Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger (Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר‎) is an Israeli-born French artist, painter and theorist. As visual artist she has mainly produced paintings, drawings, notebooks and photography. She is also a philosopher, psychoanalyst and writer.

Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger
Bracha L. Ettinger 2009 (cropped).jpg
Born (1948-03-23) 23 March 1948 (age 71)
Alma materHebrew University of Jerusalem
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Main interests
Psychoanalysis, art, feminist theory, aesthetics, human rights, ethics
Notable ideas
Matrixial gaze, matrixial trans-subjectivity

Ettinger's work consists mostly of oil painting and writing. Ettinger is now considered to be a prominent figure among both the French painters' and the Israeli art's scenes. Ettinger's art was recently analysed at length in the book Women Artists at the Millennium,[1] in Griselda Pollock's Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum[2] and in Catherine de Zegher's anthology Women's Work is Never Done.[3] Her ideas in cultural theory, psychoanalysis, and French feminism (see Feminist theory and psychoanalysis) achieved recognition after the publication of Matrix and Metramorphosis (1992), fragments from her notebooks (Moma, Oxford, 1993) and The Matrixial Gaze (1995). Over the last two decades her work has been influential in art history,[4] film theory (including feminist film theory), psychoanalysis, aesthetics[5] and gender studies.[6]

Ettinger is a Professor at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland.[7]


Life and workEdit

Bracha Ettinger was born in Tel Aviv on 23 March 1948.[8] She received her M.A. in Clinical Psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem where she worked as research assistant then personal assistant of Amos Tversky (1969/70, 1973/74, 1974/75) and Danny Kahneman (1970/71).[7] She married Loni Ettinger in June 1975 and moved to London where she studied, trained and worked between 1975 and 1979 at the London Centre for Psychotherapy (with Elsa Seglow), the Tavistock Clinic and the Philadelphia Association (with R. D. Laing). Her daughter the actress Lana Ettinger,[9][10][circular reference] was born in London. She returned to Israel in 1979 and worked at Shalvata Hospital. Ettinger, who has painted and drawn since early childhood, is self-taught. In her early days she avoided the art scene. In 1981 she decided to become a professional artist and moved to Paris where she lived and worked from 1981 to 2003 with her partner Joav Toker. Her son Itai was born in 1988. As well as painting, drawing and photography, she began writing, and received a D.E.A. in Psychoanalysis from the University Paris VII Diderot in 1987, and a Ph.D. in Aesthetics of Art from the University of Paris VIII in 1996.[7]

Ettinger had a solo project at the Pompidou Centre in 1987, and a solo exhibition at the Museum of Calais in 1988. In 1995 she had a solo exhibition at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, and in 1996 she participated in the Contemporary art section of Face à l'Histoire. 1933–1996 exhibition in the Pompidou Centre.[11] In 2000 she had a mid-life retrospective at the Centre for Fine Arts (The Palais des Beaux Arts) in Brussels, and in 2001 a solo exhibition at the Drawing Center in New York.[12] As well as working as an artist, Ettinger continued to train as psychoanalyst with Françoise Dolto, Piera Auglanier, Pierre Fedida, and Jacques-Alain Miller, and has become an influential contemporary French feminist.[13][14][15][16] Around 1988 Ettinger began her Conversation and Photography project. Her personal art notebooks[17][18] have become source for theoretical articulations, and her art has inspired art historians (among them the distinguished art historian Griselda Pollock and international curator Catherine de Zegher) and philosophers (like Jean-François Lyotard, Christine Buci-Glucksmann and Brian Massumi) who dedicated a number of essays to her painting.

Based mainly in Paris, Ettinger was visiting professor (1997–1998) and then research professor (1999–2004) in psychoanalysis and aesthetics at the School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies at the University of Leeds.[7] Since 2001 she has also been visiting professor in Psychoanalysis and Aesthetics at the AHRC Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory and History (now CentreCATH).[19] Ettinger had partly returned to Tel Aviv in 2003, and was a lecturer at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem until 2006. From 2006 on she became Chair and Professor at the EGS.[7] Some of her specific academic fields of endeavour are feminist psychoanalysis, art, aesthetics, ethics, the gaze, sexual difference and gender studies, Jacques Lacan, the feminine, early (including pre-birth) psychic impressions, pre-maternal and maternal subjectivity.


Bracha Ettinger, Painting: Matrix — Family Album series n.3, 2001.

Ettinger's research concerns light and space, and in this it follows from Monet and Rothko.[20][21][22] Her subjects concern the human condition and the tragedy of war, and her work in this aspect follows on after artists such as Käthe Kollwitz and Francisco Goya.[23] The painting process engages a space of passage between figures and abstraction, and her attitude to abstraction resonates with the spiritual concerns of Agnes Martin and Hilma af Klint.[24] Another major subject in her work is the unconscious and in particular the feminine and the maternal.[25] Her notebooks accompany the painting process but are equally art works.[26]

Bracha L. Ettinger, Eurydice, The Graces, Medusa. Oil painting, 2006–2012

From 1981 until 1992, Ettinger's principal artwork consisted of drawing and mixed media on paper as well as notebooks and artist's books, where alongside theoretical work and conversations she made ink and wash painting and drawing. Since 1992, apart from her notebooks, most of her artwork consists of mixed media and oil paintings, with few parallel series that spread over time like: "Matrix — Family Album", "Autistwork" and "Eurydice", with themes of generational transmission of memory, personal and historical trauma, the Shoah and the World Wars,[27][28][29] the gaze, light, color and the space,[30] womanhood and maternality, inspired by classical painting and creating an abstract space where the questions of beauty[31] and sublime become relevant for our time.[32] Between 1984-2008, images that she obtains first by collage and xerox processing are abstracted in a long process of oil painting that takes a few years. From 2008 until now Ettinger works her oil paintings directly on canvas and doing video art films that contains her drawings and photographs.

According to Griselda Pollock,[33][34] Catherine de Zegher[35][36][37] and Chris Dercon, director of the Tate Modern who had chosen her work for the contemporary art section of the Pompidou Center's major exhibition of 20th Century art Face à l'Histoire,[38] Ettinger has become one of the major artists of the New European Painting. Along with painting she has worked on installations, theoretical research, lectures, video works, and "encounter events". Her paintings, photos, drawings, and notebooks have been exhibited at the Pompidou Centre (1987, 1996, 2010[39]–2011), and the Stedelijk Museum in 1997. In the last decade, Ettinger's oil on canvas paintings involve figures like Medusa, Demeter and Persephone, and Eurydice. Though from 2010 onward her work still consists mainly of oil paintings and drawings, she is also doing new media animated video-films where the images are multi-layered like her painting. In 2015, Ettinger participated with a solo show in the 14th Istanbul Biennial drafted and curated by Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev.[40] In 2018-2019 she participated with a solo show at the Kochi-Muziris Biennale 2018 in India.[41][42]

Group exhibitionsEdit

Among the venues Ettinger presented in:

Solo exhibitionsEdit


Ettinger is a theoretician who proposed an ontology of string-like subject-subject (trans-subjective) and subject-object (transjective) transmissivity for a rethinking of the human subject. Working at the intersections of human subjectivity, feminine sexuality, maternal subjectivity, psychoanalysis, art and aesthetics, she contributed to psychoanalysis the idea of a feminine-maternal sphere, function, and structure with its symbolic and imaginary dimensions based on femaleness in the real (womb). This dimension, as symbolic, contributes to ethical thinking about human responsibility to one another and to the world. She is a senior clinical psychologist, and a practising psychoanalyst. Her artistic practice and her articulation, since 1985, of what has become known as the matrixial theory of trans-subjectivity have transformed contemporary debates in contemporary art, psychoanalysis, women's studies, and cultural studies. Ettinger was an analysand of Ronald Laing in London and Piera Aulagnier in Paris. She is member of the Tel Aviv Institute for Contemporary Psychoanalysis (TAICP),[66] the New Lacanian School (NLS) and the World Association of Psychoanalysis (AMP / WAP).[67] For Ettinger, the Freudian attitude to psychoanalysis is crucial as it emphasizes the phantasmatic value of materials that arise during regression. To Freud and Lacan she adds, however, a feminine-maternal space-time with its particular structures, functions, and dynamics in the unconscious. She claims that, in a similar way, when seduction is assigned to the paternal figure during regression, it is recognized in most cases as a result of the therapeutic process itself. It is worked-through accordingly without therapist's father-blaming, and without a resulting father-hate. Therapists must likewise realize that during regression phantasmatic maternal "not-enoughness" appears and must also be recognized as the result of the process itself, and be worked-through without the mother-hating that Ettinger considers contributes to a "psychotization" of the subject, and a block to the passage from rage to sorrow and compassion. To be able to recognize the phantasmatic status of the psychic material arising during therapy, the Lacanian concepts of Symbolic, Imaginary and Real are useful to her.

The idea of a corpo-Real is a part of her symbolization of a new feminine psychic zone (the matrixial, the womb as time space of psychic encounter-event), in both male and female subjects, and of the feminine-matrixial sexual difference. Thus, even if Ettinger critiques the Freudian and Lacanian analysis of the feminine, she considers herself as a "post" or "neo" Freudian and Lacanian, who elaborates the feminine in continuity to these psychoanalysts, but claims a supplementary feminine-maternal Eros. Ettinger criticises Winnicott and Bollas for offering patients a "ready-made mother-monster" as a cause for each psychic pain. She considers any practice of archaic-motherhood blaming as an obstacle, as "hystericizing" and even momentarily "psychoticizing" (in the sense of leading to internal splits rather than recognition of differences,) when such "cause" is brought as "explanation" by the analyst, a "cause" attributed to the unremembered early period of life where I and non-I are transconnected. Ettinger agrees with Lacan that the "ultimate" cause is in principle lacking: objet a. She calls for a delicate process of differentiation, coemergence, and cofading between the generations, especially in analysing the same-sex (daughter-mother, son-father) relationships, with emphasize on transmission, not split. Thus, the process itself helps to negotiate and articulate delicately sexual difference, in the present. To the idea that the self is structured via mirror-like reflection she adds that of primal apperception of the other, through "fascinance" (aesthetic openness to the other and the cosmos), compassion and awe (affective accesses to the other) directed from the beginning to the (m)Other and the outside, not to the self.

Psychoanalytic theoryEdit

Major conceptsEdit

Ettinger invented the Matrixial Trans-subjectivity theory, or simply "The Matrixial", with concepts like border linking, borderspacing, martial borderspace, copoiesis, wit(h)messing and co/in-habit(u)ation.[68][69] Ettinger is a Freudian and Lacanian scholar and follows the late Jacques Lacan, Emmanuel Levinas, Object relations theory and Gilles Deleuze/Félix Guattari.

The early theory: from 1985 through the 1990sEdit

Ettinger articulated a feminine-maternal (and feminine-prematernal) dimension, space, function, Eros and dynamics in the human Unconscious. She had suggested that pre-natal impressions, connected to the phantasmatic and traumatic real of the pregnant becoming-mother, are trans-inscribed in the emerging subject and form the primary phase and position of the human psyche. "I" and "non-I", without rejection and without symbiotic fusion, conjointly inscribe memory traces that are dispersed asymmetrically but in a trans-subjective mode. Trans-subjective mental and affective unconscious "strings", connecting the prenatal emerging subject to the archaic m/Other, open unconscious routes ("feminine", non phallic, in both males and females) that enable subjectivizing processes all throughout life whenever a new matrixial encounter-event takes place. The matrixial encounter-event forms specific aesthetical and ethical accesses to the Other. Ettinger articulated the 'matrixial gaze' and the process of 'co-poiesis'. This allows new understanding of trans-generational transmission, trauma and artistic processes. Ettinger formulates the woman(girl)-to-woman(mother) difference as the first sexual difference for females to be viewed first of all according to the matrixial parameters. The feminie-maternal Eros informs also the father/son and mother/son relations. According to Ettinger, in parallel but also before expressions of abjection (Julia Kristeva) or rejection (Freud on Narcissism) of the other, primary compassion, awe and fascinance (which are unconscious psychic affective accesses to the other, and which join reattunement and differentiating-in-jointness by borderlinking) occur. The combination of fascinance and primary compassion does not enter the economy of social exchange, attraction and rejection; it has particular forms of Eros and of resistance that can inspire the political sphere and reach action and speech that is ethical-political without entering any political institutional organization. The infant's primary compassion is a proto-ethical psychological means that joins the aesthetical fascinance and creates a feel-knowing that functions at best within maternal (and also parental) compassionate hospitality. Here, one witnesses in jointness: The I wit(h)ness while borderlinking (bordurelaint) to the non-I and borderspacing (bordurespacant) from the other. Ettinger calls for the recognition of the matrixial transference as a dimension in the transferential relationships in psychoanalysis. They must entails besideness to (and not a split from) the archaic the m/Other (Autremere) and parental figures; jointness-in-differentiation rather than their exclusion. She sees in the trans-subjectivity a distinct dimension of human specific linkage and shareability, different from, and supplementary to "inter-subjectivity" and "self" psychology. Her most prominent and comprehensive book regarding this theory is "The Matrixial Borderspace" (reprint of essays from 1994–1999) published in French in 1999[70] and in English in 2006,[71] but her most recent concepts are mainly elaborated in the different essays printed in 2005–2006.[72]

The theory in the 2000sEdit

Her more recent artistic and theoretical work centers around the spiritual in art and ethics. In the domain of psychoanalysis, around the question of same-sex differences, the primary feminine difference is the difference opened between woman (girl) and woman (m/Other), maternal subjectivity, maternal/pregnance Eros of com-passion, the effects of compassion and awe and the passion for borderlinking and borderspacing[73] and the idea that three kinds of fantasy (that she names Mother-fantasies) should be recognized, when they appear in a state of regression aroused by therapy itself, as primal: Mother-fantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment. Their mis-recognition in psychoanalysis (and analytical therapy), together with the ignorance of maternal Eros of com-passion leads to catastrophic blows to the matrixial daughter-mother tissue and hurts the maternal potentiality of the daughter herself, in the sense that attacking the "non-I" is always also attacking the "I" that dwells inside an "I"-and-"non-I" trans-subjective matrixial (feminine-maternal) tissue. Contributing to Self psychoanalysis after Heinz Kohut, Ettinger articulated the difference between com-passionate borderlinking, compassion (as affect) and empathy, and between "empathy without compassion" and "empathy within compassion", claiming that the analyst's empathy without compassion harms the matrixial psychic tissue of the analysand, while empathy within compassion leads to creativity and to the broadening of the ethical horizon. Ettinger explains how by empathy (toward the patient's complaints) without compassion (toward the patient's surrounding past and present family figures, no less than toward the patient itself), the therapist "produces" the patient's real mother as a "ready-made monster-mother" figure, that serves to absorb complaints of all kinds, and thus, a dangerous splitting is induced between the "good" mother figure (the therapist) and a "bad" mother figure (the real mother). This splitting is destructive in both internal and external terms, and mainly for the daughter-mother relations, since the I and non-I are in any case always trans-connected, and therefore any split and projected hate (toward such figures) will turn into a self-hate in the woman/daughter web. Such a concept of subjectivity, where "non-I" is trans-connected to the "I", has deep ethical implications[74] as well as far-reaching sociological and political implications that have been further developed by Griselda Pollock in order to rethink modern and postmodern art and History. Ettinger's recent theoretical proposals starting around 2008 include the three Shocks of maternality and the paternal infnticide impulses (Laius Complex)[75] Carriance[76] and the Demeter–Persephone Complex, working around Greek Mythology and the Hebrew Bible, the woman artists Eva Hesse, Hilma af Klint and Emma Kunz and the poets and writers Sylvia Plath, Marguerite Duras and Alejandra Pizarnik.[77]

Other activitiesEdit

Robert Doisneau photographed by Ettinger in his studio in Montrouge,[78] 1992.

In 1967 Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger is a disabled veteran heroine who was wounded while she led the biggest rescue, saving and evacuation operation of drowning people in the Middle East: the Eilat shipwreck. She was injured during the operation and later on suffered shell-shock[79][80][81][82][83][84] Ettinger is a supporter of the Palestinian rights, and since 2005 Ettinger is an activist member in "Physicians for Human Rights-Israel" ("PHR-Israel"). Dr. Ettinger contributes to the organization as a clinical psychologist, attending Palestinian patients in needed areas in the Palestinian occupied territories.[85]

Ettinger is also famous for her portrait photography, taken in the context of conversation projects. Some of her portraits, like those of Jean-François Lyotard,[86] Joyce McDougall, Edmond Jabès,[87] Emmanuel Lévinas,[88] Robert Doisneau[89] and Yeshayahu Leibowitz appear in several official publications and collections.

Fascinance: Forum for Ettinger StudiesEdit

"The other and the earth need to be known through affective communicaring in self-fragilization. The knowledge revealed in this way, of the invisible chords to which our senses are not yet attuned, is at the basis of the ethical obligation to attend to the vulnerability of the other, human, animal, and even our shared earth, through care and compassion and in wonder and reverence. Lets work together against retraumatization and toward an understanding of a human subject which is informed by feminine transubjectivity in all genders, and become sensitive to the particular Eros of borderlinking between each I and non-I, which is a kind of love.."[90][91][92]

— Bracha L. Ettinger on launch of Fascinance: Forum for Ettinger Studies[93] started by Srishti Madurai

Fascinance is forum started by Srishti Madurai in South India on 24 December 2013[93] which offers Introductory Course in Ettingerian Psychoanalysis[91][94]

The aims of this group:

  • To Read, Study and Discuss the works of Bracha L. Ettinger.
  • To apply the matrixial theory in arts, philosophy, psychoanalysis and art criticism.
  • To Find the possible implications of the concept of "non-life" of Bracha Ettinger in conjunction with the knowledge from various branches of biology such as clinical embryology, nenonatal immunology and developmental biology etc.
  • To elaborte on the works on Matrixial Thanatos and Matrixial Eros and how the approach of bracha differes from the traditional views on death drive.
  • To identify how the Ettingerian theory differs from other psychoanalytic tradition and to discuss the philosophical aspects of matrixial borderspace.
  • To identify the possible connections of brachas works with natural sciences and social sciences.


Ettinger is author of several books and more than eighty psychoanalytical essays elaborating different aesthetical, ethical, psychoanalytical and artistic aspects of the matrixial. She is co-author of volumes of conversation with Emmanuel Levinas, Edmond Jabès, Craigie Horsfield, Félix Guattari and Christian Boltanski. Her book Regard et Espace-de-Bord Matrixiels (essays 1994–1999) appeared in French in 1999 (La lettre volée), and has been published in English as The Matrixial Borderspace (2006, University of Minnesota Press, edited by Brian Massumi and forwarded by Judith Butler and Griselda Pollock). [3] Ettinger is one of the leading intellectuals associated with contemporary French feminism and feminist psychoanalytical thought alongside Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray.[15][16][95][96] The journal Theory Culture & Society dedicated an issue to her work [TC&S, Vol.21, n.1] in 2004.

Recent selected publicationsEdit

  • "The Sublime and Beauty beyond Uncanny Anxiety". In: Intellectual Birdhouse. Artistic Practice as Research. Edited by F. Dombois, U. M. Bauer, C. Marais and M. Schwab. London: Koening Books, 2011.ISBN 978-3-86335-118-2
  • "Antigone With(out) Jocaste". In: Interrogating Antigone. Edited by S. E. Wilmer and A. Zukauskaite. Oxford University Press, 2010 (189–214).ISBN 978-0-19-955921-3
  • "Communicaring: Reflexion around Hiroshima mon amour". In: PostGender: Sexuality and Performativeivity in Japanese Culture. Edited by Ayelet Zohar. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010.ISBN 965-7067-61-8
  • "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference: Psychoanalytical Encounter-Event as Pregnancy in Beauty". In: Across the Threshold (Explorations of Liminality in Literature). Edited by C. N. van der Merwe and H. Viljoen. New York: Peter Lang. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4331-0002-4
  • "Fragilization and Resistance". In: Bracha L. Ettinger: Fragilization and Resistance. Edited by Tero Nauha and Akseli Virtanen. Finnish Academy of Fine Arts with Aivojen yhteistyo, Helsinki, 2009. Printed In: Maternal Studies [4]
  • "From Proto-ethical Compassion to Responsibility: Besidedness, and the three Primal Mother-Phantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment". Athena: Philosophical Studies. Nr. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). 2006. ISSN 1822-5047 [5]
  • "Com-passionate Co-response-ability, Initiation in Jointness, and the link x of Matrixial Virtuality". In: Gorge(l). Oppression and Relief in Art. Edited by Sofie Van Loo. Royal Museum of Fine Art. Antwerpen, 2006. ISBN 90-76979-35-9
  • "Gaze-and-touching the Not Enough Mother" In: Eva Hesse Drawing. Edited by Catherine de Zegher, NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11618-7
  • "Matrixial Trans-subjectivity". Theory Culture & Society – TCS, 23:2–3. 2006. ISSN 0263-2764
  • "Art and Healing Matrixial Transference Between the Aesthetical and the Ethical." In Catalogue: ARS 06 Biennale. 68–75; 76–81. Helsinki: Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art. 2006.
  • "Fascinance. The Woman-to-woman (Girl-to-m/Other) Matrixial Feminine Difference". In: Psychoanalysis and the Image. Edited by Griselda Pollock. Oxford: Blackwell. 2006. ISBN 1-4051-3461-5
  • "Art-and-Healing Oeuvre." 3 X Abstraction. Edited by Catherine de Zegher and Hendel Teicher, 199–231. NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press. 2005. ISBN 0-300-10826-5

Selected publicationsEdit

  • And My Heart Wound-space. On the occasion of Bracha's Soloshow at The 14th Istanbul Biennial "Saltwater" curated by Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev. The Wild Pansy Press, University of Leeds, 2015. ISBN 978-1-900687-55-3 With 4 essyas by Bracha L. Ettinger, forward by Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev, texts by Griselda Pollock, Tina Kinsella, Andrew Benjamin, Oded Wolkstein, Nicolas Bourriaud, Ruth Kaniel, Christine Buci-Glucksmann.
  • The Matrixial Borderspace. (Essays from 1994 to 1999). University of Minnesota Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0
  • Regard et Espace-de-bord matrixiels. Brussels: La lettre volee, 1999. ISBN 2-87317-102-2
  • "Trenzado y escena primitiva del ser-de-a-tres" (7 June 2000). In: Jacques-Alain Miller, Los usos del lapso, Los cursos psicoanaliticos de Jacques-Alain Miller. Buenos Aires: Paidos. 2004. 466–481. ISBN 950-12-8855-2
  • "Copoiesis." In: Ephemera. 2005
  • "Re - In - De - Fuse." In: Othervoices. 1999
  • "Weaving a Woman Artist With-in the Matrixial Encounter-Event." In: Theory, Culture and Society Journal. No. 21. 2004
  • "Trans-subjective transferential borderspace." (1996) Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. (Expression after Deleuze and Guattari). London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. 215–239. ISBN 0-415-23804-8
  • "The Red Cow Effect." (First printed in 1996 in: Act 2, ISSN 1360-4287). Reprinted in: Mica Howe & Sarah A. Aguiar (eds.), He Said, She Says. Fairleigh Dickinson University press & London: Associated University Press, 2001. 57–88. ISBN 0-8386-3915-1
  • "Matrixial Gaze and Screen: Other than Phallic and Beyond the Late Lacan." In: Laura Doyle (ed.) Bodies of Resistance. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2001. 103–143. ISBN 0-8101-1847-5
  • "Art as the Transport-Station of Trauma." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985–1999, Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. 91–115. (ISBN 90-5544-283-6) Extract in [6]
  • "Transgressing with-in-to the feminine." (1997) Reprinted in: Penny Florence & Nicola Foster (eds.), Differential Aesthetics, London: Ashgate, 2000. 183–210. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X
  • "Trauma and Beauty." In: Kjell R. Soleim [ed.], Fatal Women. Journal of the Center for Women's and Gender Research, Bergen Univ., Vol. 11: 115–128, 1999.
  • "The Feminine/Prenatal Weaving in the Matrixial Subjectivity-as-Encounter." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, The Analytic Press, New York, 1997. 363–405. ISSN 1048-1885
  • "Metramorphic Borderlinks and Matrixial Borderspace." In: John Welchman (ed.), Rethinking Borders, Minnesota University Press, 1996. 125–159. ISBN 0-333-56580-0.
  • The Matrixial Gaze. (1994), Feminist Arts & Histories Network, Dept. of Fine Art, Leeds University, 1995. ISBN 978-0-9524899-0-0. Reprinted as Ch. I in The Matrixial Borderspace.
  • "The Becoming Threshold of Matrixial Borderlines.". In: Robertson et als. (eds.) Travelers' Tales. Routledge, London, 1994. 38–62. ISBN 0-415-07016-3
  • Matrix . Halal(a) — Lapsus. Notes on Painting, 1985–1992. Translated by Joseph Simas. Museum Of Modern Art, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-81-2. (Reprinted in Artworking 1985–1999. Ghent: Ludion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6)
  • "Matrix and metramorphosis". Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. Indiana University Press. 4 (3): 176–208. 1992.
  • Matrix. Carnets 1985–1989 (fragments). In: Chimères, n. 16, 1992.


  • "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari" (1989). Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Matrix et le voyage à Jérusalem de C.B. (1989). Artist book, limited edition, with 60 photos of Christian Boltanski by Ettinger, and Conversation between Ettinger and Boltanski. 1991.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha Ettinger (1990, selection). "This is the Desert, Nothing Strikes Root Here." In: Routes Of Wandering. Edited by Sarit Shapira. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1991. 246–256. ISBN 965-278-116-9.
  • Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1990, selection). A Threshold Where We are Afraid. Translated by Annemarie Hamad and Scott Lerner. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-86-3.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). Time is the Breath of the Spirit. Translated by C. Ducker and J. Simas. MOMA (Museum of Modern Art), Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-85-5.
  • Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–93, selection). "What would Eurydice Say?"/ "Que dirait Eurydice?" Reprint of Le féminin est cette différence inouïe (livre d'artiste, 1994 that includes the text of Time is the Breath of the Spirit). Trans. C. Ducker and J. Simas. Reprinted to coincide with the Kabinet exhibition, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Paris: BLE Atelier, 1997. ISBN 2-910845-08-7. Reprinted in: Athena: Philosophical Studies. Vol. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). ISSN 1822-5047.
  • "Working-Through." A conversation between Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger and Craigie Horsfield. In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Eurydice Series. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center. 2001. 37–62.
  • "Conversation: Craigie Horsfield and Bracha L. Ettinger". September 2004. In: Craigie Horsfield, Relation. Edited by Catherine de Zegher. Paris: Jeu de Paume, 2006.
  • Conversation between Bracha L. Ettinger and Akseli Virtanen, "Art, Memory, Resistance." In Framework: The Finnish Art Review 4: Permanent Transience and in Web Journal Ephemera, vol.5, no.X.

Lectures and seminarsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Women Artists at the Millennium, 2006, Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. ISBN 0-262-01226-X, ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3. The MIT press book page Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0-415-41374-5.
  3. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Women's Work is Never Done. MER Edition, 2015. ISBN 978-94-90693-47-3.
  4. ^ Griselda Pollock, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Routledge, 2007
  5. ^ see also Jean-François Lyotard, the sublime
  6. ^ "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference." In: Van der Merwe, C. N., and Viljoen, H., eds. Across the Threshold. New York: Peter Lang, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4331-0002-4
  7. ^ a b c d e "Bracha Ettinger Biography". The European Graduate School. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  8. ^ Library of Congress Name Authority File
  9. ^ fr:Lana Ettinger
  10. ^ he:לנה אטינגר
  11. ^ Face à l'Histoire. 1933–1996. Paris: Flammarion and Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996. ISBN 2-85850-898-4
  12. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Eurydice Series. Edited by Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001. With texts by Judith Butler, Bracha Ettinger, Adrien Rifkin and the editors, and including a conversation between the Bracha Ettinger and Creigie Horsfield.
  13. ^ Couze Venn, in: Theory, Culture and Society. Vol. 21 (1), 2004.
  14. ^ Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard (ed.s), Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  15. ^ a b Humm, Maggie, Modernist Women and Visual Cultures. Rutgers University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8135-3266-3
  16. ^ a b Humm, Maggie, Feminism and Film. Indiana University press, 1997. ISBN 0-253-33334-2
  17. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Matrix. Halal(a) — Lapsus. Notes on Painting. Oxford: MOMA, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-81-2
  18. ^ Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985–1999, with a reprint of Notes on Painting. Ludion: Ghent-Amsterdam, and Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6
  19. ^ AHRC Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory and History AHRC B.Ettinger page.
  20. ^ Manning, Erin, Manning, Erin. "Vertiginious Before the Light." in Art as Compassion. MER Paper Kunsthalle, 2011.
  21. ^ Benjamin, Andrew, "Lighting, Colouring, Workin" in Bracha L. Ettinger. A. And My Heart Wound-Space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2015. ISBN 978-1-900687-55-3.
  22. ^ Buci-Glucksmann, Christine. "Images of Absence in the Inner Space of Painting." In: Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996.
  23. ^ Kinsella, Tina, "Sundering the Spell of Visibility", and Pollock Griselda, "Between Painting and the Digital" in Bracha L. Ettinger. A. And My Heart Wound-Space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2015. ISBN 978-1-900687-55-3.
  24. ^ Pollock, Griselda, "Agnes Dreaming: Dreaming Agnes", and Bracha L. Ettinger "The Art-and-Healing Oeuvre" in 3 x Abstraction. Yale University Press, 2005.
  25. ^ Pollock, Griselda,Art in the Time-Space of Memory and Migration: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud and Bracha L. Ettinger in the Freud Museum. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and London: Freud Museum, 2013
  26. ^ Nicolas Bourriaud, Bracha Ettinger: Off [hors] Figures, in: Bracha L. Ettinger - And My Heart Wound-space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and 14th Istanbul Biennial, 2015
  27. ^ Griselda Pollock, Between painting and the Digital, in: Bracha L. Ettinger - And My Heart Wound-space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and 14th Istanbul Biennial, 2015 ISBN 978-1-900687-55-3
  28. ^ Griselda Pollock, After-affects - After-images. Manchester University Press, 2013 ISBN 978-0-7190-8798-1
  29. ^ Marianne Hirsch, The Generation of Postmemory. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012
  30. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, Translucent Fore-images. Glowing through painting. In: Colori. Curator and Editor: Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev. Castello di Rivoli, Museum of Modern Art, Torino, 2017 ISBN 9-788836-636693
  31. ^ Tina Kinsella, Sundering the Spell of Visibility, in: Bracha L. Ettinger: And My Heart Wound-space. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and 14th Istanbul Biennial, 2015
  32. ^ Jean-Francois Lyotard, "Writing on, in: Writing on Contemporary Art and Artists. Leuven University Press, 2012 ISBN 978-90-586-7886-7
  33. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum. Taylor and Francis, 2010 .
  34. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Art in the Time-Space of Memory and Migration: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud and Bracha L. Ettinger in the Freud Museum. Leeds: Wild Pansy Press, 2013.
  35. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Women's Work is Never Done. MER Edition, 2015.
  36. ^ Catherine de Zegher and Griselda Pollock (eds.), Art as Compassion. Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. Ghent: MER. Paper Kunsthalle & Brussels: ASA Publishers, 2011
  37. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, Inside the Visible. MIT Press, 1996
  38. ^ Face à l'Histoire, 1933–1996. Paris: Flammarion and Centre Georges Pompidou, 1996.
  39. ^ "Ettinger". Pompidou Centre. Retrieved 3 September 2015.[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ "Pavilion Istanbul in/+Leeds Part 3". Pavilion. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ [2]
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2012-07-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ Eventually we'll die, Edited by Doron Rabina. Herzliya Museum of Contemporary Art, 2008.
  49. ^ Gorge(l). Oppression and relief in Art. Edited by Sofie Van Loo. Royal Museum of Fine Art. Antwerpen, 2006.
  50. ^
  51. ^ La Mémoire. Edited by Laurence Bosse, Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev, Hans-Ulrich Obrist. Villa Medici, Rome, 1999.
  52. ^
  53. ^ Face à l'Histoire. (Contemporary Section 1980–1996: curated by Chris Dercon). Paris: Flammarion and Centre G. Pompidou, 1996.
  54. ^
  55. ^ Body. Edited by Tony Bond. Sydney: The Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997.
  56. ^ Inside the Visible. Edited by Catherine de Zegher. Boston: MIT Press, 1996.
  57. ^ Routes Of Wandering. Edited by Sarit Shapira. Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, 1991.
  58. ^ Feminine Presence. Edited by Ellen Ginton. Tel Aviv Museum of Art, 1990.
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ fr:Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle de Calais
  66. ^ "Members of the Institute". TAICP. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  67. ^ World Association of Psychoanalysis
  68. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, "Matrixial Trans-subjectivity" in: Problematizing Global Knowledge. Theory, Culture and Society, Volum 23, Numbers 2–3, 2006.ISSN 0263-2764
  69. ^ “Carriance, Copoiesis and the Subreal.” In: Saltwater. Theory of Thought Forms. 14th Istanbul Biennial Catalogue. Edited by Carolyn Christov Bokargiev, 2015. Printed also in: Bracha L. Ettinger. A α א And My Heart Wound-Space.
  70. ^ Regard et Espace-de-bord matrixiels. La lettre volee. ISBN 2-87317-102-2.
  71. ^ The Matrixial Borderspace, University of Minnesota Press 2006, edited by Brian Massumi and forwarded by Judith Butler and Griselda Pollock. ISBN 0-8166-3587-0 Upress relevant page.
  72. ^ Mainly: "From Proto-ethical Compassion to Responsibility", "Fascinance" and "Com-passionate Co-response-ability, Initiation in Jointness, and the link x of Matrixial Virtuality". All published in 2006 — see list of recent publications.
  73. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, "Diotima and the Matrixial Transference: Psychoanalytical Encounter-Event as Pregnancy in Beauty." In: Van der Merwe, Chris N., and Viljoen, Hein, eds. Across the Threshold: Explorations of Liminality in Literature. New York: Peter Lang & Potchefstroom: Literator, 2007. ISBN 1-4331-0002-9
  74. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, "From Proto-ethical Compassion to Responsibility: Besideness, and the three Primal Mother-Phantasies of Not-enoughness, Devouring and Abandonment". In: Athena: Philosophical Studies. Vol. 2 (Vilnius: Versus). 2006. 100–135. ISSN 1822-5047.
  75. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, “Laius Complex and Shocks of Maternality. Reading Franz Kafka and Sylvia Plath.” Interdisciplinary Handbook of Trauma and Culture, Yochai Ataria, David Gurevitz, Haviva Pedaya, Yuval Neria, eds., New York and Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.
  76. ^ Bracha L. Ettinger, "And My Heart Wound-space With-in Me. The Space of Carriance" In: And My Heart Wound Space, Leeds: Wild Pansy Press and 14th Istanbul Biennial. 2015. ISBN 978-1-900687-55-3
  77. ^ public lecture at EGS, 2012 on YouTube.
  78. ^ Rosi Huhn (Interview), Bracha L. Ettinger (Portraits of R. Doineau) and the Parisian Photographs of Robert Doisneau, "Promenades dans les passage de Paris avec Robert Doisneau." In: Passages d'après Walter Benjamin / Passagen Nach Walter benjamin. [Ed. V. Malsey, U. Rasch, P. Rautmann, N. Schalz]. Verlag Herman Schmidt, Mainz, 1992. ISBN 3-87439-250-3.
  79. ^ he:טיבוע המשחתת אילת
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^ Uri Borreda. The Sinking of the Eilat Ship
  83. ^ "We Owe Bracha Our Lives" by Or Ravid Walla News, 9 Dec 2017.
  84. ^ Air Force Journal, "Alone in El Arish" by Hadas Levav 1 Feb. 2018
  85. ^ המרפאה הניידת של רופאים לזכויות אדם on YouTube.
  86. ^ Glowacka, Dorota. "Lyotard and Eurydice: The Anamnesis of the Feminine." In: Grebowicz, Margaret, ed. Gender After Lyotard. NY: SUNY Press, 2007
  87. ^ Edmond Jabès in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1990). A Threshold Where We are Afraid. Translated by Annemarie Hamad and Scott Lerner. MOMA, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-86-3.
  88. ^ Emmanuel Levinas in conversation with Bracha L. Ettinger (1991–1993). Time is the Breath of the Spirit. Translated by C. Ducker and J. Simas. MOMA (Museum of Modern Art), Oxford, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-85-5.
  89. ^ Victor Malsey, Uwe Raseh, Peter Rautmann, Nicolas Schalz, Rosi Huhn, Passages. D'après Walter Benjamin / Passagen. Nach Walter Benjamin. Mainz: Herman Schmidt, 1992.
  90. ^
  91. ^ a b
  92. ^
  93. ^ a b[permanent dead link]
  94. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2013-12-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  95. ^ Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard (eds.), Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  96. ^ Griselda Pollock, Inscriptions in the feminine. In: Insdie the Visible edited by Catherine de Zegher. MIT Press, 1996.

Further readingEdit

  • Catherine de Zegher and Griselda Pollock (eds.), Art as Compassion. Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger. [Monography]. Ghent: MER. Paper Kunsthalle & Brussels: ASA Publishers, 2011. ISBN 978-94-6117-008-8
  • Patrick le Nouene (ed.), Le Cabinet de Bracha. [English and French]. [Monography]. Musee d'Angers, 2011. ISBN 2-35293-030-8
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Le devenir-monde d'Eurydice", published to coincide with the project "Capturing the Moving Mind", Paris: BLE Atelier, 2005. Trans. Eurydice's Becoming-World and reprinted as brochure for "The Aerials of Sublime Transscapes", Breda: Lokaal 01, 2008.
  • Dorota Glowacka, "Lyotard and Eurydice: The Anamnesis of the Feminine." In: Gender After Lyotard. Ed. Margaret Grebowicz. NY: Suny Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7914-6956-9.
  • Griselda Pollock, Ch. 6: "The Graces of Catastrophe". in: Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-41374-5.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Eros and Erotiek" in ThRu1. Text / catalogue for virtual solo exhibition at Lokaal01, Antwerp, 2007. [8].
  • Brigid Doherty, "Dwelling on Spaces". In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Rethinking the Artist in the Woman, The Woman in the Artist, and that Old Chestnut, the Gaze." In: Women Artists as the Millennium. Edited by Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher. Cambridge Massachusetts: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. 35–83. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Beyond Oedipus. Feminist Thought, Psychoanalysis, and Mythical Figurations of the Feminine." In: Laughing with Medusa. Edited by Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard. Oxford University Press, 2006. 87–117. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  • Sofie Van Loo, Gorge(l): Oppression and relief in Art. Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp & Gynaika, 2006.
  • Sofie Van Loo, "Titian and Bracha L. Ettinger: an artistic dialogue between the 16th and the 20th/21st centuries". In: Antwerp Royal Museum Annual, 2006.
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1995), "Anamnesis: Of the Visible." Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004. ISSN 0263-2764
  • Jean-François Lyotard (1993), "Scriptures: Diffracted Traces."(First version of "Anima Minima"). Theory, Culture and Society, Vol. 21(1), 2004.
  • Judith Butler, "Bracha's Eurydice. Theory, Culture and Society'", Vol. 21, 2004. ISSN 0263-2764.
  • Griselda Pollock, "Does Art Think?." In: Dana Arnold and Margaret Iverson (eds.) Art and Thought. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22715-6.
  • Heinz-Peter Schwerfel, "Matrix und Morpheus" in: Kino und Kunst. DuMont Literatur und Kunst Verlag, Koln. 2003. ISBN 3-8321-7214-9* Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.), "Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series". Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Brian Massumi, "Painting: The Voice of the Grain", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Adrian Rifkin, "... respicit Orpheus", In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: The Eurydice Series. [Catherine de Zegher and Brian Massumi (eds.)]. Drawing Papers, n.24. NY: The Drawing Center, 2001.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Eurydice and her doubles. Painting after Auschwitz." In: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger: Artworking 1985–1999. Ghent-Amsterdam: Ludion & Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-283-6
  • Griselda Pollock and Penny Florence, Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. G&B Arts Press, 2000. ISBN 90-5701-132-8.
  • Paul Vandenbroeck, Azetta — L'art de femmes Berberes. Paris: Flammarion, 2000. ISBN 90-5544-282-8
  • Adrien Harris, "Beyond/Outside Gender Dichotomies: New Forms of Constituting Subjectivity and Difference." Psychoanalytic Dialogues, VII:3, 1997. ISSN 1048-1885.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, "Images of Absence in the Inner Space of Painting." In: Catherine de Zegher (ed.), Inside the Visible. MIT Press, Boston, 1996.
  • Griselda Pollock, 'Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1.
  • Rosi Huhn, "Die Passage zum Anderen: Bracha Lichtenberg Ettingers äesthetisches Konzept der Matrix und Metramorphose", In: Silvia Baumgart (Hrsg), Denkräum. Zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft. Reimer, Berlin, 1993. ISBN 3-496-01097-5.
  • Rosi Huhn, Bracha L. Ettinger: La folie de la raison / Wahnsinn der Vernunft. Goethe Institut, Paris, 1990.
  • Bracha L. Ettinger, "From transference to the aesthetic paradigm: a conversation with Felix Guattari." Reprinted in Brian Massumi (ed.), A Shock to Thought. Expression after Deleuze and Guattari. London & NY: Routeledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-23804-8.
  • Fintan Walsh, "From Enthusiasm to Encounter-Event: Bracha L. Ettinger, Samuel Beckett, and the Theatre of Affect. Parallax, 17:2 (2011), pp. 110–123.

External linksEdit