontinent. Oxygen levels rise and animals colonize the land a second time.[27] First winged insects and reptiliomorphs such as Solenodonsaurus, synapsids (forerunners of mammals), and reptiles. Oxygen in atmosphere peaks, around 30%.[27]Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse.

280 Ma – 220 Ma Permian, Triassic (252–201 Ma)

Cycads, seed ferns. Therapsids (forerunners of mammals) such as pelycosaurs and cynodonts. End-Capitanian extinction event.[31]Siberian Traps eruption and Permian-Triassic extinction event. Dinosaur tracks.[32][33] 40 °C sea temperatures during Smithian-Spathian extinction. Turtles. Dominance of archosaurs: crocodile-like Crurotarsi. First pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Dinosaurs. Gymnosperms dominant. Dicroidium flora common on land. Manicouagan Crater formed. First lizards.

220 Ma – 180 Ma

Triassic, Jurassic (201–145 Ma)

Central Atlantic eruption and Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Oxygen in atmosphere hits low of about 12%.[27] Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Mammals. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales, and cycads) and ferns common. Sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs. Toarcian turnover (extinction). Gondwana breaks up.

180 million years ago to 55 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 Ma – 140 Ma Jurassic

India breaks from East Gondwana. Juramaia sinensis, first known eutherian mammal. First birds (Archaeopteryx). Dinosaurs are dominant terrestrial animal. Large and Small Magellanic Clouds collide.[34][35]

140 Ma – 110 Ma Early Cretaceous (145 – 100 Ma), |Aptian & Albian

Flowering plants. First Enantiornithes or "backward birds". Ontong Java eruption. First known snakes. Early-Aptian anoxic event. Seas cool by 5 °C during 2 million years.[36] Earliest known monotreme fossils. Sinodelphys, earliest known marsupial. Eomaia, similar to placental mammals.

110 Ma – 90 Ma Late Cretaceous: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian

Supervolcano in eastern Australia sends particles to west coast.[37][38]Bees. Mammals diversify into many forms.[39]Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (oceans anoxic for half a million years),[40] extinction of ichthyosaurs.

90 Ma – 70 Ma Campanian & Maastrichtian stages of the Cretaceous

Dominance of angiosperm rosids. Rocky Mountains begin forming. Zealandia breaks away from Australia. Mosasaurs are dominant marine predator.

70 Ma – 55 Ma Paleocene (66–56 Ma)

Evidence for grasses in dinosaur dung (coprolites). Crocodiles. Madagascar breaks away from India. Bolide creates Chicxulub Crater. Deccan Traps. Possible Shiva crater. Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event, non-avian dinosaurs die out. Mammals dominate. Titanoboa, largest known snake. Eritherium, first known proboscid. Lemurs. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

55 million years ago to 18 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 Ma – 45 Ma Early Eocene

First creodonts. First equid, the Eohippus or Hyracotherium. Andes mountains begin to rise. Azolla event reduces carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. India collides with Asia, giving rise to the Himalayas. First cetaceans (whales) and simians.

45 Ma – 35 Ma Eocene

Primates cross Atlantic to South America and become New World monkeys. First elephant-like animal, the Moeritherium. Grasses common. 100-km Popigai crater in Siberia. 2-mile (3.2 km) diameter bolide creates 90-km Chesapeake Bay impact crater in America.

35 Ma – 28 Ma Beginning of Oligocene (34 – 23 Ma)

Tasmanian Seaway and Drake Passage open, allowing creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Baleen whales appear. Gould Belt of stars created.[41]Alps begin to rise. First indricotheria, "hornless rhinoceros" about 6 metres high. Explosive eruption of La Garita Caldera in Colorado.

28 Ma – 22 Ma Oligocene, Chattian

Pelagornis sandersi, largest known flying bird with a wingspan of 6 or 7 metres. Puijila darwini, early pinniped. Daeodon shoshonensis (a "terminator pig").

22 Ma – 18 Ma Miocene (23 to 5 Ma), Aquitanian age

Dawn bear – ancestor of bears.

18 million years ago to 5.5 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 Ma – 14 Ma Miocene, Burdigalian age, Langhian age

Antarctica becomes mostly ice-covered. Africa/Arabia collides with Eurasia, end of Tethys Sea. Columbia River basalts. First deinotheres, similar to an elephant but with tusks on lower jaw. Nördlinger Ries impact crater. Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, Middle Miocene disruption. Hominidae split from gibbons.

14 Ma – 11 Ma Miocene, Serravallian age

Last of the adapiforms. Anoiapithecus, one of the first hominids, in Spain.

11 Ma – 9 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

Olympic Mountains reach present height

9 Ma – 7 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

First Gigantopithecus, an ape almost 10 feet (3.0 m) tall. C4 grasses become common. Crocodiles cross the Atlantic to America.[42]

7 Ma – 5.5 Ma Miocene, Messinian age

Graecopithecus ("Greek ape"), possibly ancestor of hominins. "Toumaï", of species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, shows some human traits. First Thylacosmilus, sabre-toothed marsupial of South America. Orrorin tugenensis, possible hominin. Apparent hominin footprints near Trachilos, on Crete.[43][44]Mediterranean Sea dries up (Messinian Event).

5.5 million years ago to 1.8 million years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ma – 4.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

Zanclean Deluge. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis. Divergence of polar bears and brown bears.[45] Possible date of 52-km Karakul crater in Tajikistan.

4.5 Ma – 3.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

Human bipedalism. First Australopithecus afarensis. Hominin fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania.

3.5 Ma – 2.8 Ma Pliocene, Piacenzian

Evidence of use of stone tools by A. afarensis.[46][47] Human line loses fur (possibly).[48] Possible time of Isthmus of Panama connecting South and Central America. Great American Interchange. Lucy, member of the species Australopithecus afarensis. First Megatherium americanum, a giant sloth.

2.8 Ma – 2.2 Ma Beginning of Pleistocene, Gelasian, Lower Paleolithic

Beginning of the current ice age, known as the Quaternary glaciation. Homo habilis appears. Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary extinction of marine megafauna, including the Megalodon shark,[49] possibly caused by a nearby supernova or supernovas of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, which deposited 60Fe on Earth.[50][51]Oldowan tools used near Gona, Ethiopia. Possible tool use in Sivalik Hills, India.[52][53] Impact of Eltanin asteroid (1 to 4 km in diameter) in Pacific. Stone artefacts at Longgupo (Dragon Bone Slope) in China.[54] (see also Wushan Man)

2.2 Ma – 1.8 Ma Gelasian

Island Park Caldera in Wyoming and Idaho. Homo erectus appears. Dmanisi Man (Homo erectus georgicus) in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Xiaochangliang, China. Human-like Australopithecus sediba. Homo ergaster in Africa. First signs of Acheulian culture, in Kenya. Last known terror birds.

1.8 million years ago to 550,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ma – 1.4 Ma

First true hand-axes. Homo erectus found in Europe.

1.4 Ma – 1.1 Ma

Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho erupts.

1.1 Ma – 900 ka

Stone artefacts on Flores, made by hominins.[55] This required crossing seas at least 19 km wide.[56] 14-km Zhamanshin Crater formed in Kazakhstan. Hominin footprints and tools in England.

900 ka – 700 ka

Species of Homo found in Yun County, Hubei, sharing features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens.[57][58] Evidence of use of fire (Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Palestine).[59]Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal. Hominins present in Luzon, Philippines, possible ancestors of Flores man.[60][61]Homo floresiensis-like creatures on Flores.[62][63]

700 ka – 550 ka Günz glaciation

Yellowstone Caldera supervolcano spreads ash over North America. Homo antecessor in Spain. Cut marks on human bones indicate cannibalism.[64]

550,000 years ago to 180,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 ka – 450 ka Günz-Mindel interglacial Mindel glaciation

Stone points (possibly for spears) used by Homo heidelbergensis in South Africa. Etching on shell at Trinil in East Java, done by Homo erectus.[65]Homo heidelbergensis in Germany, France, and Greece. Oldest known spear, Clacton-on-Sea.[66]

450 ka – 350 ka Mindel glaciation, Mindel-Riss interglacial

Homo heidelbergensis footprints in Italy (Ciampate del Diavolo). Venus of Tan-Tan (300 to 500 ka ago) and Venus of B'rekhat Ram (231 to 800 ka BC). First appearance of proto-Neanderthal traits.

350 ka – 280 ka

Estimated time of Y-chromosomal Adam.[67]Schöningen wooden spears.[68] Earliest known Homo sapiens remains at Adrar Ighud in Morocco. Geminga supernova.

280 ka – 220 ka

Jinniushan woman near Korea, with traits between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Homo naledi skeletons in the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Strait of Dover formed. Apparent date of stone tools at the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico.

220 ka – 180 ka Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

Dali Man in China. Homo sapiens Omo remains in Ethiopia. Homo spiens at Misliya cave in Palestine.[69][70]

180,000 years ago to 55,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 ka – 140 ka Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

Underground circular piles of stalagmites built by Neanderthals.[71][72] Use of ochre, fine stone blades, and seafood at Pinnacle Point, SA.[73] Evidence for use of fire to pre-treat stone for making blades.[74] Beginning of Mousterian culture. Estimated time of Mitochondrial Eve.

140 ka – 110 ka Eemian interglacial

Appearance of full-blown Neanderthal traits. Stone tools in Crete (40 km from nearest neighboring land).[75] Signs of Homo in California.[76][77]Neanderthals make ornaments from eagle claws.[78][79] Temperatures generally higher than today during the Eemian interglacial. Late Eemian Aridity Pulse.[80] Tools used at Talepu site in Sulawesi.[81][82]Shell jewelry in Spain, apparently made by Neanderthals.[83][84]

110 ka – 90 ka

Shells with holes, probably used as beads, at the Es Skhul cave on Mount Carmel. Abbassia Pluvial. Humans with modern teeth in China (Fuyan Cave, between 80 and 120 ka ago).[85]Paint made at Blombos Cave.[86] Metre-high Flores Man on the island of Flores (Indonesia). Human burial at Jebel al-Qafzeh in Israel. Remains of string in France.[87]

90 ka – 70 ka Beginning of Würm glaciation

Shell beads in Taforalt Caves, Morocco. Tools made in Kota Tampan, Malaysia, probably by Homo sapiens. Abstract designs engraved on ochre, and pressure flaking, at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Use of glue, arrowhead-like projectile points, and insecticidal Cape laurel for bedding at Sibudu Cave in South Africa.

70 ka – 55 ka Ca. 68,000 – ca. 53,000 BCE

Supervolcano Toba in Indonesia erupts, covering south Asia with ash and starting a 1,000-year ice age. Cave art in Spain, apparently by Neanderthals.[83][88] Humans in Northern Territory, Australia.[89][90] Humans begin to use clothing. Humans on Luzon, Philippines.[91]Sewing needle-like implement used at Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Engraved ostrich eggs at Diepkloof Rock Shelter. Humans enter Tibetan plateau.

55,000 years ago to 18,000 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 ka – 45 ka Ca. 53,000 – ca. 43,000 BCE

Last evidence of Homo erectus[92]

45 ka – 35 ka Ca. 43,000 – ca. 33,000 BCE Upper Paleolithic

First Cro-Magnon people. Neanderthal Divje Babe fluteprehistoric music. Mining of hematite at the Lion Cave in Swaziland. Mungo Man in Australia. Deep-sea fishing of tuna.[93][94] Brief geomagnetic Laschamp Excursion. 50-metre diameter asteroid creates 1.2-km Meteor Crater in Arizona. Homo sapiens in Peștera cu Oase, Romania and in Tianyuan Cave, China. Neanderthals disappear. Needles and sewing. Shoes. Beginnings of Aurignacian culture. Paleolithic flutes and Venus of Hohler Fels, Dyed flax fibres in Georgia.

35 ka – 28 ka Ca. 33,000 – ca. 26,000 BCE

Oldest known skull of a dog (Siberia), with wolf-like teeth.[95]Oats made into flour.[96][97] Human presence in Japan. Lion man ivory sculpture. Chauvet Cave paintings. Stone mortar and pestle used to grind fern and cattail tubers.[98][99]Boomerang made from mammoth tusk in Poland.[100] Avian figurine in ivory and stone phallus of Hohler Fels.[101]Venus of Dolní Věstonice (first known ceramic). Impression of rope on fired clay.[102] End of Aurignacian culture, beginning of Gravettian.

28 ka – 22 ka Ca. 26,000 – ca. 20,000 BCE

Imprint of woven cloth in clay (Czech Republic). Venus of Lespugue (ivory sculpture). First known spear thrower or atlatl. Oruanui eruption in New Zealand. Venus of Brassempouy (carving of face). Lapedo child with mixture of Neanderthal and sapiens features at Lagar Velho Portugal.

22 ka – 18 ka Ca. 20,000 – ca. 16,000 BCE

End of Gravettian culture, beginning of Solutrean. Ishango Bone, thought by some to be a tally stick which may show a prime number sequence. 1.9-km Tenoumer crater in Mauritania. Claimed presence of Australian aborigine-type people in Brazil.[103][104] First clear evidence of building (homes),[105] remains of mud huts at Ohalo, by Sea of Galilee. Pottery sherds at Xianren Cave. Reported date of artefacts found on Cactus Hill in Virginia.[106]

18,000 years ago to 5,500 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 ka – 14 ka Ca. 16,000 – ca. 12,000 BCE

Disappearance of Solutrean. Beginning of Magdalenian culture. Clay figurines of animals.[107]Lascaux cave paintings and 7mm-diameter rope. Red Deer Cave people, a possible separate species of Homo in China. Stone tools at the Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas. Oldes known burial of dog with humans.[108][109] Evidence of massacre at Cemetery 117. Older Dryas cold spell. Most recent glaciation gradually ends. Sea level rises 30 metres in a few hundred years (Meltwater pulse 1A).

14 ka – 11 ka Ca. 12,000 – ca. 9,000 BCE. End of Pleistocene, beginning of Holocene.

Clovis culture in Americas. Beginning of Natufian culture in Levant. Tooth drilling and filling in Italy.[110][111] Outburst of water from Lake Agassiz or Younger Dryas impact event bring about the Younger Dryas cold spell. Extinction of many species of large animals. Natufian Shaman burial[112] and earliest known banquet.[113]Vela Supernova only 800 ly away. Island of Spartel flooded (possible site of Atlantis). Arrow-shaft straighteners used by Natufian culture in the Levant. Neolithic Revolution (agriculture begins, domestication of animals). Göbekli Tepe (temple-like monuments and art). Lime. Earliest layers of Jericho – first known monumental building (stone tower 8 m high). Domestication and agriculture allows humans to live in one place - civilization.

11 ka – 9 ka Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic. Beginning of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in Mideast, 9th millennium BCE, 8th millennium BCE

Copper pendant in Iraq. Toothpicks and birch-bark chewing gum. Sea rises about 20 m in 9th millennium BCE. Beginning of an inex series of solar eclipses every 29 years, unbroken till the present. Cannabis achenes at archeological site in the Oki Islands, probably indicating use by humans.[114][115]Bas relief of dancing at Nevalı Çori.[116] Possible lunar time reckoner at Warren Field in Aberdeenshire.[117]Kennewick Man in Washington, whose skull was different from modern Native Americans. Oldest cloth yet found (Çayönü). Oldest evidence of alcoholic beverage, in China. Dentistry.

9 ka – 7 ka End of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. Ubaid period. 7th millennium BCE, 6th millennium BCE

Trepanation. Lake Agassiz largely empties into the Hudson Bay. Finse event, a 300-year cold spell. Storegga tsunami. Mount Etna causes tsunami, possibly ending Atlit Yam settlement (Israel). Possible evidence of beer making at Göbekli Tepe.[116]Smelted lead, pottery & finger rings at Çatal Höyük. Opium. Wine[118] and beer. Cheesemaking (Poland). Sea rises 15–20 m in 6th millennium BCE, flooding Doggerland and cutting off Britain. Holocene thermal maximum brings temperatures warmer than today. Older Peron "transgression" (high sea level). Sahara region not a desert (Neolithic Subpluvial). Megaliths. Domestication of the horse. Pottery revolutionized by the potter's wheel. Earliest known smelting of copper (Serbia).

7 ka – 5.5 ka Chalcolithic. 5th millennium BCE, beginning of 4th millennium BCE

Oldest wrought gold known, in Varna necropolis. Last mastodons. Arsenical bronze. Copper Age. Continuation of Holocene thermal maximum. 5.9 kiloyear event – redesertification of Sahara begins. Sweet Track roadway. Silver mining. Invention of wheel. Large city of Hamoukar, destroyed in war, probably by Uruk in Sumer.

5,500 years ago to 1,800 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 ka – 4.5 ka End of 4th millennium BCE, beginning of 3rd millennium BCE. Beginning of Bronze Age.

Ötzi the Iceman. Norte Chico civilization in Peru, first known civilization in Americas. Copper-tin bronze. Phonetic writing begins in Sumer (Cuneiform) and Elam. Yamna culture, identified with the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Invention of toilet and sewerage systems (Indus civilization and Skara Brae). Soap-like substance produced in Babylon.[119]Wire. Cannabis in use. Pyramids of Ancient Egypt, Indus civilization, Ur, Stonehenge.

4.5 ka – 3.5 ka End of 3rd millennium BCE, beginning of 2nd millennium BCE

Gilgamesh epic Sargon. Surgery. Law code of Ur-Nammu. Farming starts in KentuckyEastern Agricultural Complex [120]Xia dynasty. Minoan Crete. Hammurabi. Avellino eruption of Vesuvius. Plimpton 322 tablet relating to Pythagorean triples. Calculation of the square root of 2 in Babylon.[121]Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, implying an approximation of pi. Last mammoths. Thera eruption.

3.5 ka – 2.8 ka ca. 1500 BCE – ca. 800 BCE. Beginning of Iron Age.

Egyptian medical papyri. Akhenaten. Rigveda. Shang dynasty. Olmec civilization. Trojan war, Bronze Age collapse. Hekla 3 eruption. Beginning of Zhou Dynasty. David and Solomon. Apiculture.

2.8 ka – 2.2 ka ca. 800 BCE – ca. 200 BCE

Zarathustra (Zoroaster), Homer, Hesiod. King Uzziah develops weapon like ballista or trebuchet. Fall of Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. First coins. Solon's reforms in Athens. Cyrus, Kǒng Fūzǐ (Confucius) Buddha (date uncertain), Pythagoras, rudimentary democracy in Athens. Greco-Persian Wars, Etruscan civilization, Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle. Helike sinks beneath the waves. Alexander, Euclid. Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Library of Alexandria. Ashoka. Punic Wars end with razing of Carthage. Qin Dynasty.

2.2 ka – 1.8 ka ca. 200 BCE – ca. 200 CE

Han Dynasty. Julius Caesar. Roman Empire, Yeshua (Jesus). Spread of Buddhism. Lions become extinct in Western Europe. 115 Antioch earthquake, Hadrian's Wall. Kanishka the Great and the Kushan Empire. Antonine Plague, Christianity, Gnosticism, Mithraism

1,800 years ago to 550 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 ka – 1.4 ka ca. 200 – ca. 600

Manichaeism Plague of Cyprian. Jin Dynasty. Constantine. 365 Crete earthquake. Roman Empire splits. Tiwanaku. Classic Maya civilization. Byzantine Empire, Augustine, Attila the Hun, Saint Patrick, King Arthur. Teotihuacán. Nika riots. Climate changes of 535-536. Plague of Justinian. Diocletian.

1.4 ka – 1.1 ka ca. 600 – ca. 900

Tang dynasty. Sasanids temporarily conquer Egypt. Muhammad. Muslims capture Ctesiphon, largest city in world. Alexandria falls to the Muslims. Khazar khaganate. Beginning of Turkic expansion. Siege of Constantinople (717–718). Battle of Poitiers. Donation of Pepin. 774–775 carbon-14 spike.[122]Charlemagne. Saeculum obscurum. Al-Kindi Vikings.

1100 y – 900 y ca. 900 – ca. 1100

Beowulf written. Chinese invent gunpowder. Bjarni Herjólfsson sights North America. Leifr Eiriksson goes there (Vinland). Medieval Warm Period. Song Dynasty. Ibn Sina. East-West Schism. Height of Kievan Rus' and Fatimid Caliphate, decline of Byzantine Empire. Norman Conquest. First Crusade.

900 y – 700 y ca. 1120 – ca. 1320

Crusades. Height of Khmer Empire. Bombard invented in China. Genghis Khan. Magna Carta. Francis of Assisi. Mount Rinjani on Lombok erupts, causing global cooling and failed harvests. Siege of Baghdad (1258) by the Mongols. Mamluks defeat Mongol army of Hulagu Khan (under Kitbuqa) in the Battle of Ain Jalut — first known use of hand cannon. Golden Horde. Thomas Aquinas. Cannon. Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo. Great Famine of 1315–1317.

700 y – 550 y ca. 1320 – ca. 1470

Beginning of Hundred Years' War. Black Death marks the beginning of the Second plague pandemic. Beginning of the Renaissance. Chaucer. Beginning of Ming Dynasty. Hwacha multiple rocket launcher. Zheng He. Battle of Grunwald. Battle of Agincourt. Joan of Arc. Kuwae eruption. Fall of Constantinople. Gutenberg. Beginning of Wars of the Roses.

550 years ago to 180 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 y – 450 y ca. 1470 - ca. 1570

Columbus rediscovers the New World. Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (1492 to 1537). Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea. Columbian Exchange. Da Vinci, Michelangelo. Luther and the Reformation. Siege of Vienna. Copernicus, Scientific Revolution. 1556 Shaanxi earthquake.

450 y – 350 y ca. 1570 - ca. 1670

Eighty Years' War. First of about 11 Russo-Turkish Wars (1568 to 1878). Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Battle of Lepanto. Spanish Armada. Microscope. Rise of the Moghul Empire. Russian Time of Troubles and Russian famine of 1601–1603, probably connected to eruption of Huaynaputina. Beginning of Little Ice Age (ca. 1550 to 1850). Beginning of Northern Wars (1554 to 1721). St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and the French Wars of Religion, ending with the Edict of Nantes. William Shakespeare. King James Bible. Thirty Years' War. Galileo. English Civil War. Descartes. Fermat. Pascal. First of four Anglo-Dutch Wars from 1652 to 1784. Louis XIV. Great Plague of London. Great Fire of London.

350 y – 280 y 1668–1738

Franco-Dutch War. Battle of Vienna and Great Turkish War. Isaac Newton. Glorious Revolution of 1688. Nine Years' War. Seven ill years in Scotland, failure of the Darién scheme. War of the Spanish Succession. Great Northern War. Kingdoms of England and Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. Battle of Poltava in Ukraine – beginning of decline of Swedish power. South Sea Bubble. Defoe, Swift, Bach,

280 y – 220 y 1738–1798

Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment. Lisbon destroyed by earthquake, tsunami, and fire. Seven Years' War. Rousseau. American Revolution. Watt engine. Dismantlement of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Eruption of Laki. Mozart. French Revolution, Haitian Revolution. Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party.

220 y – 180 y 1798–1838

Quasi-War between US and France. Barbary Wars between US and Barbary states. First locomotive. Ludwig van Beethoven. Napoleon I of France. New Madrid earthquakes. War of 1812. Eruption of Mount Tambora. Battle of Waterloo. Simón Bolívar. Year Without a Summer. Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). Photography, electric motor. Babbage. Telegraph.

180 years ago to 55 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 y – 140 y 1838–1878

First Opium War. Mexican–American War. Revolutions of 1848. Crimean War. Taiping Civil War kills at least 20 million. John Snow. Beginning of Third Plague Pandemic. Second Opium War. Darwin. Solar storm of 1859. American Civil War. President Lincoln assassinated. Paraguayan War. Austro-Prussian War. Famine of 1866–68 in Finland and Sweden. Joseph Lister. Marx. Franco-Prussian War. Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). Long Depression. Alexander Graham Bell, Telephone.

140 y – 110 y 1878–1908

Pasteur. War of the Pacific. First Boer War. Invention of automobile. Krakatoa. 1887 Yellow River flood. Mark Twain. Henry George. Spanish–American War. Boxer Rebellion. Second Boer War. Philippine–American War. Wright brothers. Russo-Japanese War. Einstein's papers on special relativity and quantization of light (photons). 1906 San Francisco earthquake. US Panic of 1907.

110 y – 90 y 1908–1928

Tunguska event. First Model T. Freud, Cubism, Republic of China, RMS Titanic. Novarupta volcano, biggest eruption of the 20th century. World War I. General relativity, Russian Revolution. Irish War of Independence. Russian famine of 1921. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

90 y – 70 y 1928–1948

Stalin. Crash of 1929. 1931 Yellow River flood. Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Great Depression. Hitler. FDR, New Deal. Sulfa drugs. Gödel. Gandhi. Second Sino-Japanese War, Spanish Civil War. 1938 Yellow River flood. LSD discovered. Winter War. World War II. Ballistic missiles, radar, jet aircraft. Penicillin. Nuclear weapons, Bretton Woods system. United Nations. Cold War begins. Creation of Pakistan and Republic of India. ENIAC,

70 y – 55 y 1948–1963

Formation of Israel and 1948 Arab–Israeli War. NATO, Mao Zedong. Korean War. Structure of DNA found. McCarthyism, Elvis Presley. Suez War. Beginning of Vietnam War. Sputnik. ARPA. Cuban Revolution, invention of laser. Great Chilean Earthquake, most powerful recorded earthquake. Ca. 20–30 million die in Great Chinese Famine. Berlin Wall. Cuban missile crisis,

55 years ago to 18 years agoEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 y – 45 y 1963–1973

American Civil Rights Movement. Indonesian mass killings of 1965–1966. Decolonisation, Space Race. Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Six-Day War. 2001 (film). Vietnam War, Counterculture. Sino-Soviet border conflict. First moon landing. Woodstock. Unix Bhola cyclone kills 500,000, Bangladesh Liberation War.

45 y – 35 y 1973–1983

Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon resigns. Banqiao Dam and 61 other dams break in China. Khmer Rouge. Tangshan earthquake. Downfall of Gang of Four. Microcomputers, Jimmy Carter, Three Mile Island, Margaret Thatcher comes to power, Usenet. Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Pac-Man. CNN. MTV. AIDS discovered. First IBM PC. Beginning of presidency of Ronald Reagan. Falklands War.

35 y – 28 y 1983–1990

Black July pogrom against Tamils in Sri Lanka. Macintosh. Bhopal disaster., Soviet–Afghan War. Discovery of ozone hole. Challenger disaster. Chernobyl. First 80386, Iran–Contra affair . BSE, perestroika, Black Monday, 1988 Burmese uprising. End of Iran–Iraq War,

28 y – 22 y 1990–1996

George H. W. Bush presidency. March 1989 geomagnetic storm cuts power in Quebec. US invades Panama, Tiananmen protests, fall of Berlin Wall. Launch of Hubble Space Telescope. First Gulf War. AOL. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, End of USSR. Black Wednesday attack on British pound. Beginning of Clinton presidency. First Pentium. Bosnian War. End of apartheid. 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. Rwandan massacre. Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Rising use of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Start of World Trade Organization. Kobe earthquake. Windows 95, Java programming language.

22 y – 18 y 1996–2000

Rwanda invades ZaireFirst Congo War. Tony Blair becomes PM of the UK. Asian financial crisis. Eritrean–Ethiopian War. Good Friday Agreement. Discovery of the acceleration of the universe. Beginning of Second Congo War. Kosovo War. 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. Beginning of Second Chechen War. Vladimir Putin president of Russia. end of Indonesian occupation of East Timor.

18 years ago to presentEdit

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 y – 14 y 2000–2004

Y2K scare. Human genome sequenced. Start of al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada). George W. Bush becomes president of US, 2001 Gujarat earthquake, September 11 attacks, US invasion of Afghanistan. Columbia disaster, Darfur conflict begins, 2003 Iraq War, European heat wave of 2003. Bam earthquake.

14 y – 11 y 2004–2007

Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars. Yassir Arafat dies. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. John Paul II dies. Gaza pullout by Israel, Great Flood of New Orleans (Hurricane Katrina), Kashmir earthquake. 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 2006 North Korean nuclear test.

11 y – 9 y 2007–2009

Nicolas Sarkozy becomes president of France. Battle of Gaza (2007). iPhone. Gordon Brown becomes PM of UK. World population becomes more than 50% urban. Cyclone Sidr, Cyclone Nargis. 2008 Sichuan earthquake. 2008 Russo-Georgian War. 2008 economic crisis. 2008 Mumbai attacks. 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict.

9 y – 7 y 2009–2011

Barack Obama president of US. Northwest Passage opens for first time in recorded history. 2009 swine flu outbreak. 2010 Haiti earthquake. 2010 Chile earthquake. iPad. 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. 2010 United Kingdom general election brings David Cameron to power. 2010 Gaza flotilla clash. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. 2010 Pakistan floods. WikiLeaks publishes US diplomatic cables. 2010–11 Queensland floods. 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution.

7 y – 0 y 2010–2017

Egyptian Revolution of 2011. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Fukushima nuclear accident. Beginning of Syrian Civil War. Killing of Osama bin Laden. Last Space Shuttle flight. 2011 North American heat wave, Utøya massacre. United States debt-ceiling crisis. 2011 England riots. 2011 Libyan civil war ends rule of Mu`ammar al-Qaddhafi, 2011 Thailand floods.

Largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.[123]François Hollande becomes president of France. Discovery of the Higgs boson. Curiosity rover lands on Mars. Hurricane Sandy. November 2012 Gaza conflict.

France intervenes in the Northern Mali conflict. Chelyabinsk meteor. Hugo Chavez dies. Benedict XVI resigns, Pope Francis elected. Cyprus bailout. 2013 Korean crisis. 2013 protests in Turkey. 2013 protests in Brazil. 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. 2013 NSA surveillance scandal. Ghouta chemical attack. Westgate shopping mall attack. Record heat in Australia leads to 2013 New South Wales bushfires. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), most powerful on record. War in Central African Republic, Beginning of South Sudanese Civil War. 2013–14 Thai political crisis.

Early 2014 North American cold wave. Belgium legalises euthanasia. 2014 Ukrainian revolution and Crimean crisis. Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant launches 2014 Northern Iraq offensive and announces caliphate. 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. West African Ebola virus epidemic, Rosetta mission arrives at Comet 67P. 2014 Peshawar school massacre. United States–Cuban thaw.

January 2015 Paris attacks. Assassination of Boris Nemtsov. Dawn spacecraft arrives at Ceres. 2015 military intervention in Yemen, Garissa University College attack. April 2015 Nepal earthquake, FIFA crisis. 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. US Supreme Court allows same-sex marriage. Greek bailout referendum, Iran nuclear deal, Turkey-PKK conflict restarts, New Horizons flies by Pluto, Beginning of European refugee crisis. Volkswagen emissions scandal. Mecca crane collapse and Mina stampede. Evidence of saltwater flows found on Mars. Russian intervention in Syria. Knife Intifada. Metrojet Flight 9268 brought down near Sharm el-Sheikh. November 2015 Paris attacks. Mauricio Macri President in Argentina, opposition wins 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election. 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany.

Saudi Arabia executes Nimr al-Nimr. January 2016 North Korean nuclear test and satellite launch. LIGO announces discovery of gravitational waves. Zika fever outbreak, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter launched. 2016 Brussels bombings. Panama Papers. 2016 Ecuador earthquake. 2016 Fort McMurray Wildfire. Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff. Britain votes to leave the EU. Panama Canal widened. Atatürk Airport attack. July 2016 Baghdad bombings. 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers. Nice truck attack. Turkish coup d'état attempt. July 2016 Kabul bombing. 2016 Louisiana floods. 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquakes. Hurricane Matthew. Colombian peace agreement referendum. Paris climate agreement becomes law. Donald Trump elected. Fidel Castro dies. Italian constitutional referendum, 2016. Impeachment of Park Geun-hye. Berlin Christmas market truck attack. Syrian Army and Russia win the battle over Ḥalab (Aleppo).

WikiLeaks publishes Vault 7. 2017 Shayrat missile strike. 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum. WannaCry ransomware attack. Emmanuel Macron president of France. 2017 Manchester Arena bombing. May 2017 Kabul attack. United States withdrawal from the Paris Agreement 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis. United Kingdom general election, 2017. North Korea tests ICBMs. Mawsil recaptured from IS. Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville. 2017 Barcelona attacks. Hurricanes Harvey, and Irma hit the Caribbean and the US. Northern Rakhine State clashes. 2017 South Asian floods. Cassini–Huygens plunges into Saturn. 2017 Central Mexico earthquake. Hurricane Maria devastates Dominica and Puerto Rico. 2017 Las Vegas shooting. Catalan independence referendum, 2017. October 2017 Northern California wildfires. October 2017 Mogadishu bombings. Iraqi government forces take Kirkuk Lebanese PM Sa`ad Hariri resigns in Saudi Arabia. Robert Mugabe resigns. U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as Israeli capital. Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo. December 2017 California wildfires.

2018 Southern California mudflows. Hawaii missile panic. Turkish invasion of Afrin. 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea. Jacob Zuma resigns. Venezuelan presidential election, 2018 widely condemned. Kim Jong-un meets Moon Jae-in. 2018 Kilauea eruption. US withdraws from Iran deal. 2018 Italian election brings to power a coalition of the Five Star Movement and the Lega Nord. Socialist Pedro Sánchez becomes PM of Spain. Peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Kim meets Donald Trump. Trump tariffs. Mexican general election, 2018 brings López Obrador to presidency. France wins 2018 World Cup.

FutureEdit

A logarithmic timeline can also be devised for events which should occur in the future, barring unforeseen circumstances and assuming that we can extrapolate into the future based on our science.

Time interval Event
1 – 10 years (2017–2027) Tokyo 2020 Olympics
10 – 100 years (2027–2117) Global warming
100 – 1000 years (2117–3017) Consumption of fossil fuels much lower than at present
1000 – 10 ka (3017-12 017 CE) Summer and winter constellations switch, north celestial pole moves far from present North Star
10 ka – 100 ka (12 017 – 102 017 CE) Presently used Computus will give Paschal Full Moon at new moon.

Alpha Centauri passes the sun and continues toward Lynx.

Present constellations become unrecognizable.

Hebrew Calendar out of sync with seasons.

100 ka – 1 Ma Gregorian Calendar out of sync with seasons.

Several supervolcanoes erupt. Strait of Gibraltar closes, Mediterranean Sea dries up.

1 Ma – 10 Ma Technetium-99 produced today ceases to be dangerous

Gliese 710 passes through the Oort Cloud.

Several kilometre-size asteroids or comets on collision course with Earth.

The Afar Depression and the East African Rift become a new sea, splitting Africa.

10 Ma – 100 Ma Mediterranean basin closes.

Iodine-129 and Neptunium-237 in nuclear waste decay away.

100 Ma – 1 Ga Different continents from today due to splitting and coalescence. Possible new supercontinent.[124]

Sun completes several orbits around the Milky Way

1 Ga – 10 Ga Hotter sun makes land too hot for life.

Oceans evaporate.

Andromeda–Milky Way collision.

Sun becomes a red giant

10 Ga – 100 Ga

Sun becomes a white dwarf

Presently existing uranium and rhenium-187 decay away.

100 Ga – 1 Ta White dwarf Sun fades away.

Local Group coalesces.

Presently existing thorium decays away.

1 Ta – 10 Ta

Galaxies outside Local Supercluster no longer visible (if dark energy prevails). Proxima Centauri ceases to be a main-sequence star.

10 Ta – 100 Ta Star formation ends. Degenerate Era starts.
100 Ta – 1 Pa Nuclear fusion ceases (if not sooner).

Sun becomes a black dwarf.

1 Pa – 10 Pa Planets fall or are flung away from their stars.
10 Pa – 100 Pa
100 Pa – 1 exaannus
1 Ea – 10 Ea
10 Ea – 100 Ea Bismuth decays into lead and mercury.
100 Ea – 1 zettaannus

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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