Corn oil

Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines. Corn oil is generally less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils.

Corn oil, five liters
Plastic jugs in cardboard boxes, 15 kg each

Corn oil is also a feedstock used for biodiesel. Other industrial uses for corn oil include soap, salve, paint, erasers, rustproofing for metal surfaces, inks, textiles, nitroglycerin, and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a carrier for drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations.

ProductionEdit

Almost all corn oil is expeller-pressed, then solvent-extracted using hexane or 2-methylpentane (isohexane).[1] The solvent is evaporated from the corn oil, recovered, and re-used. After extraction, the corn oil is then refined by degumming and/or alkali treatment, both of which remove phosphatides. Alkali treatment also neutralizes free fatty acids and removes color (bleaching). Final steps in refining include winterization (the removal of waxes), and deodorization by steam distillation of the oil at 232–260 °C (450–500 °F) under a high vacuum.[1]

Some specialty oil producers manufacture unrefined, 100%-expeller-pressed corn oil. This is a more expensive product since it has a much lower yield than the combination expeller and solvent process, as well as a smaller market share.

Constituents and comparisonEdit

Properties of vegetable oils[2][3]
Type Processing
treatment[4]
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[2] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[2] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Almond oil
Avocado[5] 11.6 70.6 52-66[6] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[7]
Brazil nut[8] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[9]
Canola[10] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[9]
Cashew oil
Chia seeds
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[11] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[9]
Corn[12] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[13]
Cottonseed[14] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[13]
Flaxseed/Linseed[15] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[16]
Hemp seed[17] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[18]
Vigna mungo
Mustard oil
Olive[19] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[9]
Palm[20] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[21] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 very high 232 °C (450 °F)[13]
Pecan oil
Perilla oil
Rice bran oil
Safflower[22] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[9]
Sesame[23] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[24] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Soybean[25] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[13]
Walnut oil
Sunflower (standard)[26] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 very high 227 °C (440 °F)[13]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[27] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[28] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[29]
Cottonseed[30] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Palm[31] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by weight of total fat.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Corn Refiners Association. Corn Oil Archived 2019-04-12 at the Wayback Machine 5th Edition. 2006
  2. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  3. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  4. ^ "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  6. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  7. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  10. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  11. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  12. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  14. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  16. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  17. ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
  18. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
  19. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  21. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  22. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Soybean oil". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  24. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  25. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  26. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  27. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  29. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
  30. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  31. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  32. ^ Daley, C.A.; Abbott, A.; Doyle, P.; Nader, G.; Larson, S. (2004). "A literature review of the value-added nutrients found in grass-fed beef products". California State University, Chico (College of Agriculture). Archived from the original on 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  33. ^ Yong Q. Chen; at al (2007). "Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (7): 1866–1875. doi:10.1172/JCI31494. PMC 1890998. PMID 17607361.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit