Centralizer and normalizer

In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant[1][2]) of a subset S of a group G is the set of elements of G that commute with each element of S, and the normalizer of S is the set of elements that satisfy a weaker condition. The centralizer and normalizer of S are subgroups of G, and can provide insight into the structure of G.

The definitions also apply to monoids and semigroups.

In ring theory, the centralizer of a subset of a ring is defined with respect to the semigroup (multiplication) operation of the ring. The centralizer of a subset of a ring R is a subring of R. This article also deals with centralizers and normalizers in Lie algebra.

The idealizer in a semigroup or ring is another construction that is in the same vein as the centralizer and normalizer.

DefinitionsEdit

Group and semigroupEdit

The centralizer of a subset S of group (or semigroup) G is defined as[3]

 

If there is no ambiguity about the group in question, the G can be suppressed from the notation. When S = {a} is a singleton set, we write CG(a) instead of CG({a}). Another less common notation for the centralizer is Z(a), which parallels the notation for the center. With this latter notation, one must be careful to avoid confusion between the center of a group G, Z(G), and the centralizer of an element g in G, Z(g).

The normalizer of S in the group (or semigroup) G is defined as

 

The definitions are similar but not identical. If g is in the centralizer of S and s is in S, then it must be that gs = sg, but if g is in the normalizer, then gs = tg for some t in S, with t possibly different from s. That is, elements of the centralizer of S must commute pointwise with S, but elements of the normalizer of S need only commute with S as a set. The same notational conventions mentioned above for centralizers also apply to normalizers. The normalizer should not be confused with the normal closure.

Ring, algebra over a field, Lie ring, and Lie algebraEdit

If R is a ring or an algebra over a field, and S is a subset of R, then the centralizer of S is exactly as defined for groups, with R in the place of G.

If   is a Lie algebra (or Lie ring) with Lie product [x,y], then the centralizer of a subset S of   is defined to be[4]

 

The definition of centralizers for Lie rings is linked to the definition for rings in the following way. If R is an associative ring, then R can be given the bracket product [x,y] = xyyx. Of course then xy = yx if and only if [x,y] = 0. If we denote the set R with the bracket product as LR, then clearly the ring centralizer of S in R is equal to the Lie ring centralizer of S in LR.

The normalizer of a subset S of a Lie algebra (or Lie ring)   is given by[4]

 

While this is the standard usage of the term "normalizer" in Lie algebra, this construction is actually the idealizer of the set S in  . If S is an additive subgroup of  , then   is the largest Lie subring (or Lie subalgebra, as the case may be) in which S is a Lie ideal.[5]

PropertiesEdit

SemigroupsEdit

Let   denote the centralizer of   in the semigroup  , i.e.   Then   forms a subsemigroup and  , i.e. a commutant is its own bicommutant.

GroupsEdit

Source:[6]

  • The centralizer and normalizer of S are both subgroups of G.
  • Clearly, CG(S) ⊆ NG(S). In fact, CG(S) is always a normal subgroup of NG(S).
  • CG(CG(S)) contains S, but CG(S) need not contain S. Containment occurs exactly when S is abelian.
  • If H is a subgroup of G, then NG(H) contains H.
  • If H is a subgroup of G, then the largest subgroup of G in which H is normal is the subgroup NG(H).
  • If S is a subset of G such that all elements of S commute with each other, then the largest subgroup of G whose center contains S is the subgroup CG(S).
  • A subgroup H of a group G is called a self-normalizing subgroup of G if NG(H) = H.
  • The center of G is exactly CG(G) and G is an abelian group if and only if CG(G) = Z(G) = G.
  • For singleton sets, CG(a) = NG(a).
  • By symmetry, if S and T are two subsets of G, T ⊆ CG(S) if and only if S ⊆ CG(T).
  • For a subgroup H of group G, the N/C theorem states that the factor group NG(H)/CG(H) is isomorphic to a subgroup of Aut(H), the group of automorphisms of H. Since NG(G) = G and CG(G) = Z(G), the N/C theorem also implies that G/Z(G) is isomorphic to Inn(G), the subgroup of Aut(G) consisting of all inner automorphisms of G.
  • If we define a group homomorphism T : G → Inn(G) by T(x)(g) = Tx(g) = xgx−1, then we can describe NG(S) and CG(S) in terms of the group action of Inn(G) on G: the stabilizer of S in Inn(G) is T(NG(S)), and the subgroup of Inn(G) fixing S pointwise is T(CG(S)).
  • A subgroup H of a group G is said to be C-closed or self-bicommutant if H = CG(S) for some subset S ⊆ G. If so, then in fact, H = CG(CG(H)).

Rings and algebras over a fieldEdit

Source:[4]

  • Centralizers in rings and in algebras over a field are subrings and subalgebras over a field, respectively; centralizers in Lie rings and in Lie algebras are Lie subrings and Lie subalgebras, respectively.
  • The normalizer of S in a Lie ring contains the centralizer of S.
  • CR(CR(S)) contains S but is not necessarily equal. The double centralizer theorem deals with situations where equality occurs.
  • If S is an additive subgroup of a Lie ring A, then NA(S) is the largest Lie subring of A in which S is a Lie ideal.
  • If S is a Lie subring of a Lie ring A, then S ⊆ NA(S).

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Kevin O'Meara; John Clark; Charles Vinsonhaler (2011). Advanced Topics in Linear Algebra: Weaving Matrix Problems Through the Weyr Form. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-19-979373-0.
  2. ^ Karl Heinrich Hofmann; Sidney A. Morris (2007). The Lie Theory of Connected Pro-Lie Groups: A Structure Theory for Pro-Lie Algebras, Pro-Lie Groups, and Connected Locally Compact Groups. European Mathematical Society. p. 30. ISBN 978-3-03719-032-6.
  3. ^ Jacobson (2009), p. 41
  4. ^ a b c Jacobson 1979, p.28.
  5. ^ Jacobson 1979, p.57.
  6. ^ Isaacs 2009, Chapters 1−3.

ReferencesEdit