Gusuryak by Choi Seok-jeong, published in 1700

Choi Seok-jeong (Korean최석정; Hanja崔錫鼎; 1646–1715) was a Korean politician and mathematician in the Joseon period of Korea. He published the Gusuryak (Korean구수략; Hanja九數略) in 1700,[1] which is the first literature on the Latin square,[2] predating Leonhard Euler by at least 67 years.[3][4] He also invented the hexagonal tortoise problem.[5]


  1. ^ "구수략(九數略)". 규장각 문화재청. Seoul National University Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  2. ^ Colbourn, Charles J.; Dinitz, Jeffrey H. Handbook of Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 12. ISBN 9781420010541. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Math&Presso" (PDF). 3. International Congress of Mathematicians. August 15, 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Kim, Sung Sook (2012). Orthogonal Latin Squares of Choi Seok-Jeong (PDF). History and Pedagogy of Mathematics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  5. ^ Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. p. 689. Retrieved 28 March 2017.