A stadium filled with spectators on the podiums and on the ground. In the middle is a stage with two giant pink 'L’ symbols flanking it. A large flood light is visible behind it.
A bird's eye view of Madonna's 2008 Sticky & Sweet Tour in the national stadium of Santiago, Chile.

A concert tour (or simply tour) is a series of concerts by an artist or group of artists in different cities, countries or locations. Often concert tours are named to differentiate different tours by the same artist and to associate a specific tour with a particular album or product (for example: Celine Dion´s Courage World Tour or U2's The Joshua Tree Tour named after the albums). Especially in the popular music world, such tours can become large-scale enterprises that last for several months or even years, are seen by hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and bring in millions of dollars (or the equivalent) in ticket revenues. A performer who embarks on a concert tour is called a touring artist.[1][2]

Different segments of longer concert tours are known as "legs".[3] The different legs of a tour are denoted in different ways, dependent on the artist and type of tour, but the most common means of separating legs are dates (especially if there is a long break at some point), countries and/or continents, or different opening acts. In the largest concert tours it is becoming more common for different legs to employ separate touring production crews and equipment, local to each geographical region.[citation needed] Concert tours are often administered on the local level by concert promoters or by performing arts presenters. Usually, small concert tours are managed by a road manager whereas large concert tours are managed by a tour manager.


The main challenge in concert tours is how to move the performance's logistics from one venue to another venue, especially for a transcontinental tour. Tour logistics should be very organized and everything has to happen on time and in the right order as planned.[4] Autoweek magazine estimated 30 to 50 trucks were required by Taylor Swift's 1989 World Tour to bring all the stage, sound equipment, instruments, props, and clothes.[5] When Beyoncé visited the United Kingdom with her 2016 Formation World Tour, it took seven Boeing 747 air freighters and a fleet of more than 70 trucks to get her stage set and other gear to the venues. The logistics phase of that tour didn't include transportation of the backstage staff, musicians, performers, and the singer herself.[6]

Rock-It Cargo is one of the companies that provided freight forwarding for some of the biggest names in music, such as Bruce Springsteen, Madonna, and The Police. Before the start of a tour, Rock-It Cargo had to move gear to a central location—either a rehearsal spot or the site of the first engagement. Then it arranged to transport whatever gear the band requires from one venue to the next. The company's vice president, Ed Butler, said "We use different freight modes—local trucking, cross-country trucking, air freight, and ocean freight. We also provide import, export, customs clearance, carnets (a document that allows a shipper—including a band—to move equipment across international boundaries and clear customs without paying duties)—everything a tour would need."[4]


As of 2011, the highest-grossing concert tour of all time is U2 360 Tour, with gross revenues of $736,137,344.[7] The second highest-grossing concert tour of all time is The Rolling Stones' A Bigger Bang Tour, which earned approximately $558 million between 2005 and 2007.[8] Madonna's Sticky & Sweet Tour, which earned $408 million in 2008 and 2009 was the highest-earning tour by a female artist.[9] According to the 2014 report from Billboard Boxscore, six acts having made over US$ 1 billion in touring since 1990 were the Rolling Stones, U2, Bruce Springsteen, Madonna, Coldplay and Bon Jovi.[10]

Global touring revenue reported to Billboard Boxscore exceeded $5.5 billion in 2016.[11] Due to the collapse of record sales in the 21st century, concert tours have became a major income for recording artists.[12] Besides the tickets, touring also generates money from the sales of merchandise and meet-and-greet package.[13][14]


The mobility of concert tours requires a lot of costs, times, and energy. British singer Adele expressed her unhappiness of concert tours, saying "Touring is a peculiar thing, it doesn't suit me particularly well. I'm a real homebody and I get so much joy in the small things."[15] A concert residency concept is offered as an alternative to performers who just need to stay in one venue and the fans come to see them.[16] American singer Lady Gaga, who cancelled the 2018 European leg of her Joanne World Tour, signed for a Las Vegas residency to help managing her fibromyalgia illness, which can be exacerbated by touring.[17]

The 2015 study by charity Help Musicians UK found that over 60% of musicians suffered from depression or other psychological issues, with touring an issue for 71% of respondents.[18]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ https://www.billboard.com/articles/photos/live/488653/hot-tours-roger-waters-mana-bob-dylan
  2. ^ "Madonna Extends Record as Highest-Grossing Solo Touring Artist". Billboard. 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  3. ^ "What is a Concert Tour?". TourBeat. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015. A concert tour is an opportunity for musicians to perform over longer periods of time across several cities, which are differentiated by segments known as "legs." Legs of tours of can be denoted by a series of dates that have no long break between them, by geographical regions or destinations, or by different opening acts. Each city or region may have the same opening act for each leg, or they may change opening acts at each city.
  4. ^ a b "Taking the Show on the Road - Inbound Logistics". www.inboundlogistics.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  5. ^ "How many trucks does it take to put on a Taylor Swift show?". autoweek.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  6. ^ "What it takes to get Beyonce on a world tour - BBC News". Bbc.com. 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  7. ^ Waddell, Ray (29 July 2011). "U2 Set to Wrap Biggest Concert Tour Ever". Billboard.com. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  8. ^ Pietrolungo, Silvio (April 9, 2007). "Rolling Stones Tour Grosses More Than Half A Billion". Billboard. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  9. ^ "Madonna Closes Tour In Tel Aviv;Second Highest Grossing Trek Of All Time". Billboard. September 2, 2009. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
  10. ^ "These Five Artists Have Made Over a Billion Dollars Touring". consequenceofsound.net. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. ^ "How 'The Shared Live Experience' & Even Streaming Fueled the $25 Billion Concert Biz". billboard.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  12. ^ "With Touring Still A Focal Point, The Rolling Stones, AC/DC And U2 Fight For Top Honors In Rock And Roll History". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  13. ^ "Nine Ways Musicians Actually Make Money Today – Rolling Stone". Rollingstone.com. 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  14. ^ "$1500 packages to meet rock band KISS sell out in Melbourne, Sydney and Perth ahead of Australian tour". News.com.au. 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  15. ^ "'This is it': Adele hints to fans she may never tour again". sky.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  16. ^ Lerner, Rebecca. "Meet The Celeb 100 Stars Cashing In On The Vegas Residency Boom". forbes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  17. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-45101130
  18. ^ Britton, Luke Morgan (25 June 2015). "Insomnia, anxiety, break-ups … musicians on the dark side of touring". Retrieved 4 December 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.

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