The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (17–24°N, 73–74°E). They are one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. They consist of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt that together are more than 2,000 m (6,600 ft) thick, cover an area of c. 500,000 km2 (200,000 sq mi), and have a volume of c. 1,000,000 km3 (200,000 cu mi). Originally, the Deccan Traps may have covered c. 1,500,000 km2 (600,000 sq mi), with a correspondingly larger original volume.
The term "trap" has been used in geology since 1785–1795 for such rock formations. It is derived from the Swedish word for stairs ("trappa") and refers to the step-like hills forming the landscape of the region.
The Deccan Traps began forming 66.25 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period. The bulk of the volcanic eruption occurred at the Western Ghats some 66 million years ago. This series of eruptions may have lasted fewer than 30,000 years. These eruptions coincide with the breaking up of Gondwana super continent with the opening of western Indian Ocean.
The original area covered by the lava flows is estimated to have been as large as 1.5 million km2 (0.58 million sq mi), approximately half the size of modern India. The Deccan Traps region was reduced to its current size by erosion and plate tectonics; the present area of directly observable lava flows is around 500,000 km2 (200,000 sq mi).
Effect on mass extinctions and climateEdit
The release of volcanic gases, particularly sulfur dioxide, during the formation of the traps contributed to climate change. Data points to an average drop in temperature of about 2 °C (3.6 °F) in this period.
Because of its magnitude, scientists have speculated that the gases released during the formation of the Deccan Traps played a major role in the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary or K–T extinction). It has been theorized that sudden cooling due to sulfurous volcanic gases released by the formation of the traps and toxic gas emissions may have contributed significantly to the K–Pg, as well as other, mass extinctions. However, the current consensus among the scientific community is that the extinction was primarily triggered by the Chicxulub impact event in North America, which would have produced a sunlight-blocking dust cloud that killed much of the plant life and reduced global temperature (this cooling is called an impact winter).
Work published in 2014 by geologist Gerta Keller and others on the timing of the Deccan volcanism suggests the extinction may have been caused by both the volcanism and the impact event. This was followed by a similar study in 2015, both of which consider the hypothesis that the impact exacerbated or induced the Deccan volcanism, since the events occur at antipodes.
However, the impact theory is still the best supported and has been determined by various reviews to be the consensus view.
The Deccan Traps are famous for the beds of fossils that have been found between layers of lava. Particularly well known species include the frog Oxyglossus pusillus (Owen) of the Eocene of India and the toothed frog Indobatrachus, an early lineage of modern frogs, which is now placed in the Australian family Myobatrachidae. The Infratrappean Beds and Intertrappean Beds also contain fossil freshwater molluscs.
Theories of formationEdit
It is postulated that the Deccan Traps eruption was associated with a deep mantle plume. The area of long-term eruption (the hotspot), known as the Réunion hotspot, is suspected of both causing the Deccan Traps eruption and opening the rift that once separated the Seychelles plateau from India. Seafloor spreading at the boundary between the Indian and African Plates subsequently pushed India north over the plume, which now lies under Réunion island in the Indian Ocean, southwest of India. The mantle plume model has, however, been challenged.
Data continues to emerge that support the plume model. The motion of the Indian tectonic plate and the eruptive history of the Deccan traps show strong correlations. Based on data from marine magnetic profiles, a pulse of unusually rapid plate motion began at the same time as the first pulse of Deccan flood basalts, which is dated at 67 million years ago. The spreading rate rapidly increased and reached a maximum at the same time as the peak basaltic eruptions. The spreading rate then dropped off, with the decrease occurring around 63 million years ago, by which time the main phase of Deccan volcanism ended. This correlation is seen as driven by plume dynamics.
The motions of the Indian and African plates have also been shown to be coupled, the common element being the position of these plates relative to the location of the Réunion plume head. The onset of accelerated motion of India coincides with a large slowing of the rate of counterclockwise rotation of Africa. The close correlations between the plate motions suggest that they were both driven by the force of the Réunion plume.
There is some evidence to link the Deccan Traps eruption to the contemporaneous asteroid impact that created the nearly antipodal Chicxulub crater in the Mexican state of Yucatán. Although the Deccan Traps began erupting well before the impact, argon-argon dating suggests that the impact may have caused an increase in permeability that allowed magma to reach the surface and produced the most voluminous flows, accounting for around 70% of the volume. The combination of the asteroid impact and the resulting increase in eruptive volume may have been responsible for the mass extinctions that occurred at the time that separates the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods, known as the K–Pg boundary.
A more recent discovery appears to demonstrate the scope of the destruction from the impact alone, however. In a March 2019 article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, an international team of twelve scientists revealed the contents of the Tanis fossil site discovered near Bowman, North Dakota that appeared to show a devastating mass destruction of an ancient lake and its inhabitants at the time of the Chicxulub impact. In the paper, the group claims that the geology of the site is strewn with fossilized trees and remains of fish and other animals. The lead researcher, Robert A. DePalma of the University of Kansas, was quoted in the New York Times as stating that “[Y]ou would be blind to miss the carcasses sticking out... It is impossible to miss when you see the outcrop.” Evidence correlating this find to the Chicxulub impact included tektites bearing "the unique chemical signature of other tektites associated with the Chicxulub event" found in the gills of fish fossils and embedded in amber, an iridium-rich top layer that is considered another signature of the event, and an atypical lack of scavenging of the dead fish and animals that suggested few other species survived the event to feed off the mass death. The exact mechanism of the site's destruction has been debated as either an impact-caused tsunami or lake and river seiche activity triggered by post-impact earthquakes, though there has yet been no firm conclusion upon which researchers have settled.
A geological structure that exists in the sea floor off the west coast of India has been suggested as a possible impact crater, in this context called the Shiva crater. It has also been dated at approximately 66 million years ago, potentially matching the Deccan traps. The researchers claiming that this feature is an impact crater suggest that the impact may have been the triggering event for the Deccan Traps as well as contributing to the acceleration of the Indian plate in the early Paleogene. However, the current consensus in the Earth science community is that this feature is unlikely to be an actual impact crater.
- Singh, R. N.; Gupta, K. R. (1994). "Workshop yields new insight into volcanism at Deccan Traps, India". Eos. 75 (31): 356. Bibcode:1994EOSTr..75..356S. doi:10.1029/94EO01005.
- Dessert, Céline; Dupréa, Bernard; Françoisa, Louis M.; Schotta, Jacques; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Chakrapani, Govind; Bajpai, Sujit (2001). "Erosion of Deccan Traps determined by river geochemistry: impact on the global climate and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 188 (3–4): 459–474. Bibcode:2001E&PSL.188..459D. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00317-X.
- "What really killed the dinosaurs?" Jennifer Chu, MIT News Office, 11 December 2014
- Trap at dictionary.reference.com
- "India's Smoking Gun: Dino-killing Eruptions." ScienceDaily, 10 August 2005.
- Royer, D. L.; Berner, R. A.; Montañez, I. P.; Tabor, N. J.; Beerling, D. J. (2004). "CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate". GSA Today. 14 (3): 4–10. doi:10.1130/1052-5173(2004)014<4:CAAPDO>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1052-5173.
- Courtillot, Vincent (1990). "A Volcanic Eruption". Scientific American. 263 (4): 85–92. Bibcode:1990SciAm.263d..85C. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1090-85. PMID 11536474.
- Beardsley, Tim (1988). "Star-Struck?". Scientific American. 258 (4): 37–40. Bibcode:1988SciAm.258d..37B. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0488-37b.
- Schulte, Peter; et al. (5 March 2010). "The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary" (PDF). Science. 327 (5970): 1214–1218. Bibcode:2010Sci...327.1214S. doi:10.1126/science.1177265. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 20203042.
- Keller, G., Deccan volcanism, the Chicxulub impact, and the end-Cretaceous mass extinction: Coincidence? Cause and effect?, in Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects, GSA Special Paper 505, Pp. 29-55, 2014 abstract Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Eddy, M. P.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Khadri, S. F. R.; Gertsch, B. (11 December 2014). "U-Pb geochronology of the Deccan Traps and relation to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction". Science. 347 (6218): 182–184. doi:10.1126/science.aaa0118.
- Renne, P. R.; Sprain, C. J.; Richards, M. A.; Self, S.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Pande, K. (2 October 2015). "State shift in Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, possibly induced by impact". Science. 350 (6256): 76–78. Bibcode:2015Sci...350...76R. doi:10.1126/science.aac7549. PMID 26430116.
- "Asteroid that killed dinosaurs also intensified volcanic eruptions - study". The Guardian. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "Dinosaur extinction: 'Asteroid strike was real culprit'". BBC NEWS. 17 January 2020.
- Aramaki, S.; Fukuoka, T.; Deshmukh, S. S.; Fujii, T.; Sano, T. (1 December 2001). "Differentiation Processes of Deccan Trap Basalts: Contribution from Geochemistry and Experimental Petrology". Journal of Petrology. 42 (12): 2175–2195. doi:10.1093/petrology/42.12.2175. ISSN 0022-3530.
- Dessai, A.G.; Vaselli, O. (October 1999). "Petrology and geochemistry of xenoliths in lamprophyres from the Deccan Traps: implications for the nature of the deep crust boundary in western India" (PDF). Mineralogical Magazine. 63 (5): 703–722. doi:10.1180/minmag.1999.063.5.08.
- Noble, Gladwyn Kingsley (1930). "The Fossil Frogs of the Intertrappean Beds of Bombay, India". American Museum of Natural History. 401: 1930. hdl:2246/3061.
- Hartman, J.H., Mohabey, D.M., Bingle, M., Scholz, H., Bajpai, S., and Sharma, R., 2006, Initial survivorship of nonmarine molluscan faunas in end-Cretaceous Deccan intertrappean strata, India: Geological Society of America (annual meeting, Philadelphia) Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 7, p. 143.
- Sheth, Hetu C. "The Deccan Beyond the Plume Hypothesis." MantlePlumes.org, 2006.
- S.C. Cande and D.R. Stegman; Indian and African plate motions driven by the push force of the Réunion plume head; Nature; Volume 475; pp. 47–52; (7 July 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10174
- Richards, Mark A.; Alvarez, Walter; Self, Stephen; Karlstrom, Leif; Renne, Paul R.; Manga, Michael; Sprain, Courtney J.; Smit, Jan; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Gibson, Sally A. (2015). "Triggering of the largest Deccan eruptions by the Chicxulub impact" (PDF). Geological Society of America Bulletin. 127 (11–12): 1507–1520. Bibcode:2015GSAB..127.1507R. doi:10.1130/B31167.1.
- Renne, P. R.; et al. (2015). "State shift in Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, possibly induced by impact". Science. 350 (6256): 76–78. Bibcode:2015Sci...350...76R. doi:10.1126/science.aac7549. PMID 26430116.
- Sprain, Courtney J.; Renne, Paul R.; Vanderkluysen, Loÿc; Pande, Kanchan; Self, Stephen; Mittal, Tushar (21 February 2019). "The eruptive tempo of Deccan volcanism in relation to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary". Science. 363 (6429): 866–870. doi:10.1126/science.aav1446.
- "Stunning discovery offers glimpse of minutes following 'dinosaur-killer' Chicxulub impact". 29 March 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Broad, William J.; Chang, Kenneth (29 March 2019). "Fossil Site Reveals Day That Meteor Hit Earth and, Maybe, Wiped Out Dinosaurs". The New York Times.
- Chatterjee, Sankar. "The Shiva Crater: Implications for Deccan Volcanism, India-Seychelles Rifting, Dinosaur Extinction, and Petroleum Entrapment at the KT Boundary." Paper No. 60-8, Seattle Annual Meeting, November 2003.
- Mullen, Leslie (2 November 2004). "Shiva: Another K–Pg Impact?". Spacedaily.com. Retrieved 20 February 2008. - original article at source
- Moskowitz, Clara (18 October 2009). "New Dino-destroying Theory Fuels Hot Debate". space.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deccan Traps.|
- "Animated simulation by the Geodynamics group at the Geological Survey of Norway illustrating the Indian plate moving through the Indian Ocean". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011.
- Scientist argues that volcanoes, not meteorite, killed dinosaurs
- The Deccan Traps/Volcanism Theory