Coulomb constant
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Value of k | Units |
---|---|
8.9875517923(14)×10^{9} | N·m^{2}/C^{2} |
14.3996 | eV·Å·e^{−2} |
10^{−7} | (N·s^{2}/C^{2})c^{2} |
The Coulomb constant, the electric force constant, or the electrostatic constant (denoted k_{e}, k or K) is a proportionality constant in electrostatics equations. In SI units it is equal to 8.9875517923(14)×10^{9} kg⋅m^{3}⋅s^{−2}⋅C^{−2}.^{[1]} It was named after the French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1736–1806) who introduced Coulomb's law.
Value of the constantEdit
The Coulomb constant is the constant of proportionality in Coulomb's law,
where ê_{r} is a unit vector in the r-direction.^{[2]} In SI:
where is the vacuum permittivity. This formula can be derived from Gauss' law,
Taking this integral for a sphere, radius r, centered on a point charge, the electric field points radially outwards and is normal to a differential surface element on the sphere with constant magnitude for all points on the sphere.
Note that this is also very similar to the Inverse Square Law which can be applied to many things from gravitational pull, to light attenuation. This law states that a specified physical quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
Noting that E = F/q for some test charge q,
Also note that this is very similar to the Inverse Square Law which can be applied to many things from gravitational pull, to light attenuation. This law states that a specified physical quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
In some modern systems of units, the Coulomb constant k_{e} has an exact numeric value; in Gaussian units k_{e} = 1, in Lorentz–Heaviside units (also called rationalized) k_{e} = 1/4π. This was previously true in SI when the vacuum permeability was defined as μ_{0} = 4π×10^{−7} H⋅m^{−1}. Together with the speed of light in vacuum c, defined as 299792458 m/s, the vacuum permittivity ε_{0} can be written as 1/μ_{0}c^{2}, which gave an exact value of^{[3]}
Since the redefinition of SI base units,^{[4]}^{[5]} the Coulomb constant is no longer exactly defined and is subject to the measurement error in the fine structure constant, as calculated from CODATA 2018 recommended values being^{[1]}
UseEdit
The Coulomb constant is used in many electric equations, although it is sometimes expressed as the following product of the vacuum permittivity constant:
The Coulomb constant appears in many expressions including the following:
See alsoEdit
ReferencesEdit
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} Derived from k_{e} = 1/(4πε_{0}) – "2018 CODATA Value: vacuum electric permittivity". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Cite has empty unknown parameter:
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(help) - ^ Tomilin, K. (1999). "Fine-structure constant and dimension analysis". European Journal of Physics. 20 (5): L39–L40. Bibcode:1999EJPh...20L..39T. doi:10.1088/0143-0807/20/5/404.
- ^ Coulomb's constant, HyperPhysics
- ^ BIPM statement: Information for users about the proposed revision of the SI (PDF)
- ^ "Decision CIPM/105-13 (October 2016)". The day is the 144th anniversary of the Metre Convention.