Close-up of canola blooms
Canola flower

Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. There are both edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae, namely cultivars of Brassica napus L., Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (syn. B. campestris L.), or Brassica juncea, which are also referred to as "canola". According to the Canola Council of Canada, an industry association, the official definition of canola is "Seeds of the genus Brassica (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa or Brassica juncea) from which the oil shall contain less than 2% erucic acid in its fatty acid profile and the solid component shall contain less than 30 micromoles of any one or any mixture of 3-butenyl glucosinolate, 4-pentenyl glucosinolate, 2-hydroxy-3 butenyl glucosinolate, and 2-hydroxy- 4-pentenyl glucosinolate per gram of air-dry, oil-free solid."[1]

Consumption of the oil has become common in industrialized nations. It is also used as a source of biodiesel.


Canola field in New South Wales, Australia


The name for rapeseed comes from the Latin word rapum meaning turnip. Turnip, rutabaga, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and mustard are related to rapeseed. Rapeseed belongs to the genus Brassica. Brassica oilseed varieties are some of the oldest plants cultivated by humanity, with documentation of its use in India 4,000 years ago, and use in China and Japan 2,000 years ago.[2]:55 Its use in Northern Europe for oil lamps is documented to the 13th century.[2] Its use was limited until the development of steam power, when machinists found rapeseed oil clung to water- and steam-washed metal surfaces better than other lubricants.[citation needed] World War II caused high demand for the oil as a lubricant for the rapidly increasing number of steam engines in naval and merchant ships.[citation needed] When the war blocked European and Asian sources of rapeseed oil, a critical shortage developed, and Canada began to expand its limited rapeseed production. Rapeseed oil extracts were first put on the market in 1956–1957 as food products, but these suffered from several unacceptable characteristics. Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a disagreeable greenish color, due to the presence of chlorophyll. It also contained a high concentration of erucic acid.

Canola was bred from rapeseed cultivars of B. napus and B. rapa at the University of Manitoba, Canada, by Keith Downey and Baldur R. Stefansson in the early 1970s,[3][4] having then a different nutritional profile than present-day oil in addition to much less erucic acid.[5] Canola was originally a trademark name of the Rapeseed Association of Canada, and the name was a condensation of "Can" from Canada and "OLA " meaning "Oil, low acid",[6][7] but is now a generic term for edible varieties of rapeseed oil in North America and Australia. The change in name serves to distinguish it from natural rapeseed oil, which has much higher erucic acid content.

A genetically engineered rapeseed that is tolerant to herbicide was first introduced to Canada in 1995 (Roundup Ready canola). A genetically modified variety developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought-resistant canola variety to date. In 2009, 90% of the Canadian crop was herbicide-tolerant.[8] As of 2005, 87% of the canola grown in the US was genetically modified.[9] A 2010 study conducted in North Dakota found glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistance transgenes in 80% of wild natural rapeseed plants, and a few plants that were resistant to both herbicides. The escape of the genetically modified plants has raised concerns that the build-up of herbicide resistance in feral canola could make it more difficult to manage these plants using herbicides. However one of the researchers agrees that "feral populations could have become established after trucks carrying cultivated GM seeds spilled some of their load during transportation". She also notes that the GM canola results they found may have been biased as they only sampled along roadsides.[10] In 2011, out of the 31 million hectares of canola grown worldwide, 8.2 million (26%) were genetically modified.[11] Genetically modified canola attracts a price penalty of over 7% compared to non-GM canola.[12]

Production and tradeEdit

Rapeseed oil production – 2014
Country (tonnes)
  China 5,702,700
  Germany 3,540,557
  Canada 3,116,100
  India 2,473,000
  France 1,914,600
  Japan 1,073,881
World 25,944,831
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[13]

In 2014, world production of rapeseed oil was 26 million tonnes, led by China, Germany, and Canada as leading producers accounting together for 47% of the world total.[13] Canada was the world's largest exporter of rapeseed oil in 2016, exporting 2.9 million tonnes or approximately 94% of its total production.[13]

The benchmark price for worldwide canola trade is the ICE Futures Canada (formerly Winnipeg Commodity Exchange) canola futures contract.[14]

In China, rapeseed meal is mostly used as a soil fertilizer rather than for animal feed,[15] while canola is used mainly for frying food. In the words of one observer, "China has a vegetable oil supply shortage of 20 million tonnes per year. It covers a large percentage of that shortage with soybean imports from Brazil, the U.S. and Argentina."[16]

GMO regulationEdit

There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide (glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil. Regulation varies from country to country; for example, glyphosate-resistant canola has been approved in Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines, and the US, while Laurical, a product with a different oil composition, has been approved for growing only in Canada and the US.[17]

In 2003, Australia's gene technology regulator approved the release of canola genetically modified to make it resistant to glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide.[18] The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy.[19] Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a break crop to improve soil quality. As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, cotton, and carnations.[20][21]

GMO litigationEdit

Genetically modified canola has become a point of controversy and contentious legal battles. In one high-profile case (Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser) the Monsanto Company sued Percy Schmeiser for patent infringement after he replanted canola seed he had harvested from his field, which he discovered was contaminated with Monsanto's patented glyphosate-tolerant canola by spraying it with glyphosate, leaving only the resistant plants. The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Percy was in violation of Monsanto's patent because he knowingly replanted the resistant seed that he had harvested and also imposing fees of over $200,000 on Schmeiser, but he was not required to pay Monsanto damages since he did not benefit financially from its presence.[22][dubious ] On 19 March 2008, Schmeiser and Monsanto Canada Inc. came to an out-of-court settlement whereby Monsanto would pay for the clean-up costs of the contamination, which came to a total of C$660.[23] In Western Australia, in the Marsh v Baxter case, a GM canola farmer was sued by his organic neighbour because GM canola contamination led to the loss of organic certification. Although the facts of the case and the losses to the organic farmer were agreed between the parties, the judge did not find the GM farmer liable for the losses.[24]


Europe has invested heavily in infrastructure to use canola oil for biodiesel, spurred by EU biodiesel policy initiatives.[25]

Production processEdit

Canola oil

Canola oil is made at a processing facility by slightly heating and then crushing the seed.[26] Almost all commercial canola oil is then extracted using hexane solvent[27] which is recovered at the end of processing. Finally, the canola oil is refined using water precipitation and organic acid to remove gums and free fatty acids, filtering to remove color, and deodorizing using steam distillation.[26] The average density of canola oil is 0.92 g/mL (0.033 lb/cu in).[28]

Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis. About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed.[26] About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world,[29] and overall it is the third-most widely consumed vegetable oil, after soybean oil and palm oil.[30]

The oil has many non-food uses and, like soybean oil, is often used interchangeably with non-renewable petroleum-based oils in products,[29] including industrial lubricants, biodiesel, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks, depending on the price on the spot market.

Canola vegetable oils certified as organic are required to be from non-GMO rapeseed.[31]

Health informationEdit

Canola oil is considered safe for human consumption,[32][33] and has a relatively low amount of saturated fat, a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat, with roughly a 2:1 mono- to poly-unsaturated fats ratio.[34]

Experiments on animals have pointed to the possibility that erucic acid, consumed in large quantities, may cause heart damage, although Indian researchers have published findings that call into question these conclusions and the implication that the consumption of mustard or rapeseed oil is dangerous.[35][36][37][38][39] Feed meal from the rapeseed plant also was not particularly appealing to livestock, because of high levels of sharp-tasting compounds called glucosinolates.

In 2006, canola oil was given a qualified health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, resulting from its significant content of unsaturated fats; the allowed claim for food labels states:[40]

"Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 1 ½ tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil. To achieve this possible benefit, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product contains [x] grams of canola oil."

A 2013 review, sponsored by the Canola Council of Canada and the U.S. Canola Association, concluded there was a substantial reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and an increase in tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with other sources of dietary fat.[34] A 2014 review of health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was moderate benefit for lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, and type-2 diabetes.[41]

Compound Family % of total
Oleic acid ω-9 61%[42]
Linoleic acid ω-6 21%[42]
Alpha-linolenic acid ω-3 11%[42] 9%[43][44]
Saturated fatty acids 7%[42]
Palmitic acid 4%[43]
Stearic acid 2%[43]
Trans fat 0.4%[45]
Erucic acid 0.01%[46] <0.1%[47][48]

Regarding individual components, canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1. It is high in monounsaturated fats, which may decrease the risk of heart disease.[49]

Erucic acidEdit

Although wild rapeseed oil contains significant amounts of erucic acid,[50] the cultivars used to produce commercial, food-grade canola oil were bred to contain less than 2% erucic acid,[51] an amount deemed not significant as a health risk. To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid metabolism in other species imply that higher levels may be detrimental.[52][53]:646–657 Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects.[54]

The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996[55] to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015.[46] Other reports also show a content lower than 0.1% in Australia[47] and Brazil.[48]

Canola oil poses no unusual health risks,[53]:646–657 and its consumption in food-grade forms is generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration.[33][51]

Comparison to other vegetable oilsEdit

Vegetable oils[56][57]
Type Processing
fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[56] Oleic acid
Total poly[56] α-Linolenic acid
Linoleic acid
Avocado[58] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 271 °C (520 °F)[59]
Canola[60] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[61]
Coconut[62] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[61]
Corn[63] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C (450 °F)[64]

Cottonseed[65] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[64]
Flaxseed/Linseed[66] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C (225 °F)

Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 216 °C (421 °F)[67]
Hemp seed[68] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C (330 °F)[69]

Olive[70] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[61]
Palm[71] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[72] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[64]
Safflower[73] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[61]
Soybean[74] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[64]
Sunflower (standard, 65% linoleic)[75] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 227 °C (440 °F)[64]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[76] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[77] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 232 °C (450 °F)[78]
Cottonseed[79] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[80] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[81] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

See alsoEdit


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External linksEdit