# Calculation

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A **calculation** is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.

For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation.

Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.

To *calculate* means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense.^{[1]} The English word derives from the Latin *calculus*, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin *calx*). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin *abacus*, Greek *abax*). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

## Comparison to computationEdit

Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.^{[2]} The difference in the meaning of *calculation* and *computation* appears to originate from the late medieval period.^{[3]}

## See alsoEdit

## ReferencesEdit

## External linksEdit

Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.calculation |

- "The Lifting of the Veil in the Operations of Calculation" is a manuscript, from the 18th-century, in Arabic, by Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi, about calculation processes