Cabaret (1972 film)

Cabaret is a 1972 American musical-drama film directed by Bob Fosse, and starring Liza Minnelli, Michael York, and Joel Grey.[3]

Cabaret
Original movie poster for Cabaret.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byBob Fosse
Produced byCy Feuer
Screenplay byJay Allen
Based onCabaret
by Joe Masteroff
I Am a Camera
by John Van Druten
Goodbye to Berlin
by Christopher Isherwood
Starring
Music bySongs:
John Kander
Fred Ebb (Lyrics)
Adaptation score:
Ralph Burns
CinematographyGeoffrey Unsworth
Edited byDavid Bretherton
Production
company
Distributed byAllied Artists
Release date
  • February 13, 1972 (1972-02-13)
Running time
124 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
German
Budget$4.6 million[1]
Box office$42.8 million[2]

Set in Berlin during the Weimar Republic in 1931,[4] under the presence of the growing Nazi Party, the film is loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret by Kander and Ebb,[3] which was adapted from Christopher Isherwood's semi-autobiographical novel The Berlin Stories (1945) and the 1951 play I Am a Camera adapted from the same work.[3][5]:609 Only a few numbers from the stage score were used for the film; Kander and Ebb wrote new ones to replace those that were discarded.[6][7] In the traditional manner of musical theater, called an "integrated musical", every significant character in the stage version sings to express his or her own emotion and to advance the plot. In the film version, the musical numbers are entirely diegetic.[5]:609 All of them take place inside the club,[6][5]:609 with one exception: "Tomorrow Belongs to Me", the only song sung neither by Grey's character of the Kit Kat Klub's Master of Ceremonies nor by Minnelli's character of Sally Bowles.[8]

After the box-office failure of his film version of Sweet Charity in 1969,[7][8] Bob Fosse bounced back with Cabaret in 1972, a year that made him the most honored director in the movie business.[8] The film also brought Liza Minnelli, the daughter of Judy Garland and Vincente Minnelli, her own first chance to sing on screen, and she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. With Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor (Joel Grey), Best Director (Bob Fosse), Best Cinematography, Best Art Direction, Best Sound, Best Original Song Score and Adaptation, and Best Film Editing, Cabaret holds the record for most Oscars earned by a film not honored for Best Picture. It is listed as number 367 on Empire’s 500 greatest films of all time.[9] Cabaret opened to glowing reviews and strong box office,[6][10][3][11] eventually taking in more than $20 million.[2] In addition to its eight Oscars, it won Best Picture citations from the National Board of Review and the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and took Best Supporting Actor honors for Grey from the National Board of Review, the Hollywood Foreign Press, and the National Society of Film Critics. In 1995, Cabaret was the ninth live-action musical film selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[12][13]

PlotEdit

In 1931 Berlin, young American Sally Bowles performs at the Kit Kat Klub. A new British arrival in the city, Brian Roberts, moves into the boarding house where Sally lives. A reserved academic and writer, Brian wants to give English lessons to earn a living while completing his doctorate. Sally tries to seduce Brian, but he tells her that on three previous occasions he has tried to have sexual relationships with women, all of which failed. They become friends, and Brian witnesses Sally's bohemian life in the last days of the Weimar Republic. When Brian consoles Sally after her father cancels his meeting with her, they become lovers, concluding that his previous failures with women were because they were "the wrong three girls".

Maximilian von Heune, a rich playboy and baron, befriends Sally and takes her and Brian to his country estate where they are both spoiled and courted. After a somewhat enigmatic experience with Brian, Max drops his pursuit of the pair in haste. During an argument, Sally tells Brian that she has been having sex with Max, and Brian reveals that he has as well. Brian and Sally later reconcile, and Sally reveals that Max left them 300 marks and mockingly compares the sum with what a professional prostitute earns.

Sally learns that she is pregnant but is unsure of the father. Brian offers to marry her and take her back to his university life in Cambridge. At first, they celebrate their resolution to start this new life together, but after a picnic between Sally and Brian, in which Brian acts distant and uninterested, Sally becomes disheartened by the vision of herself as a bored faculty wife washing dirty diapers. Ultimately, she has an abortion, without informing Brian in advance. When he confronts her, she shares her fears, and the two reach an understanding. Brian departs for England, and Sally continues her life in Berlin, embedding herself in the Kit Kat Club.

A subplot concerns Fritz Wendel, a German Jew passing as a Protestant, who is in love with Natalia Landauer, a wealthy German Jewish heiress who holds him in contempt and suspects his motives. Through Brian, Sally advises him to be more aggressive, which eventually enables Fritz to win her love. However, to gain her parents' consent for their marriage, Fritz must reveal his religion, which he does and the two are married by a rabbi.

The rise of fascism is an ever-present undercurrent throughout the film. Their progress can be tracked through the characters' changing actions and attitudes. While in the beginning of the film, a Nazi is expelled from the Kit Kat Klub, the final shot of the film shows the cabaret's audience is dominated by uniformed Nazis. The rise of the Nazis is also demonstrated in a rural beer garden scene. A blonde boy sings to an audience of all ages ("Tomorrow Belongs to Me") about the beauties of nature and youth. It is revealed that the boy is wearing a Hitler Youth uniform. The ballad transforms into a militant Nazi anthem, and one by one nearly all the adults and young people watching rise and join in the singing. "Do you still think you can control them?" Brian asks Max. Later, Brian's confrontation with a Nazi on a Berlin street leads to him being beaten.

CastEdit

Kit-Kat Dancers

  • Kathryn Doby
  • Inge Jaeger
  • Angelika Koch
  • Helen Velkovorska
  • Gitta Schmidt
  • Louise Quick

In addition, in a joint uncredited role, Oliver Collignon plays the Nazi youth, with his singing voice for "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" dubbed by Mark Lambert.[14][7]

ProductionEdit

Historical basisEdit

The character of Sally Bowles was based upon Jean Ross, a British cabaret singer with whom Isherwood lived as a room-mate in Weimar-era Berlin.

The 1972 film was based upon Christopher Isherwood's semi-autobiographical stories.[15] In 1929–1930, Isherwood moved to Weimar Berlin in order to pursue life as an openly gay man and to enjoy the city's gay nightlife.[16] Members of Isherwood's Berlin social circle included authors W.H. Auden, Stephen Spender, Paul Bowles, and Jean Ross.[17][18]:125-130 While in Berlin, Isherwood shared lodgings with Ross, a British cabaret singer and aspiring film actress from a wealthy Anglo-Scottish family.[19][15] While rooming with Isherwood at Nollendorfstrasse 17 in Schöneberg,[19][15] Ross became pregnant with the child of jazz pianist (and later actor) Peter van Eyck.[19][15] Following Eycke's unannounced departure from Germany, Ross underwent an abortion legally authorized by Isherwood who pretended to be her heterosexual impregnator.[19][20][21][15]

As the political situation rapidly deteriorated in the poverty-stricken country, Ross, Isherwood, Spender, and other British nationals realized that they must leave Germany.[18]:129 "There was a sensation of doom to be felt in the Berlin streets," Spender recalled.[18]:129 By the time the Nazi Party had seized power in the July 1932 elections, Isherwood, Ross, Spender, and others had fled Berlin and returned to southern England.[19][15] Many of the Berlin cabaret denizens befriended by Isherwood would later flee abroad[22]:164–166 or die in labor camps.[22]:150, 297[23]:74–81 These factual events served as the genesis for a 1937 short story by Isherwood entitled Sally Bowles which was later adapted into the 1955 film I Am a Camera and the 1966 Cabaret musical.[21][24]

Pre-productionEdit

In July 1968, Cinerama made a verbal agreement to make a film version of the 1966 Broadway musical but pulled out in February 1969.[7][25][26] In May 1969, Allied Artists paid a company record $1.5 million for the film rights and planned a company record budget.[7][25][26] The cost of $4,570,000 was split evenly with ABC Pictures.[7][26][1]

Bob Fosse was eager to direct the film after the box office failure of Sweet Charity (1969).

In 1971, Bob Fosse learned through Harold Prince, director of the original Broadway production, that Cy Feuer was producing a film adaptation of Cabaret through ABC Pictures and Allied Artists.[7] This was the first film produced in the revival of Allied Artists. Determined to direct the film, Fosse begged Feuer to hire him.[7] However, Fosse had previously directed the unsuccessful film adaptation of Sweet Charity, a box office failure which made chief executives Manny Wolf and Marty Baum reluctant to hire him.[7] Wolf and Baum preferred a more renowned or established director such as Billy Wilder, Joseph L. Mankiewicz or Gene Kelly.[7][27]:134

Eager to hire Fosse, Feuer appealed to the studio heads, citing Fosse's talent for staging and shooting musical numbers, adding that if inordinate attention was given to filming the book scenes at the expense of the musical numbers, the whole film could fail. Fosse ultimately was hired. Over the next months, Fosse met with previously hired screenwriter Jay Presson Allen to discuss the screenplay.[27]:136-139

Screenplay revisionsEdit

As production neared, Fosse became increasingly dissatisfied with Allen's script which was based on Joe Masteroff's original book of the stage version. Fosse hired Hugh Wheeler to rewrite and revise Allen's work.[27]:136-139 Wheeler was referred to as a "research consultant," and Allen retained screenwriting credit. Wheeler, a friend of Christopher Isherwood,[28] knew that Isherwood had been critical of the stage musical due to its bowdlerizations of his material.[28] Wheeler went back to Isherwood's original stories in order to ensure a more faithful adaptation of the source material. In particular, Wheeler restored the subplot about the gigolo and the Jewish heiress. Wheeler also drew on gay author Christopher Isherwood's openness about his homosexuality to make the leading male character a bisexual man "rather than the heterosexual as he had been in the stage musical."[27]:139

Fosse decided to increase the focus on the Kit Kat Klub, where Sally performs, as a metaphor for the decadence of Germany in the 1930s by eliminating all but one of the musical numbers performed outside the club. The only remaining outside number is "Tomorrow Belongs to Me",[8] a folk song rendered spontaneously by patrons at an open-air café in one of the film's most effective scenes.[5]:609 In addition, the show's original songwriters Kander and Ebb wrote two new songs, "Mein Herr"and "Money", and incorporated "Maybe This Time", a song they had composed in 1964 and first sung by Kaye Ballard.[29]

CastingEdit

Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles (left) in the 1972 film. Minnelli modeled the character's appearance upon Louise Brooks (right), an American actress who was famous in 1930s Weimar Germany.[27]:142

Feuer had cast Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles and Joel Grey (reprising his stage role) long before Fosse was attached to the project. Fosse was given the option of using Grey as Master of Ceremonies or walking away from the production.[27]:147-148 Fosse hired Michael York as Sally Bowles's bisexual love interest, a casting choice which Minnelli initially believed was incorrect until she performed with him.[27]:146 Several smaller roles, as well as the remaining four dancers in the film, eventually were cast in West Germany.

Minnelli had auditioned to play Sally in the original Broadway production but was deemed too inexperienced at the time, even though she had won Broadway's Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. By the time Cabaret reached the screen, however, Minnelli was a film star having won an Oscar nomination as the emotionally damaged college student in The Sterile Cuckoo (1969).

For her performance as Sally in the film, Minnelli reinterpreted the character and—at the explicit suggestion of her father stage director Vincente Minnelli[30]—she deliberately imitated film actress Louise Brooks, a flapper icon and sex symbol of the Jazz Age.[30][27]:142 Brooks, much like the character of Sally Bowles in the film, was an aspiring actress and American expat who temporarily moved to Weimar Berlin in search of international stardom.[27]:139 Minnelli later recalled:

"I went to my father and asked him, 'What can you tell me about 1930s glamour? Should I be emulating Marlene Dietrich or something?' And he said 'No, study everything you can about Louise Brooks.'"[30]

In particular, Minnelli drew upon Brooks' "Lulu makeup and helmet-like coiffure."[27]:142 For the meeting between Sally Bowles and Brian Roberts, Minnelli modeled her movements and demeanor upon Brooks; in particular, the scene in Pandora's Box (1929) where Brooks' carefree character of Lulu is first introduced.[27] Ultimately, Minnelli would win the Academy Award for Best Actress for her portrayal of Sally Bowles.[31]

FilmingEdit

Fosse and Feuer traveled to West Germany, where producers chose to shoot the film, in order to finish assembling the film crew. During this time, Fosse highly recommended Robert L. Surtees for cinematographer, but Feuer and the top executives saw Surtees's work on Sweet Charity as one of the film's many artistic problems. Producers eventually chose British cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth.[27]:138, 149 Designers Rolf Zehetbauer, Hans Jürgen Kiebach and Herbert Strabel served as production designers. Charlotte Flemming designed costumes.[27]:205 Dancers Kathryn Doby, Louise Quick and John Sharpe were brought on as Fosse's dance aides.

Rehearsals and filming took place entirely in West Germany. For reasons of economy, indoor scenes were shot at the Bavaria Film Studios in Grünwald,[27]:143 outside Munich.[7][27]:146 Location shooting took place in and around Munich and West Berlin, and in Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony[citation needed]. Editing was done in Los Angeles before the eventual theatrical release in February 1972.

Narrative and news readingEdit

Although the songs throughout the film allude to and advance the narrative, every song except "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" is executed in the context of a Kit Kat Klub performance.[4][8] The voice heard on the radio reading the news throughout the film in German was that of associate producer Harold Nebenzal, whose father Seymour Nebenzahl produced such notable Weimar films as M (1931), Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933), and Threepenny Opera (1931).

Differences between film and stage versionEdit

The film is significantly different from the Broadway musical. In the stage version, Sally Bowles is English (as she was in Christopher Isherwood's "Goodbye to Berlin"). In the film version, she is American.[6] The character of Cliff Bradshaw was renamed Brian Roberts and made British (as was Isherwood, upon whom the character was based) rather than American as in the stage version.[6][27]:139 The characters and plot lines involving Fritz, Natalia and Max were pulled from I Am a Camera and did not appear in the stage version of Cabaret (or in "Goodbye to Berlin").[28]

The most significant change from the original stage version of Cabaret involves the cutting of the two main characters: Fraulein Schneider, who runs a boarding house, and her love interest, Herr Schultz, a German grocer.[27]:34 The plot line of their doomed romance, and the consequences of a German falling in love with a Jew during the rise of antisemitism was cut. Also cut were the joyous "So What?" and the heart-wrenching "What Would You Do", sung by Schneider, the song "Meeskite", sung by Schultz,[27]:83 and their two duets "It Couldn't Please Me More (The Pineapple Song)" (cut) and "Married" (reset as a piano instrumental, and a phonograph record), as well as a short reprise of "Married", sung alone by Schultz.[32][27]:34, 83

Kander and Ebb wrote several new songs for the film and removed others.[6][7] "Don't Tell Mama" was replaced by "Mein Herr",[27]:143 and "The Money Song" (retained in an instrumental version as "Sitting Pretty") was replaced by "Money, Money."[27]:141-43 "Mein Herr" and "Money, Money", which were composed for the film version, were added to performances of the stage musical alongside the original numbers.[27]:141-43 The song "Maybe This Time", which Sally performs at the cabaret, was not written for the film.[27]:141-43 Although "Don't Tell Mama" and "Married" were removed as performed musical numbers, both were used in the film. The former's bridge section appears as instrumental music played on Sally's gramophone; the latter is initially played on the piano in Fraulein Schneider's parlor and later heard on Sally's gramophone in a German translation ("Heiraten") sung by cabaret singer Greta Keller.[27]:155 Additionally, the song "If You Could See Her," performed by the Emcee, originally concluded with the line "She wouldn't be meeskite at all" in the Broadway production. In the film, the song concludes with the line "She wouldn't look Jewish at all," a return to the original lyrics by Fred Ebb.[33]

SoundtrackEdit

All tracks are written by John Kander and Fred Ebb.

Cabaret: Original Soundtrack Recording[34][35]
No.TitlePerformerLength
1."Willkommen"Joel Grey4:29
2."Mein Herr"Liza Minnelli3:36
3."Maybe This Time"Liza Minnelli3:11
4."Money, Money"Joel Grey, Liza Minnelli3:04
5."Two Ladies"Joel Grey3:11
6."Sitting Pretty"Instrumental2:27
7."Tomorrow Belongs to Me"Mark Lambert[7]3:06
8."Tiller Girls"Joel Grey1:41
9."Heiraten (Married)"Greta Keller3:45
10."If You Could See Her"Joel Grey3:54
11."Cabaret"Liza Minnelli3:34
12."Finale"Joel Grey2:28
Total length:38:14

CertificationsEdit

Region Certification Certified units/sales
United States (RIAA)[36] Gold 500,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

ReceptionEdit

 
Newspaper ad for the film

The film was immediately successful at the box office. By May 1973, the film had earned rentals of $4.5 million in North America and $3.5 million in other countries and reported a profit of $2,452,000.[1]

Critical receptionEdit

Contemporary reviewsEdit

Roger Ebert gave a positive review in January 1972, saying: "This is no ordinary musical. Part of its success comes because it doesn't fall for the old cliché that musicals have to make you happy. Instead of cheapening the movie version by lightening its load of despair, director Bob Fosse has gone right to the bleak heart of the material and stayed there well enough to win an Academy Award for Best Director."[10]

A Variety staff critic appraised the film in December 1971: "The film version of the 1966 John Kander-Fred Ebb Broadway musical Cabaret is most unusual: it is literate, bawdy, sophisticated, sensual, cynical, heart-warming, and disturbingly thought-provoking. Liza Minnelli heads a strong cast. Bob Fosse's generally excellent direction recreates the milieu of Germany some 40 years ago."[3]

Roger Greenspun of The New York Times wrote in February 1972 that "Cabaret is one of those immensely gratifying imperfect works in which from beginning to end you can literally feel a movie coming to life."[6] Likewise, Pauline Kael of The New Yorker wrote a review that same month in which she applauded the film:

"A great movie musical. Taking its form from political cabaret, it's a satire of temptations. In a prodigious balancing act, Bob Fosse, the choreographer-director, keeps the period—Berlin, 1931—at a cool distance. We see the decadence as garish and sleazy; yet we also see the animal energy in it—everything seems to become sexualized. The movie does not exploit decadence; rather, it gives it its due. With Joel Grey as our devil-doll host—the master of ceremonies—and Liza Minnelli (in her first singing role on the screen) as exuberant, corruptible Sally Bowles, chasing after the life of a headliner no matter what; Minnelli has such gaiety and electricity that she becomes a star before our eyes."[11]

Reaction of Isherwood and othersEdit

{{{annotations}}}

Christopher Isherwood in 1938. He disliked the 1972 film as he felt it depicted homosexuality in a negative light.[22]:63

Although Cabaret (1972) was well received by film critics upon its release,[6][10][3][11] author Christopher Isherwood and other persons upon whom the film's characters were based were less receptive towards the cinematic adaptation.[17][22]:63 Isherwood himself was critical of the 1972 film due to what he perceived as its negative portrayal of homosexuality:

"In the film of Cabaret, the male lead is called Brian Roberts. He is a bisexual Englishman; he has an affair with Sally and, later, with one of Sally's lovers, a German baron...Brian's homosexual tendency is treated as an indecent but comic weakness to be snickered at, like bed-wetting."[22]:63

Similarly, Isherwood's friend Jean Ross—upon whom the character of Sally Bowles was based[37]:26—was ambivalent about the film.[38]:70 She felt the depiction of 1930s Berlin "was quite, quite different" from reality.[39]:33–34 Nevertheless, she conceded that the depiction of their social circle of British expatriates as pleasure-seeking libertines was accurate: "We were all utterly against the bourgeois standards of our parents' generation. That's what took us to [Weimar-era] Berlin. The climate was freer there."[39]:33–34 Such ambivalence towards Cabaret (1972) was not unique among Isherwood's circle.[17]

The poet Stephen Spender lamented how Cabaret (1972) glossed over Weimar Berlin's crushing poverty:

"There is not a single meal, or club, in the movie Cabaret, that Christopher [Isherwood] and I could have afforded [in 1931]. What we mostly knew was the Berlin of poverty, unemployment, political demonstrations and street fighting between forces of the extreme left and the extreme right."[17]

Both Spender and Ross contended that the 1972 film and 1966 Broadway musical deleteriously glamorized the harsh realities of the 1930s Weimar era.[17][39]:33–34

Retrospective reviewsEdit

In 2002, Jamie Russell of the BBC wrote that the film was "the first musical ever to be given an X certificate, Bob Fosse's Cabaret launched Liza Minnelli into Hollywood superstardom and re-invented the musical for the Age of Aquarius."[4] In 2013, film critic Peter Bradshaw listed Cabaret at number one on his list of "Top 10 musicals", describing it as "satanically catchy, terrifyingly seductive...directed and choreographed with electric style by Bob Fosse...Cabaret is drenched in the sexiest kind of cynicism and decadent despair."[40]

ControversiesEdit

Although less explicit compared with other films made in the 1970s, Cabaret dealt explicitly with topics like corruption, sexual ambiguity, false dreams, and Nazism. Tim Dirks at Filmsite.org notes: "The sexually-charged, semi-controversial, kinky musical was the first one ever to be given an X rating (although later re-rated) with its numerous sexual flings and hedonistic club life. There was considerable sexual innuendo, profanity, casual sex talk (homosexual and heterosexual), some evidence of anti-Semitism, and even an abortion in the film."[41] It was also rated X in the UK and later re-rated as 15.[4][42]

On the topic of Nazism, there was little consensus among critics about the possibly fascist implications of the film and play. However, critic Steven Belletto wrote a critique of Cabaret in the Criticism journal, published by Wayne State University Press, in which he highlighted the anti-fascist themes in the film present both within and outside of the musical acts. According to Belletto, "despite the ways that the film has been understood by a variety of critics, [Cabaret] rejects the logic of fascist certainty by staging various numbers committed to irony and ambiguity."[33]

The "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" scene was controversial, with Kander and Ebb, both of whom were Jews, sometimes being wrongly accused of using a historical Nazi song.[43] According to an article in 'Variety in November 1976, the film was censored in West Berlin when it was first released there theatrically, with the sequence featuring the Hitler Youth singing "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" having been deleted.[7] This elimination was made "because of the feeling that it might stir up resentments in the audience by showing the sympathizers for the Nazi movement during the '30s."[7] The sequence was restored, however, when the film was shown on West German television on November 7, 1976.[7]

Another topic of discussion was the song "If You Could See Her",[5]:610 which closed with the line: "If you could see her through my eyes, she wouldn't look Jewish at all." The point of the song was showing anti-Semitism as it begins to run rampant in Berlin, but there were a number of Jewish groups who interpreted the lyrics differently.[44][5]:625

AccoladesEdit

Cabaret earned a total of 10 Academy Award nominations (winning 8 of them) and holds the record for most Academy Awards won by a film which did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture.[7][45]

Shortly before the Academy Awards, Bob Fosse won 2 Tony Awards for directing and choreographing Pippin, his biggest stage hit to date. Months later, he won the Primetime Emmy Award for choreographing and directing Liza Minnelli's television special Liza with a Z, he became the first director to win all three awards in one year.

 
Minnelli reprised the character of Sally Bowles for an encore performance in the 1973 television special Liza with a Z, also directed by Bob Fosse.
Award Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards Best Picture Cy Feuer Nominated
Best Director Bob Fosse Won
Best Actress Liza Minnelli Won
Best Supporting Actor Joel Grey Won
Best Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium Jay Presson Allen Nominated
Best Art Direction Rolf Zehetbauer, Hans Jürgen Kiebach and Herbert Strabel Won
Best Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth Won
Best Film Editing David Bretherton Won
Best Score Adaptation and Original Song Score Ralph Burns Won
Best Sound Robert Knudson and David Hildyard Won
American Cinema Editors Awards Best Edited Feature Film David Bretherton Won
Bodil Awards Best Non-European Film Bob Fosse Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Cabaret Won
Best Direction Bob Fosse Won
Best Actress in a Leading Role Liza Minnelli Won
Best Actress in a Supporting Role Marisa Berenson Nominated
Best Screenplay Jay Presson Allen Nominated
Best Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth (also for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) Won
Best Costume Design Charlotte Flemming Nominated
Best Editing David Bretherton Nominated
Best Production Design Rolf Zehetbauer Won
Best Sound David Hildyard, Robert Knudson and Arthur Piantadosi Won
Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles Joel Grey Won
British Society of Cinematographers Best Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth Won
David di Donatello Awards Best Foreign Director Bob Fosse Won
Best Foreign Actress Liza Minnelli Won
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Bob Fosse Nominated
Faro Island Film Festival Best Film (Audience Award) Nominated
Best Film (Golden Train Award) Won
Best Feature Film (Queer Train Award) Won
Main Competition (Humanitarian Award) Won
Best Actress (Audience Award) Liza Minnelli Won
Outstanding Artistic Contribution (Golden Train Award) John Kander, Fred Ebb, Jutta Beil and Bob Fosse Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Cabaret Won
Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Liza Minnelli Won
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Joel Grey Won
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Marisa Berenson Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Bob Fosse Nominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Jay Presson Allen Nominated
Best Original Song – Motion Picture "Mein Herr" – John Kander and Fred Ebb Nominated
"Money, Money" – John Kander and Fred Ebb Nominated
New Star of the Year – Actress Marisa Berenson Nominated
Grand Prix (Belgian Film Critics Association) Best Film Cabaret Won
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards Best Supporting Actor Joel Grey Won
National Board of Review Awards Best Film Cabaret Won
Top Ten Films Won
Best Director Bob Fosse Won
Best Supporting Actor Joel Grey Won[a]
Best Supporting Actress Marisa Berenson Won
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Cabaret Inducted
National Society of Film Critics Awards Best Actress Liza Minnelli Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Joel Grey Won[b]
Best Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth Nominated
Online Film & Television Association Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Cabaret Won
Sant Jordi Awards Best Performance in a Foreign Film Liza Minnelli Won
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Comedy Adapted from Another Medium Jay Presson Allen Won

American Film Institute recognitionEdit

National Film RegistryEdit

Inducted into the National Film Registry in 1995 among a list of 25 Films that year.[12]

LegacyEdit

Cabaret has been cited by TV Guide as among the great films made[46] and in Movieline magazine as one of the "100 Best Movies Ever".[47] It was included in Film4's "100 Greatest Films of All Time" at #78[48] and in The San Francisco Chronicle's "Hot 100 Films of the Past", being hailed as "the last great musical. Liza Minnelli plays Sally Bowles, an American adrift in pre-Nazi Berlin, in Bob Fosse's stylish, near-perfect film."[49]

David Benedict has written in The Guardian about Cabaret's influence in musical films: "Back then, musicals were already low on film-goers' lists, so how come it was such a success? Simple: Cabaret is the musical for people who hate them. Given the vibrancy of its now iconic numbers – Liza Minnelli in bowler and black suspenders astride a bentwood chair belting out 'Mein Herr' or shimmying and shivering with pleasure over 'Money' with Joel Grey – it sounds strange to say it, but one of the chief reasons why Cabaret is so popular is that it's not shot like a musical."[8]

The film has been listed as one of the most important for queer cinema for its depictions of bisexuality,[6] arguably transgressive at the time of its 1972 post-Code release and has been credited with turning Liza Minnelli into a gay icon. Film blogs have selected it as "the gayest winner in the history of the Academy."[50][51][52]

Home mediaEdit

The film was first released to DVD in 1998. There have been releases in 2003, 2008, and 2012. The film's international ancillary distribution rights are owned by ABC (now part of The Walt Disney Company), and Warner Bros. (which acquired the film as part of its purchase of Lorimar Productions, which had acquired the film library of Allied Artists) has domestic distribution rights.

In April 2012, Warner unveiled a new restoration of the film at the TCM Classic Film Festival.[53][54][55] A DigiBook edition was later released on Blu-ray on February 5, 2013.[56] Before this restoration, Cabaret had been sold on a standard-definition DVD from Warner Bros., but the film was unavailable in high-definition or for digital projections in cinemas.[55] The original camera negative is lost, and a surviving interpositive had a vertical scratch that ran through 1,000 feet, or 10 minutes, of one of its reels, as confirmed by Ned Price, vice president of mastering and restoration for Warner Bros.[55] The damage ostensibly was inflicted by a grain of dirt that had rolled through the length of the reel, beginning with a scene in which Michael York's character confronts a pro-Nazi boarding house resident, and had cut into the emulsion.[55] The marred frames were digitally restored, but "the difficult part was matching the grain structure so the fix was invisible." After automated digital repair attempts failed, the 1,000 feet of damaged film was hand painted using a computer stylus.[55]

Warner Archive Collection reissued the Blu-ray on November 20, 2018 without the DigiBook.[57]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Tied with Al Pacino for The Godfather.
  2. ^ Tied with Eddie Albert for The Heartbreak Kid.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Beaupre, Lee (May 31, 1973). "ABC's 5 Years of Film Production Profits & Losses". Variety. p. 3.
  2. ^ a b "Cabaret, Worldwide Box Office". Worldwide Box Office. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Cabaret". Variety. December 31, 1971. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d Russell, Jamie (June 6, 2002). "BBC – Films – Review – Cabaret". BBC. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Belletto, Steven (2008). "'Cabaret' and Antifascist Aesthetics". Criticism. 50 (4): 609–630. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0081. JSTOR 23130878.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Greenspun, Roger (February 14, 1972). "Liza Minnelli Stirs a Lively 'Cabaret'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
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BibliographyEdit

Francesco Mismirigo, Cabaret, un film allemand, Université de Genève, 1984

External linksEdit