Polyphemus, by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, 1802 (Landesmuseum Oldenburg)

A cyclops (/ˈsklɒps/ SY-klops; Ancient Greek: Κύκλωψ, Kyklōps; plural cyclopes /sˈklpz/ sy-KLOH-peez; Κύκλωπες, Kyklōpes), in Greek mythology and later Roman mythology, is a member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the center of his forehead.[1] The word cyclops literally means "round-eyed"[2] or "circle-eyed".[3]

Hesiod described three one-eyed cyclopes who served as builders, blacksmiths, metalworkers, and craftsmen: Brontes, Steropes, and Arges, the sons of Uranus and Gaia, brothers of the Titans.[4] Homer described another group of mortal herdsmen or shepherd cyclopes, the sons of Poseidon.[5] Other accounts were written by the playwright Euripides, poet Theocritus and Roman epic poet Virgil. In Hesiod's Theogony, Zeus releases three cyclopes from the dark pit of Tartarus. They provide Zeus' thunderbolt, Hades' "helmet of darkness", and Poseidon's trident, and the gods use these weapons to defeat the Titans.

In an episode of Homer's Odyssey, the hero Odysseus encounters the cyclops Polyphemus, the son of Poseidon and Thoosa, who lives with his fellow cyclopes in a distant country. The connection between the two groups has been debated in antiquity and by modern scholars.[6] It is upon Homer's account that Euripides and Virgil based their accounts of the mythical creatures. The ancient Greek geographer Strabo describes another group of seven Lycian cyclopes, also known as "Bellyhands" because they earned from their handicraft. They had built the walls of Tiryns and perhaps the caverns and the labyrinths near Nauplia, which are called cyclopean.[7]

Contents

Ancient sourcesEdit

 
The Cyclops, gouache and oil by Odilon Redon (1840–1916), undated (Kröller-Müller Museum)[8]

It is often assumed that Polyphemus lives, along with the other cyclopes, on an island. That is a possibility but all that is known from Homer's Odyssey is that Polyphemus resided in a "land" somewhere farther on from the Lotus-Eaters, in a place that is not close or distant from an uninhabited, wooded and unexploited island, where Odysseus arrives. The map location that can be drawn from this episode and the surrounding episodes in the Odyssey is variously described and discussed divergently by scholars.[citation needed]

Euripides in his satyr-drama, Cyclops, appears at times to follow closely the story found in Homer, and at other times contributes variations. In Euripides' play there is no mention of the unexploited island, and Euripides keeps the action of the play in one location – the place where the cyclopes live, and where Odysseus' ship landed. Euripides also makes a significant variation from Homer to the setting: he imagines the location to be Mount Etna "where the one-eyed sons of the sea god, the man-slaying Cyclopes, live in their desolate caves".[9]

Another source for the story of Polyphemus is Idyll XI. The Cyclops by Theocritus (circa 270 BC), in which the cyclopes' home is, following Euripides, near Mount Etna in Sicily.[10] Since Euripides and Theocritus, the Sicilian location has become attached to the cyclops story.[11]

HomerEdit

 
Odysseus and his crew are blinding Polyphemus. Detail of a Proto-Attic amphora, circa 650 BC. Eleusis, Archaeological Museum, Inv. 2630.

It is estimated that Homer's Odyssey was composed sometime in the 50-year period from 725 to 675 BC, and it is thought that it shows the influence of earlier oral poetic traditions of different peoples. In the Odyssey the episodes that are placed on the Black Sea, which would include the cyclops story, appear to incorporate parts of the Gilgamesh tradition, as well as the Caucasian myths of a one-eyed monster. There are striking parallels between Homer's story and the Caucasian stories of Urzmaeg, where the hero outwits a one-eyed giant, and blinds him with a torch. It is thought that the Caucasian myths probably came to the Greeks through the epic Anatolian song tradition.[12][13]

Homer never specifically states that Polyphemus has only one eye. One interpretation is that "one eye" is implied in passages that (in some translations) use the singular to refer to an eye or a brow, for example when Odysseus asks his men to cast lots to select a group that will join with him "to lift the stake and grind it into his eye when sweet sleep should come upon him".[14] It is alternately suggested that such an interpretation is an unsupported assumption, and that Homer’s not mentioning the one-eyed condition, if it were truly part of the story, in places in the story seems like a lapse.[15][16]

Other interpretations suggest that Homer's Polyphemus may have had two eyes. It is pointed out that in the Odyssey when the actual blinding occurs there is a reference to plural brows and lids. Also Homer describes in some detail the entire race of cyclopes, critiquing their agricultural techniques, in what may be literature's first anthropological study, and never mentions their monocularity. It is also noted that the first artistic or graphic depiction of the blinding episode appears on an amphora that was created by the Polyphemos Painter c. 680–650 B.C, and the artist shows the blinding stake has two prongs, as though two eyes are being targeted.[17]

HesiodEdit

In the Theogony by Hesiod, the cyclopes[18] – Brontes (Βρόντης, "thunderer"), Steropes (Στερόπης, "lightning") and Arges (Ἄργης, "brightness") – were the primordial sons of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth) and brothers of the Hekatonkheires and the Titans. As such, they were blood-related to the Titan and Olympian gods and goddesses.[19] They were giants with a single eye in the middle of their forehead and a foul disposition. According to Hesiod, they were strong and stubborn. Collectively they eventually became synonyms for brute strength and power, and their name was invoked in connection with massive masonry or blacksmithery. They were often pictured at their forge.

Uranus, fearing their strength, locked them in Tartarus. Cronus, another son of Uranus and Gaia, later freed the cyclopes, along with the Hecatoncheires, after he had overthrown Uranus. Cronus then placed them back in Tartarus, where they remained, guarded by the female monster Campe, until freed by Zeus. They fashioned thunderbolts for Zeus to use as weapons, and helped him overthrow Cronus and the other Titans. The lightning bolts, which became Zeus' main weapons, were forged by all three cyclopes, in that Arges added brightness, Brontes added thunder, and Steropes added lightning.

These cyclopes also created Poseidon's trident, Artemis' bow and arrows of moonlight, Apollo's bow and arrows of sun rays, and Hades' helm of darkness that was given to Perseus on his quest to kill Medusa.

CallimachusEdit

 
Statue of a Cyclops at the Natural History Museum in London

According to a hymn of Callimachus,[20] they were Hephaestus' helpers at the forge. The cyclopes were said to have built the "cyclopean" fortifications at Tiryns and Mycenae in the Peloponnese. The noises proceeding from the heart of volcanoes were attributed to their operations.

EuripidesEdit

Euripides' only extant comedy is his play Cyclops, which was written in 408 B.C. It is the only complete satyr play of ancient Greece that has survived. It is based on a story that occurs in book nine of Homer's Odyssey. It takes place on the island of Sicily near the volcano Mount Etna, and the cyclops is portrayed as a cave-dwelling, violent, cannibalistic, oafish character. This depiction is similar to Homer’s cyclops, though it differs from the cyclops of Hesiod. Euripides’ version may have been influenced by the comic handling of the cyclops found in Cratinus' play Odysseuses, which is one of many plays of ancient Greece that are known to have lampooned Homer's cyclops story.[21][22]

According to Euripides' play Alcestis, Apollo killed the cyclopes, in retaliation for Asclepius' murder at the hands of Zeus. For this crime, Apollo was then forced into the servitude of Admetus for one year. Other stories after Euripides tell that Zeus later revived Asclepius and the cyclopes. This was after the year of Apollo's servitude had passed. Zeus pardoned the cyclopes and Asclepius from the underworld, despite them being dead, even though Hades is lord of the dead and they are his prisoners. Hades as well does not ever allow any of his souls to leave the Underworld. Zeus could not bear the loss of the cyclopes, for they were the biggest reason the Olympians assumed power. Also, Zeus resurrected Asclepius at the request of Apollo so that their feud would end.

Some versions of this myth have it that after Apollo killed the cyclopes, their ghosts dwelt in the caverns of the volcano Aetna.[23]

TheocritusEdit

The Sicilian Greek poet Theocritus wrote two poems (circa 275 BC) concerning Polyphemus' desire for Galatea, a sea nymph, and his strategy for winning her.

VirgilEdit

Virgil, the Roman epic poet, wrote, in book three of The Aeneid, of how Aeneas and his crew landed on the island of the cyclops after escaping from Troy at the end of the Trojan War. Aeneas and his crew land on the island, when they are approached by a desperate Greek man from Ithaca, Achaemenides, who was stranded on the island a few years previously with Odysseus' expedition (as depicted in The Odyssey).

Virgil's account acts as a sequel to Homer's, with the fate of Polyphemus as a blind cyclops after the escape of Odysseus and his crew where some cases have Polyphemus regaining his eyesight.

The ancient Greek epic DionysiacaEdit

Dionysiaca, composed in the 4th or 5th century BC, is the longest surviving poem from antiquity – 20,426 lines. It is written by the poet Nonnus in the Homeric dialect, and its main subject is the life of Dionysus. It describes a war that occurred between Dionysus' troops and those of the Indian king Deriades. In book 28 of the Dionysiaca the cyclops join with Dionysian troops, and the prove to be great warriors and crush most of the Indian king's troops.[24]

OriginsEdit

Walter Burkert suggests that the archaic groups or societies of lesser gods mirror real cult associations: "It may be surmised that smith guilds lie behind Cabeiri, Idaian Dactyloi, Telchines, and Cyclopes." Burkert also suggests that because cyclops are at times portrayed as blacksmiths, the legend of their single eye may have arisen from the practice of blacksmiths wearing an eyepatch over one eye to prevent flying sparks from blinding them in both eyes.[25][26] The cyclopes seen in Homer's Odyssey are of a different type from those in the Theogony and they have no connection to blacksmithing. It is possible that independent legends associated with Polyphemus did not make him a cyclops before Homer's Odyssey; Polyphemus may have been some sort of local daemon or monster in original stories.

Another possible origin for the cyclops legend was first advanced by the paleontologist Othenio Abel in 1914.[27] Abel proposed that fossil skulls of prehistoric mammoths – and dwarf mammoths – may have been found by the Greeks in island cave on Cyprus, Crete, Malta, Sicily and other Aegean islands. Notably, in Homer's epic poem, Odysseus and his sailors encountered the Cyclops in a cave. Abel suggested that the large, central nasal cavity (for the trunk) in the skull might have been interpreted as a large single eye-socket.[28] Given the inexperience of the locals with living elephants until the fourth century BC, they were unlikely to recognize the skull for what it actually was.[29]

Veratrum album, or white hellebore, an herbal medicine used by Ancient Greeks and described by Hippocrates before 400 BC,[30] contains the alkaloids cyclopamine and jervine, which are teratogens capable of causing cyclopia and holoprosencephaly, severe birth defects in which a fetus can be born with a single eye. Students of teratology have raised the possibility of a link between this developmental deformity in Ancient Greek infants and the myth for which it was named.[31] Regardless of the connection between the herb and the birth abnormalities, it is possible these rare birth defects may have contributed to the myth. However, a study of deformed humans born with a single eye all have a nose above the single eye, not below.[32]

Cyclopean wallsEdit

 
Cyclopean walls at Mycenae.

After the "Dark Age", when Hellenes looked with awe at the vast dressed blocks, known as Cyclopean structures, which had been used in Mycenaean masonry (at sites such as Mycenae and Tiryns or on Cyprus), they concluded that only the cyclopes had the combination of skill and strength to build in such a monumental manner.

Legends of the CaucasusEdit

The Caucasus region near the Black Sea is rich in a folk literature that contains stories seen as variations of the myths of the ancient Greeks, including the Cyclops stories. In the Caucasus these tales have been handed down as songs and narrative poems by a strong oral tradition – which is also the tradition of Homer. One reason the oral tradition is strong is that for most of the languages spoken in this mountainous region there was no written alphabet until relatively recently. The stories are not well known to the English speaking world. They began to be written down and collected in the 1890s, as the Nart saga and the Uryzmaeg stories.[33][34]

In the cyclops stories of the Caucasus, the cyclops is almost always a shepherd, and he is also variously presented as a one-eyed, rock-throwing, cannibalistic giant, who says his name is "nobody", who lives in a cave, whose door is blocked by a large stone, who is a threat to the hero of the story, who is blinded by a hot stake, and whose flock of sheep is stolen by the hero and his men. These motifs are also found in the cyclops stories of Homer, Euripides, and Hesiod.[35][36][37]

One example in a story from Georgia, describes two brothers trapped in the cave of "One-eye". They take the wooden spit from One-eye's fire, heat it up, stab it into his eye and escape.[38]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Female cyclopes do not occur in any classical sources.
  2. ^ Entry: Κύκλωψ at LSJ
  3. ^ As with many Greek mythic names, however, this might be a folk etymology. Another proposal holds that the word is derived from PIE pḱu-klōps "sheep thief". See: Paul Thieme, "Etymologische Vexierbilder", Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 69 (1951): 177-78; Burkert (1982), p. 157; J.P.S. Beekes, Indo-European Etymological Project, s.v. Cyclops."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2008-01-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Note that this would mean that the Cyclopes were regular giants, and the depictions with a singular eye, secondarily motivated by the folk etymology.
  4. ^ Gantz, p. 10; Hesiod, Theogony, 139–146
  5. ^ Gantz, pp. 12–13. These Homeric cyclopes are all presumably the sons of Poseidon, though, only the cyclops Polyphemus is explicitly said to be.
  6. ^ Gantz, p. 12: "the Kyclopes [of Hesiod] could scarcely be more different from those encountered by Odysseus in Book 9 of the Odyssey"; Mondi, pp. 17–18: "Why is there such a discrepancy between the nature of the Homeric cyclopes and the nature of those found in Hesiod's Theogony? Ancient commentators were so exercised by this problem that they supposed there to be more than one type of cyclops, and we must agree that, on the surface at least, these two groups could hardly have less in common."
  7. ^ Strabo, Geography, 373
  8. ^ Dated before 1905, possibly a replica of a pastel, according to Klaus Berger, "The Pastels of Odilon Redon", College Art Journal 16.1 (Autumn 1956:23-33) pp. 30ff; dated 1898-1900 by David H. Porter, "Metamorphoses and Metamorphosis: A Brief Response", American Journal of Philology 124.3 (Fall 2003:473–76); illus. in Sven Sandström, Le Monde imaginaire d'Odilon Redon: étude iconologique,1955:69.
  9. ^ Walbank, F. W. A Historical Commentary on Polybius, Vol III. Oxford (1979). ISBN 978-0198140115. p. 577.
  10. ^ Hawes, Greta, editor. Myths on the Map: The Storied Landscapes of Ancient Greece. Oxford University Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0191062209. pp. 56–61.
  11. ^ "Theocritus". Emonds, John Maxwell, editor and translator. The Greek Bucolic Poets, Volume 28 of Loeb classical library. Publisher W. Heinemann, 1912. ASIN: B000J32Z2O
  12. ^ Homer. The Odyssey. "Introduction" and translation by Fagles, Robert. Penguin, 1997. ISBN 978-0140268867. pp. 3–32.
  13. ^ Bachvarova, Mary R. From Hittite to Homer: The Anatolian Background of Ancient Greek Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2016. ISBN 978-0521509794. pp. 99–106, 299
  14. ^ Homer, Odyssey 9.331-333.
  15. ^ Heubeck, Alfred; Hainsworth, J.B.; West, Stephanie; editors. A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey: Introduction, Books 1-8. Oxford University Press (1990) ISBN 9780198147473 p. 83-85
  16. ^ Bremmer, J.N. Odysseus versus the Cyclops, in Myth and Symbol. Ed. S. des Bouvrie. The Norwegian Institute. (1987) pp. 135–52.
  17. ^ Bremmer, J.N. Odysseus versus the Cyclops, in Myth and Symbol. Ed. S. des Bouvrie. The Norwegian Institute. (1987) pp. 135–52.
  18. ^ Graves, Robert (1960). The Greek Myths. Harmondsworth, London, England: Penguin Books. pp. s.v. The Olympian Creation Myth. ISBN 978-0143106715.
  19. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 139–46. Arges was elsewhere called Acmonides (Ovid, Fasti iv. 288), or Pyraemon (Virgil, Aeneid viii. 425).
  20. ^ To Artemis, 46f. See also Virgil's Georgics 4.173 and Aeneid 8.416ff.
  21. ^ Euripides. The Cyclops. Text online. Translated by E.P. Coleridge. Digireads. (2012) ISBN 978-1420904154
  22. ^ Euripides. Preface by Patterson, John Letcher. The Cyclops of Euripides. Macmillan (1900).
  23. ^ Graves, Robert (1960). The Greek Myths. London: Penguin Books. p. 31. ISBN 978-0140171990.
  24. ^ "Nonnus, of Panopolis". Rouse, W.H.D., translator. Dionysiaca, Volume II, Books XVI - XXXV. Harvard University Press (1940) ISBN 978-0434993543 p. 346-369.
  25. ^ Burkert (1991), p. 173.
  26. ^ Robson, David. Cyclops; Monsters and mythical creatures. Capstone (2011) ISBN 978-1601523570. p. 17
  27. ^ Abel's plausible surmise was recovered from obscurity by Adrienne Mayor in 2000, The First Fossil Hunters: Dinosaurs, Mammoths, and Myth in Greek and Roman Times (Princeton University Press) 2000, rev. ed 2009 ISBN 1400838444.
  28. ^ The smaller, actual eye-sockets are on the sides and, being very shallow, were hardly noticeable as such
  29. ^ "Meet the original Cyclops". Retrieved 18 May 2007.
  30. ^   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hellebore" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 236. — citing Codronchius (Comm.... de elleb., 1610), Castellus (De helleb. epistola, 1622), Horace (Sat. ii. 3.80–83, Ep. ad Pis. 300)
  31. ^ Armand Marie Leroi, Mutants; On the Form, Varieties and Errors of the Human Body, 2005:68.
  32. ^ Nelson, Edward. 1958. The One-Eyed Ones. Journal of American Folklore Vol. 71, No. 280: 159–61.
  33. ^ Hunt, David. Legends of the Caucasus. London: Saqi Books. (2012). ISBN 978-0863568237. p. 13
  34. ^ Ratcliffe, Jonathan. Arimaspians and Cyclopes: The Mythos of the One-Eyed Man in Greek and Inner Asian Thought. Editor: Mair, Victor. Sino-Platonic Papers, no. 249. University of Pennsylvania Publications. (2014)
  35. ^ Bachvarova, Mary R. From Hittite to Homer: The Anatolian Background of Ancient Greek Epic. Cambridge University Press (2016). ISBN 978-0521509794. p. 106
  36. ^ Rashidvash, Vahid. "The Caucasus, Its Peoples, and Its History". International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies (IRJIMS). Vol I, Is. IV, February 2015, Scholar Publications. pp.. 30–36. ISSN 2394-7950
  37. ^ Colarusso, John. Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs. Princeton University Press (2002) ISBN 978-0691026473
  38. ^ Hunt, David. Legends of the Caucasus. London: Saqi Books. (2012) p. 220

ReferencesEdit

  • Bachvarova, Mary (2016). From Hittite to Homer: The Anatolian Background of Ancient Greek Epic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521509794.
  • Bremmer, J.N. (1987). Odysseus versus the Cyclops, in Myth and Symbol. The Norwegian Institute.
  • Burkert, Walter (1982). Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04770-9.
  • Burkert, Walter (1991). Greek Religion. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-15624-6.
  • Colarusso, John (2002). Nart Sagas from the Caucasus: Myths and Legends from the Circassians, Abazas, Abkhaz, and Ubykhs. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691026473.
  • Euripides (1900). The Cyclops. Macmillan.
  • Euripides (2012). The Cyclops. Digireads. ISBN 978-1420904154.
  • Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
  • Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Homer. The Odyssey. Introduction and translation by Fagles, Robert. Penguin, 1997. ISBN 978-0140268867.
  • Hunt, David (2012). Legends of the Caucasus. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0863568237.
  • Mondi, Robert "The Homeric Cyclopes: Folktale, Tradition, and Theme" Transactions of the American Philological Association 113 Vol. 113 (1983), pp. 17–38.
  • Rashidvash, Vahid (2015). The Caucasus, Its Peoples, and Its History. Scholar Publications.
  • Ratcliffe, Jonathan (2014). Arimaspians and Cyclopes: The Mythos of the One-Eyed Man in Greek and Inner Asian Thought. University of Pennsylvania Publications.

External linksEdit