Chiefdom of Yongning

Chiefdom of Yongning (simplified Chinese: 永宁土司; traditional Chinese: 永寧土司; pinyin: Yǒngníng Tǔsī) was a Mosuo autonomous Tusi chiefdom during Ming and Qing dynasty. The chiefdom located at the convergence of Yunnan, Sichuan and Tibet.

Chiefdom of Yongning

永寧土司
1381–1956
CapitalYongning (present day part of Ninglang Yi Autonomous County)
Common languagesNaxi language
GovernmentMonarchy
Chieftain 
• 1381–?
Budu Geji (first)
• 1930–1956
A Minhan (last)
History 
• Established
1381
• Disestablished
1956
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Yuan dynasty
China
Today part of China

According to legend, the ancestor of Yongning chieftains was from Tibet. He arrived at Yongning in 24 AD. Yongning was a part of Nanzhao and later a part of the Dali Kingdom.[1] Mongolian invaded Dali in 1253. He Zi (和字), the chieftain of Yongning, surrendered to Mongol Empire. Yongning was ruled by Mongols.[2]

Yongning swore allegiance to Ming dynasty since 1371.[3] Chieftain Budu Geji (卜都各吉) went to China to have an audience with Hongwu Emperor in 1381, from then on, Yongning joined the Chinese Tusi System.[4] Since 1406, the hereditary chieftains received the official position "Magistrate of Yongning" (永寧知府) from Chinese emperor.

A Ju (阿苴) was the first chieftain who used the Chinese surname "A" (阿). Joseph Rock stated that the surname was given by Chinese emperor. On one occasion the chieftain came to have an audience with Chinese emperor. The chieftain did not understand Chinese. When Chinese emperor spoke to him, he replied "ah", so was given the surname "A".[5]

According to The Ancient Nakhi Kingdom of Southwest China by Joseph Rock, Yongning used to be great power. However, in 1648, Muli was given to a lama and established the Chiefdom of Muli; later, in 1710, Yongning was divided into several chiefdoms under Kangxi Emperor's order.[5]

In 1917, Chiefdom of Langqu (蒗蕖土司) was abolished, its territory merged into Yongning. Since then, Yongning changed its name to Ninglang. Yongning Chiefdom was abolished by Communist Party of China in 1956.

List of chieftains of YongningEdit

Name Reign Notes
Budu Geji
卜都各吉
1381 –?
Geji Bahe
各吉巴合
? – 1414
Busa
卜撒
1414 – October 1417 murdered by Lamafei
Lamafei
剌馬非
October 1417 – July 31, 1423 usurper
chieftain of Zuosuo (左所土司)
Nanba
南八
July 31, 1423 – 1458
A Ju
阿苴
July 28, 1458 – 1484 started to use the Chinese surname "A" (阿)
A Chuo
阿綽
September 12, 1484 – 1496
A Gui
阿貴
February 22, 1496 – 1515
A Hui
阿暉
July 24, 1515 – 1530
A He
阿和
May 29, 1540 – 1557
A Ying
阿英
September 27, 1557 – 1574
A Xiong
阿雄
September 19, 1574 – 1586
A Chengzhong
阿承忠
1591 – 1610
A Quan
阿銓
1610 – ? coronation: July 11, 1614
A Zhenlin
阿鎮麟
? – August 27, 1669
A Tingkun
阿庭錕
1670 – 1705
A Jinhui
阿錦暉
January 23, 1707 – December 29, 1711
A Jinxian
阿錦先
May 16, 1727 – May 24, 1727
A Youwei
阿有威
April 28, 1728 – April 26, 1740
A Shichang
阿世昌
November 1741 – 1770
A Liangbi
阿良弼
1770 – 1771 not recognized by China
A Qichang
阿啓昌
October 16, 1771 – March 28, 1796
A Liangfu
阿良輔
April 27, 1798 – October 21, 1815
A Huiyuan
阿會元
March 12, 1817 – March 4, 1867
A Yuxing
阿毓興
1867 – 1879 not recognized by China
A Hengfang
阿恒芳
April 23, 1879 – 1894
A Yingrui
阿應瑞
1894–October 6, 1923
A Minhan
阿民漢
March 1930 – 1956 title abolished

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (Shih 2009, p. 52)
  2. ^ (Shih 2009, p. 54)
  3. ^ 永宁土司传
  4. ^ (Shih 2009, p. 52,53)
  5. ^ a b Joseph F Rock (1947). "Chapter V: Yung-ning territory: Its history and geography". The ancient Na-khi Kingdom of southwest China. Harvard University Press. pp. 355–434. OCLC 2460083.
  • Chuan-kang Shih (2009). Quest for Harmony: The Moso Traditions of Sexual Union and Family Life. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804761994.