Beijing Daxing International Airport

Beijing Daxing International Airport (IATA: PKX, ICAO: ZBAD), located on the border of Beijing and Langfang, Hebei Province, is Beijing's second international airport.[3][4] The name of the airport was announced on September 14, 2018.[5] It has been nicknamed "starfish".[6] The terminal building is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world, with an area of more than 1,000,000 m2 (11,000,000 sq ft).[7][8] It was completed on June 30, 2019. The opening ceremony for the airport was held on September 25, 2019,[1] with the airport opened to the public on September 26, 2019.[9][5][10] The first commercial flight landed at Beijing Daxing at 10:12 (UTC+8), September 26, 2019.[2]

Beijing Daxing International Airport

北京大兴国际机场
Beijing New Airport.jpg
Aerial photo, January 2019
Summary
Airport typePublic
ServesBeijing
Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Megalopolis)
LocationDaxing, Beijing & Guangyang, Langfang (Hebei)
Opened25 September 2019 (opening ceremony)[1]
26 September 2019 (first commercial flight)[2]
Time zoneChina Standard Time (+8)
Elevation AMSL98 ft / 30 m
Coordinates39°30′33″N 116°24′38″E / 39.50917°N 116.41056°E / 39.50917; 116.41056Coordinates: 39°30′33″N 116°24′38″E / 39.50917°N 116.41056°E / 39.50917; 116.41056
Websitewww.bdia.com.cn
Map
PKX/ZBAD is located in Beijing
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD
location in Beijing
PKX/ZBAD is located in China
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD (China)
PKX/ZBAD is located in Asia
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD (Asia)
PKX/ZBAD is located in Earth
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD
PKX/ZBAD (Earth)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
01L/19R 3,400 11,155 Concrete
17L/35R 3,800 12,467 Concrete
17R/35L 3,800 12,467 Concrete
11L/29R 3,800 12,467 Concrete
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Simplified Chinese北京大兴国际机场
Traditional Chinese北京大興國際機場
An Airbus A380-800 of China Southern Airlines takes off at PKX (May 13th, 2019).
China Eastern Airlines check-in counters

The airport is 46 kilometres (29 mi) south of Tiananmen Square, 26 kilometres (16 mi) west of downtown Langfang, 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Xiong'an New Area, and 65 kilometres (40 mi) south of Beijing Capital International Airport, and is expected to serve Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei.[11] It serves as a hub for SkyTeam alliance airlines and some Oneworld members, while Star Alliance members will stay at Beijing Capital International Airport (with the exception of LOT Polish Airlines, which will serve Daxing as well). Hainan Airlines, which accounted for 10% of Beijing Capital International's passenger seat capacity in 2016, but is not part of any major alliance, remains at Capital Airport.[12]

After almost five years of construction, the CN¥ 80 billion (US$11.4 billion)[13][14] facility features a 700,000 m2 (7,500,000 sq ft) terminal and sits on 47 km2 (18 sq mi) of land, making it the world's second-largest single-building airport terminal,[15][16][17] after Istanbul Airport's main terminal.[18]

Development historyEdit

A second airport for Beijing was proposed in 2008.[19] By 2012, the existing Beijing Capital International Airport was running at near its full design capacity.[20][21]

Initial proposalsEdit

Early media reports during September 2011 suggested that there could be up to 9 runways at the new airport: 8 runways for civil aviation plus one runway dedicated to military usage.[22][11][23][24][25] It would replace Beijing Capital International Airport (which had 83 million passengers in 2013, second most in the world) as the main airport of Beijing, and be the largest in China. The airport was planned to be able to handle 120 to 200 million passengers a year, which, if capacity were fully used, would make it the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic, surpassing Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport by far.[26]

Approval for constructionEdit

Official approval for construction by National Development and Reform Commission on December 22, 2014.[27][28] It called for an airport to be constructed in the southern part of Daxing District of Beijing, along the border of Beijing and Hebei Province. No design or plans were released due to ongoing negotiations. It was stated that it would consist of 7 runways, 6 for civilian use and 1 for military purposes. Construction has been completed as of September 2019[29] with a capacity of handling 75 million passengers by 2025. The cost of construction was initially estimated to be at least 70 billion RMB (US$11.2 billion), including the 37 km (23 mi) Beijing–Xiong'an intercity railway (Beijing section), to Beijing West railway station.[19][30]

Design & ContractorsEdit

The airport's master plan was prepared by NACO (Netherlands Airport Consultants)[31] and will feature a ground transportation centre providing the airport with public transportation links to high-speed rail, metro, expressways, Beijing Airport Bus routes, local buses and inter-airport transportation system.[32] The terminal building was designed by British architects Zaha Hadid Architects[33][34] and French planners ADPI,[35] and executed by the Beijing Institute of Architectural Design (BIAD). It consists of a central hub with six curved spokes.[36] The façade was designed by XinShan Curtainwall and Beijing Institute of Architectural Design. Arup was subcontracted by Beijing Institute of Architectural Design as the fire engineering consultant,[37] while China IPPR International Engineering was responsible for security system and baggage system designs.[38] BuroHappold Engineering, as part of the consortium, worked with the architects to integrate engineering solutions into the design of the airport.[37]

Hong Kong design studio Lead 8 was appointed as lead designer of the integrated service building (the 6th pier) in 2018. The terminal, according to Lead 8, will encompass "a purposeful design of work spaces, with integrated retail, dining, and entertainment options for the large number of passengers expected," with plans to incorporate interactive pet hotels, a child care and nursery, hybrid online retail and dining, and a showroom for companies.[39]

Other contractors involved in the project include China Electronics Engineering Design Institute, Civil Aviation Electronic Technology, The Third Rail Survey and Design Institute Group Corporation (TSDI China), Beijing City Construction Design Research General Institute and Beijing General Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute.[38]

Beijing TsingHua TonHeng Urban Planning and Design Institute, Central Academy of Fine Arts, Dtree, Lea-Elliot, Lighting Design Studio, and East Sign Design & Engineering were also involved in the project.[38]

Suppliers include Xsight Systems, T-Systems, Schindler, Thales, Beijing EasySky Technology and Oasys.[38]

ConstructionEdit

Construction of the airport began on December 26, 2014,[40] and was led by chief engineer Guo Yanchi.[41] By March 2017, the terminal had its concrete structure capped.[42] On January 23, 2019, the first flight inspection began to be carried out and was expected to be completed in March.

On June 30, 2019, the airport officially finished construction and was in preparation for its September opening. The construction of the airport itself cost CN¥120bn (approximately US$17bn), with other projects in the periphery costing CN¥330bn (US$46.2bn), giving a total cost of CN¥450bn (US$63bn).[37]

OpeningEdit

 
Atrium of airport where the opening ceremony was held

The airport opened on 25 September 2019—just six days before the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China—in a ceremony attended by the Chinese president and General Secretary of the Communist Party Xi Jinping.[43][44] Inaugural flights from seven Chinese airlines began later in the afternoon,[45] although flights operating out of the airport on the day were member-only, with the first official flight out of the airport an Airbus A380 operated by China Southern Airlines.[1][46] Flights for the public began the following day on 26 September 2019.[9] The first commercial flight landed at Beijing Daxing at 10:12 (UTC+8), September 26, 2019.[2]

The airport serves as the hub for China United Airlines immediately after its opening and all their services have been relocated to Beijing Daxing. Others, such as China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines, will also relocate.[9][47]

Upon opening of the Daxing Airport, Beijing Nanyuan Airport, the oldest airport in China, closed on the same day. A military airfield will co-exist in Daxing, as was the case in Nanyuan.

Service developmentEdit

 
Concourse A
 
Interior of Beijing Daxing International Airport

It was initially planned for airlines of the SkyTeam alliance to be relocated to the new airport, while Star Alliance airlines would remain at Capital, effectively making both airports hubs.[48] This was confirmed in 2016, when the Civil Aviation Administration of China announced that China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines and Xiamen Airlines along with other SkyTeam airlines would move to the new airport, while Air China and other Star Alliance carriers would remain at Capital.[49] China Southern, China Eastern and Beijing Capital Airlines' intentions to move to Daxing were confirmed by a Xinhua report in December 2017.[50]

Ten passenger airlines (China Southern Airlines, China United Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Beijing Capital Airlines, Hebei Airlines, Spring Airlines, Okay Airways, Juneyao Airlines, XiamenAir and Donghai Airlines) and one cargo airline (China Postal Airlines) signed agreements with the Capital Airport Group to enter the new airport.[citation needed]

CAAC required each Mainland Chinese airline (other than China Postal Airlines) to serve only one Beijing-area airport following the opening of Daxing, but allowed foreign airlines (including Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan-based airlines) to operate from both airports if they wished to do so.[51] China Eastern Group and China Southern Group were each allocated 40% of landing slots with the remaining 20% for smaller Mainland China and international airlines. However, on 1 May 2019, this plan was changed by CAAC, with China Eastern Group relinquishing 10% of its allocated slots (to give it 30% of slots) to Air China Group in exchange for the China Eastern group continuing to operate its Shanghai-Beijing flights at Beijing Capital Airport.[52]

Among Oneworld carriers, British Airways and Malaysia Airlines will move their London-Heathrow and Kuala Lumpur to Beijing flights to Daxing whilst Finnair has filed for flights from Helsinki-to-Daxing as well as retaining a daily flight to Capital.[53] American Airlines has indicated plans to relocate flights from Capital to Daxing due to its tie-up with China Southern.[54] Cathay Pacific and Cathay Dragon reportedly intend to stay at Capital.[55] The alliance announced in February 2019, that its member airlines were considering a formal co-location scheme at Daxing.[56]

Airport facilitiesEdit

The first phase of the airport project is designed with a target of 72 million passengers,[57] 2 million tons of cargo and mail,[57] and 620,000 aircraft movements by 2025, with plans to handle 100 million passengers in the long term.

Airlines and destinationsEdit

Passenger

AirlinesDestinations
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo (begins 3 June 2020)[58]
Air China Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi,[59] Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Kunming, Nanning, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Yinchuan[60][61]
Air Macau Macau[62]
Aurora Vladivostok (begins 29 March 2020)[63]
Seasonal: Khabavorsk (begins 29 March 2020)[63]
Beijing Capital Airlines Erenhot, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hefei, Jixi,[64] Lijiang, Lisbon, Malé, Meixian, Nanchang, Qingdao, Sanya, Urumqi, Xiamen, Xi'an, Xining, Xishuangbanna, Yushu
British Airways London–Heathrow[65]
China Eastern Airlines Da Nang, Dongying, Fukuoka, Hangzhou, Harbin, Huai'an, Linyi, Luoyang, Luzhou, Paris–Charles de Gaulle (begins 29 March 2020),[66] Qingdao, Shanghai–Hongqiao, Shanghai–Pudong, Tokyo–Haneda (begins 29 March 2020),[67] Xining[68][69]
China Southern Airlines Anshan, Changchun, Changde, Daqing, Guangzhou,[70] Ho Chi Minh City (suspended until 31 March 2020),[citation needed] Hong Kong,[71] Istanbul (begins 31 March 2020),[72] Jieyang, London–Heathrow (begins 18 June 2020),[73] Moscow–Sheremetyevo (begins 23 June 2020),[74] Nanchong, Shenzhen, Tokyo–Haneda (begins 29 March 2020),[73] Tongren, Xining, Yanji, Yinchuan, Yiwu, Zunyi–Xinzhou[75]
China United Airlines Anshun, Arxan, Baicheng, Baotou, Bayannur, Bijie, Changsha, Changzhi, Chengdu, Chifeng, Chizhou, Dalian, Datong, Dongying, Foshan, Fuyang, Guangzhou, Hailar, Hanzhong, Harbin, Hefei, Hengyang, Hohhot, Huai'an, Huaihua, Huizhou, Jinchang, Kunming, Lanzhou, Lianyungang, Linyi, Longnan, Longyan, Lüliang, Manzhouli, Nanyang, Ningbo, Ordos, Qingyang, Qiqihar, Quzhou, Rizhao, Sanming, Shanghai–Hongqiao, Shanghai–Pudong, Shangrao, Shenzhen, Shiyan, Tongliao, Tongren, Ulanhot, Ulanqab, Urumqi, Weihai, Wenzhou, Wuhai, Wuzhou, Xiamen, Xiangyang, Xilinhot, Xingyi, Xinyang, Yan'an, Yancheng, Yantai, Yichun (Heilongjiang), Yinchuan, Yingkou, Yongzhou, Yueyang, Yulin, Zhuhai[9]
Delta Air Lines Detroit, Seattle/Tacoma (both begin 29 March 2020)[76]
Finnair Helsinki
Hebei Airlines Changchun, Chengdu, Guilin, Hangzhou, Lanzhou, Mianyang, Nanchang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Sanya, Xingyi, Yinchuan, Zhalantun, Zunyi–Xinzhou[77]
Himalaya Airlines Kathmandu[78]
Juneyao Airlines Shanghai–Hongqiao[79]
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin[80][81]
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International[82]
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca [83][84]
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan[85]
S7 Airlines Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk–Yemelyanovo, Novosibirsk, Ulan-Ude, Vladivostok (all begin 29 March 2020)[86]
Ural Airlines Irkutsk, Moscow–Zhukovsky, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg (all begin 29 March 2020)[87]
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Xiamen (both begin 29 March 2020)[88]

Ground transportationEdit

 
Waiting room of Intercity Railway Daxing Airport Station.
 
Platform of the Subway Station.

The airport is linked to the city through various means of transportation, and a ground transportation center was constructed beneath the terminal building for this purpose.[89] Two underground railway stations (for Beijing–Xiong'an intercity railway and Intercity Railway Connector)[90] and three metro stations (Daxing Airport Express, Line 20 (Line R4) and another planned metro line)[90] were built beneath the terminal building. Currently, only one of the metro lines (Daxing Airport Express) and one of the railway lines (Beijing–Xiong'an intercity railway) are in operation. The airport is also served by a highway system including Beijing Daxing Airport Expressway [zh] and Beijing Daxing Airport North Line Expressway [zh] connecting the airport and Beijing city.[91]

Intercity railEdit

A new high-speed railway service, the Beijing–Xiong'an intercity railway starts from Beijing West railway station. It will connect the urban area of Beijing, Daxing District of Beijing, Bazhou, and Xiong'an to the new airport. The section between the airport to Beijing will operate at speeds of 250 km/h (160 mph) and the section between the airport to Xiong'an will operate at speeds of 350 km/h (220 mph).[92] The airport-to-Beijing section was opened on September 26, 2019,[93] while the airport-to-Xiong'an section is expected to open in late 2020.[94] It will take 28 minutes from Beijing West railway station to the new airport.[95]

Another intercity railway, the Intercity Railway Connector, will connect Langfang, Yizhuang, Beijing Sub-administrative Center in Tongzhou District and Beijing Capital International Airport to the new airport. Phase I of the intercity railway connector (New Airport to Langfang East railway station) is under construction. Phase 1 of the railway will be finished in December 2022.[96] The speed will be 200 km/h.[96][97]

Another high-speed railway service, the Tianjin–Beijing Daxing Airport railway (also known as Jinxing railway[98]), will connect Tianjin West railway station with Daxing Airport.[99] Construction will start in late 2019[98][100] and finish in 3 years.[99] The speed will be 250 km/h.[99] The railway will through-operate with the aforementioned Intercity Railway Connector.

SubwayEdit

The Daxing Airport Express of the Beijing Subway connects the airport to the urban area of Beijing and began operation on September 26, 2019.[101] The line links Caoqiao station on Line 10 to the airport. Initially, only the Caoqiao-to-airport segment was opened, with a northern extension to Lize Business District scheduled to begin construction in the second half of 2019[102] and finish in 2021. A southern extension of the line, also known as Xiong'an to Daxing Airport Express [zh] (or Line R1 of Xiong'an Rail Transit), from Daxing Airport to Xiong'an West railway station will also start construction in 2019.[103]

In the long term planning of the Beijing Subway, Line 20 (Line R4) of the Beijing Subway is planned to terminate at the new airport.[104]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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