Barry Lyndon is a 1975 British-American period drama film by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1844 novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon by William Makepeace Thackeray. It stars Ryan O'Neal, Marisa Berenson, Patrick Magee, Leonard Rossiter and Hardy Krüger. The film recounts the early exploits and later unraveling of a fictional 18th-century Irish rogue and opportunist who marries a rich widow to climb the social ladder and assume her late husband's aristocratic position.

Barry Lyndon
Barry Lyndon A.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Jouineau Bourduge
Directed byStanley Kubrick
Produced byStanley Kubrick
Screenplay byStanley Kubrick
Based onThe Luck of Barry Lyndon
by William Makepeace Thackeray
Starring
CinematographyJohn Alcott
Edited byTony Lawson
Production
company
Hawk Films
Peregrine Productions
Distributed byWarner Bros.
Release date
  • 18 December 1975 (1975-12-18)
Running time
187 minutes[1]
CountryUnited Kingdom
United States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$12 million[2]
Box office$20.2 million[3]

Kubrick began production on Barry Lyndon after his 1971 film, A Clockwork Orange. Kubrick had originally intended to direct a biopic on Napoleon, but lost his financing due to the commercial failure of the similar film, Waterloo. Kubrick eventually directed Barry Lyndon, set during the Seven Years' War, utilizing his research from his Napoleon project. Filming lasted roughly 8 months, beginning in December 1973, and took place in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Germany.

The film's cinematography has been described as ground-breaking. Especially notable are the long double shots, usually ended with a slow backwards zoom, the scenes shot entirely in candlelight, and the settings based on William Hogarth paintings. The exteriors were filmed on location in Ireland, England and Germany, with the interiors shot mainly in London. The production was troubled; there were problems related to logistics, weather, and even politics (Kubrick feared that he might be an IRA hostage target), while the relationship between Kubrick and O'Neal was especially fraught and difficult. O'Neal's performance and perceived lack of on-screen depth and ability to portray a character arc have been repeatedly criticised, even by some of those who consider the film to be one of the director's major successes[who?].

Barry Lyndon won four Oscars in production categories at the 1975 Academy Awards. Although some critics took issue with the film's glacial pace and restrained emotion, like many of Kubrick's works, its reputation has strengthened over time, with many now regarding it as one of his greatest achievements.

Contents

PlotEdit

Part IEdit

By What Means Redmond Barry Acquired the Style and Title of Barry Lyndon

A possibly unreliable narrator[4] relates that in 1750s Ireland, Redmond Barry’s father is killed in a duel, and Redmond’s mother devotes herself to her only son.

Barry becomes infatuated with his older cousin, Nora Brady, whose family plans her lucrative marriage to British Army captain John Quin. In a duel, Barry shoots Quin and flees toward Dublin, but is robbed by Captain Feeney, a highwayman.

Barry joins the British Army and encounters Captain Grogan, a family friend, who informs him that the duel was staged by Nora's family—Barry’s pistol was only loaded with tow—to be rid of Barry. Barry’s regiment is sent to Germany to fight in the Seven Years' War, where Grogan is killed in a skirmish before the Battle of Minden. Barry deserts the army, posing as an officer courier. Prussian Captain Potzdorf sees through his disguise and offers a choice: to be returned to the British and shot as a deserter, or to enlist in the Prussian Army. Barry chooses the latter, later receiving a commendation from Frederick the Great for saving Potzdorf's life.

After the war ends in 1763, Barry joins the Prussian Ministry of Police. The Prussians suspect the Chevalier de Balibari, an itinerant gambler, is an Irish spy and send Barry undercover. Barry is overwhelmed at meeting a fellow Irishman and reveals himself to the Chevalier, becoming his confederate at cards. After they cheat the Prince of Tübingen, the Prince refuses to pay his debt and demands satisfaction. The Prussians arrange for the Chevalier to be expelled from the country, but he flees in the night and Barry, disguised as the Chevalier, is escorted from Prussian territory instead.

Barry and the Chevalier gamble across Europe. In Spa, Barry seduces the wealthy Countess of Lyndon, and goads her elderly husband Sir Charles Lyndon into fatal convulsions. Barry's coup-de-grace is the assertion that "he who laughs last, wins".

Part IIEdit

Containing an Account of the Misfortunes and Disasters Which Befell Barry Lyndon
 
Barry's first meeting with Lady Lyndon

In 1773, Barry takes the Countess' name in marriage and settles in England. Lady Lyndon's son, Lord Bullingdon, despises Barry, who retaliates with beatings. Barry and the Countess have a son, Bryan Patrick, but Barry is openly unfaithful and lavishly spends his wife's money.

Barry's mother comes to live at the Lyndon estate. She warns him that Lord Bullingdon would be sole heir to his mother’s wealth and advises Barry to obtain a noble title. He spends more money ingratiating himself to high society. Lord Bullingdon crashes his mother’s birthday party and confronts Barry, who viciously assaults his stepson and is cast out of polite society.

Barry proves a doting father to Bryan, and procures a horse for his ninth birthday. The spoiled Bryan rides the horse by himself and is thrown off, paralyzed, and dies. The grief-stricken Barry turns to alcohol, while Lady Lyndon seeks solace in religion with her sons’ tutor, Reverend Samuel Runt. Left in charge of the family affairs and Barry’s mounting debts, Barry's mother dismisses the Reverend. Lady Lyndon attempts suicide, and the Reverend and the family's accountant Graham seek out Lord Bullingdon, who challenges Barry to a duel.

The duel is held in a tithe barn.[5] A coin toss gives Bullingdon the first shot, but he nervously misfires his pistol. Barry magnanimously fires into the ground, but Bullingdon refuses to end the duel, and shoots Barry in the leg, which must be amputated. Bullingdon assumes control of the Lyndon estate, and offers Barry an annuity of five hundred guineas a year to leave England. Defeated in mind and body, Barry accepts.

The narrator states that Barry returned to Ireland with his mother before resuming his profession as a gambler in Europe without his former success. Barry never returned to England or saw Lady Lyndon again. In the final scene, December 1789, Lady Lyndon signs Barry's annuity cheque as her son looks on.

EpilogueEdit

It was in the reign of George III that the aforesaid personages lived and quarrelled; good or bad, handsome or ugly, rich or poor, they are all equal now.

CastEdit

 
Suits worn in Barry Lyndon
 
Suits worn in Barry Lyndon

Critic Tim Robey suggests that the film "makes you realise that the most undervalued aspect of Kubrick's genius could well be his way with actors."[6] He adds that the supporting cast is a "glittering procession of cameos, not from star names but from vital character players."[6]

The cast featured Leon Vitali as the older Lord Bullingdon, who would then become Kubrick's personal assistant, working as the casting director on his following films, and supervising film-to-video transfers for Kubrick. Their relationship lasted until Kubrick's death. The film's cinematographer, John Alcott, appears at the men's club in the non-speaking role of the man asleep in a chair near the title character when Lord Bullingdon challenges Barry to a duel. Kubrick's daughter Vivian also appears (in an uncredited role) as a guest at Bryan's birthday party.

Other Kubrick featured regulars were Leonard Rossiter (2001: A Space Odyssey), Steven Berkoff, Patrick Magee, Godfrey Quigley, Anthony Sharp and Philip Stone (A Clockwork Orange). Stone would go on to feature in The Shining.

ProductionEdit

DevelopmentEdit

After completing post production 2001: A Space Odyssey, Kubrick resumed planning a film about Napoleon. During pre-production, Sergei Bondarchuk and Dino De Laurentiis' Waterloo was released, and failed at the box office. Reconsidering, Kubrick's financiers pulled funding, and he turned his attention towards an adaptation of Anthony Burgess's 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange. Subsequently, Kubrick showed an interest in Thackeray's Vanity Fair but dropped the project when a serialised version for television was produced. He told an interviewer, "At one time, Vanity Fair interested me as a possible film but, in the end, I decided the story could not be successfully compressed into the relatively short time-span of a feature film ... as soon as I read Barry Lyndon I became very excited about it."[7]

Having earned Oscar nominations for Dr. Strangelove, 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick's reputation in the early 1970s was that of "a perfectionist auteur who loomed larger over his movies than any concept or star."[6] His studio—Warner Bros.—was therefore "eager to bankroll" his next project, which Kubrick kept "shrouded in secrecy" from the press partly due to the furor surrounding the controversially violent A Clockwork Orange (particularly in the UK) and partly due to his "long-standing paranoia about the tabloid press."[6]

Having felt compelled to set aside his plans for a film about Napoleon Bonaparte, Kubrick set his sights on Thackeray's 1844 "satirical picaresque about the fortune-hunting of an Irish rogue," Barry Lyndon, the setting of which allowed Kubrick to take advantage of the copious period research he had done for the now-aborted Napoleon.[6] At the time, Kubrick merely announced that his next film would star Ryan O'Neal (deemed "a seemingly un-Kubricky choice of leading man"[6]) and Marisa Berenson, a former Vogue and Time magazine cover model, and be shot largely in Ireland.[6] So heightened was the secrecy surrounding the film that "Even Berenson, when Kubrick first approached her, was told only that it was to be an 18th-century costume piece [and] she was instructed to keep out of the sun in the months before production, to achieve the period-specific pallor he required."[6]

Principal photographyEdit

Principal photography took 300 days, from spring 1973 through early 1974, with a break for Christmas.[8] The crew arrived in Dublin, Ireland in May 1973. Jan Harlan recalls that Kubrick "loved his time in Ireland - he rented a lovely house west of Dublin, he loved the scenery and the culture and the people". [9]

Many of the exteriors were shot in Ireland, playing "itself, England, and Prussia during the Seven Years' War."[6] Drawing inspiration from "the landscapes of Watteau and Gainsborough," Kubrick and cinematographer Alcott also relied on the "scrupulously researched art direction" of Ken Adam and Roy Walker.[6] Alcott, Adam and Walker were among those who would win Oscars for their "amazing work" on the film.[6]

Several of the interior scenes were filmed in Powerscourt House, an 18th-century mansion in County Wicklow, Republic of Ireland. The house was destroyed in an accidental fire several months after filming (November 1974), so the film serves as a record of the lost interiors, particularly the "Saloon" which was used for more than one scene. The Wicklow Mountains are visible, for example, through the window of the saloon during a scene set in Berlin. Other locations included Kells Priory (the English Redcoat encampment)[10] Blenheim Palace, Castle Howard (exteriors of the Lyndon estate), Huntington Castle, Clonegal (exterior), Corsham Court (various interiors and the music room scene), Petworth House (chapel), Stourhead (lake and temple), Longleat, and Wilton House (interior and exterior) in England, Dunrobin Castle (exterior and garden as Spa) in Scotland, Dublin Castle in Ireland (the chevalier's home), Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart and Frederick the Great's Neues Palais at Potsdam near Berlin (suggesting Berlin's main street Unter den Linden as construction in Potsdam had just begun in 1763). Some exterior shots were also filmed at Waterford Castle (now a luxury hotel and golf course) and Little Island, Waterford. Moorstown Castle in Tipperary also featured. Several scenes were filmed at Castletown House outside Carrick-on-Suir, Co. Tipperary, and at Youghal, Co. Cork.

The filming took place in the backdrop of some of the most intense years of the Troubles in Ireland, during which the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA) was waging an armed campaign in order to bring about a United Ireland.

On 30 January 1974 while filming in Dublin City's Phoenix Park shooting had to be canceled due to the chaos caused by 14 bomb threats.[11]

One day a phone call was received and Kubrick was given 24 hours to leave the country, he left within 12 hours. The phone call alleged that Provisional IRA had him on a hit list and Harlan recalls "Whether the threat was a hoax or it was real, almost doesn't matter ... Stanley was not willing to take the risk. He was threatened, and he packed his bag and went home" [12][9]

CinematographyEdit

 
Special ultra-fast lenses were used for Barry Lyndon to allow filming using only natural light.
 
Hogarth's Country Dance (c.1745) illustrates the type of interior scene that Kubrick sought to emulate with Barry Lyndon.

The film—as with "almost every Kubrick film"—is a "showcase for [a] major innovation in technique."[6] While 2001: A Space Odyssey had featured "revolutionary effects," and The Shining would later feature heavy use of the Steadicam, Barry Lyndon saw a considerable number of sequences shot "without recourse to electric light."[6] Cinematography was overseen by director of photography John Alcott (who won an Oscar for his work), and is particularly noted for the technical innovations that made some of its most spectacular images possible. To achieve photography without electric lighting "[f]or the many densely furnished interior scenes ... meant shooting by candlelight," which is known to be difficult in still photography, "let alone with moving images."[6]

Kubrick was "determined not to reproduce the set-bound, artificially lit look of other costume dramas from that time."[6] After "tinker[ing] with different combinations of lenses and film stock," the production obtained three super-fast 50mm lenses (Carl Zeiss Planar 50mm f/0.7) developed by Zeiss for use by NASA in the Apollo moon landings, which Kubrick had discovered.[6][13] These super-fast lenses "with their huge aperture (the film actually features the lowest f-stop in film history) and fixed focal length" were problematic to mount, and were extensively modified into three versions by Cinema Products Corp. for Kubrick so to gain a wider angle of view, with input from optics expert Richard Vetter of Todd-AO.[6][13] The rear element of the lens had to be 2.5 mm away from the film plane, requiring special modification to the rotating camera shutter.[14] This allowed Kubrick and Alcott to shoot scenes lit in candlelight to an average lighting volume of only three candela, "recreating the huddle and glow of a pre-electrical age."[6] In addition, Kubrick had the entire film push-developed by one stop.[13]

Although Kubrick's express desire was to avoid electric lighting where possible, most shots were achieved with conventional lenses and lighting, but were lit to deliberately mimic natural light rather than for compositional reasons. In addition to potentially seeming more realistic, these methods also gave a particular period look to the film which has often been likened to 18th-century paintings (which were, of course, depicting a world devoid of electric lighting), in particular owing "a lot to William Hogarth, with whom Thackeray had always been fascinated."[6]

The film is widely regarded as having a stately, static, painterly quality,[6] mostly due to its lengthy wide angle long shots. To illuminate the more notable interior scenes, artificial lights were placed outside and aimed through the windows, which were covered in a diffuse material to scatter the light evenly through the room rather than being placed inside for maximum use as most conventional films do. An example of this method occurs in the scene where Barry duels Lord Bullingdon. Though it appears to be lit entirely with natural light, one can see that the light coming in through the cross-shaped windows in the tithe barn appears blue in color, while the main lighting of the scene coming in from the side is not. This is because the light through the cross-shaped windows is daylight from the sun, which when recorded on the film stock used by Kubrick showed up as blue-tinted compared to the incandescent electric light coming in from the side.[citation needed]

Despite such slight tinting effects, this method of lighting not only gave the look of natural daylight coming in through the windows, but it also protected the historic locations from the damage caused by mounting the lights on walls or ceilings and the heat from the lights. This helped the film "fit ... perfectly with Kubrick's gilded-cage aesthetic – the film is consciously a museum piece, its characters pinned to the frame like butterflies."[6]

MusicEdit

Barry Lyndon
Soundtrack album by
various
ReleasedDecember 27, 1975 (1975-12-27)
GenreClassical, folk
Length49:48
LabelWarner Bros.
ProducerLeonard Rosenman

The film's period setting allowed Kubrick to indulge his penchant for classical music, and the film score uses pieces by Bach, Vivaldi, Paisiello, Mozart, and Schubert.[note 1] The piece most associated with the film, however, is the main title music, Handel's Sarabande from the Keyboard suite in D minor (HWV 437). Originally for solo harpsichord, the versions for the main and end titles are performed with orchestral strings, harpsichord, and timpani. The score also includes Irish folk music, including Seán Ó Riada's song Women of Ireland, arranged by Paddy Moloney and performed by The Chieftains. The British Grenadiers also features in scenes with Redcoats marching.

No.TitleWriter(s)Performer/conductor/arrangerLength
1."Sarabande–Main Title"George Frideric HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra2:38
2."Women of Ireland"Peadar Ó Doirnín, Seán Ó RiadaThe Chieftains4:08
3."Piper's Maggot Jig"traditionalThe Chieftains1:39
4."The Sea-Maiden"traditionalThe Chieftains2:02
5."Tin Whistles"Ó RiadaPaddy Moloney & Seán Potts3:41
6."The British Grenadiers"traditionalFifes & Drums2:12
7."Hohenfriedberger March"Frederick the GreatFifes & Drums1:12
8."Lillibullero"traditionalFifes & Drums1:06
9."Women of Ireland"Ó RiadaDerek Bell0:52
10."March from Idomeneo"Wolfgang Amadeus MozartNational Philharmonic Orchestra1:29
11."Sarabande–Duel"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra3:11
12."Lillibullero"traditionalLeslie Pearson0:52
13."German Dance no. 1 in C major"Franz SchubertNational Philharmonic Orchestra2:12
14."Sarabande–Duel"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra0:48
15."Film Adaptation of the Cavatina from Il barbiere di Siviglia"Giovanni PaisielloNational Philharmonic Orchestra4:28
16."Cello Concerto in E minor"Antonio VivaldiLucerne Festival Strings/Pierre Fournier/Rudolf Baumgartner3:49
17."Adagio from Concerto for two harpsichords in C minor"Johann Sebastian BachMünchener Bach-Orchester/Hedwig Bilgram/Karl Richter5:10
18."Film Adaptation of Piano Trio in E-flat, Op. 100 (second movement)"SchubertMoray Welsh/Anthony Goldstone/Ralph Holmes4:12
19."Sarabande–End Title"HandelNational Philharmonic Orchestra4:07
Total length:49:48

CertificationsEdit

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
France (SNEP)[15] Platinum 300,000*

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Box office and receptionEdit

ContemporaneousEdit

The film "was not the commercial success Warner Bros. had been hoping for" within the United States,[6] although it fared better in Europe. In the US it earned $9.1 million.[2] Ultimately, the film grossed a worldwide total of $31.5 million on an $11 million budget.[16]

This mixed reaction saw the film (in the words of one retrospective review) "greeted, on its release, with dutiful admiration – but not love. Critics ... rail[ed] against the perceived coldness of Kubrick's style, the film's self-conscious artistry and slow pace. Audiences, on the whole, rather agreed ..."[6]

Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and wrote that the film "is almost aggressive in its cool detachment. It defies us to care, it forces us to remain detached about its stately elegance." He added, "This must be one of the most beautiful films ever made."[17] Vincent Canby of The New York Times called the film "another fascinating challenge from one of our most remarkable, independent-minded directors."[18] Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and wrote, "I found 'Barry Lyndon' to be quite obvious about its intentions and thoroughly successful in achieving them. Kubrick has taken a novel about a social class and has turned it into an utterly comfortable story that conveys the stunning emptiness of upper-class life only 200 years past."[19] He ranked the film fifth on his year-end list of the best films of 1975.[20] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called it "the motion picture equivalent of one of those very large, very heavy, very expensive, very elegant and very dull books that exist solely to be seen on coffee tables. It is ravishingly beautiful and incredibly tedious in about equal doses, a succession of salon quality still photographs—as often as not very still indeed."[21] The Washington Post wrote, "It's not inaccurate to describe 'Barry Lyndon' as a masterpiece, but it's a deadend masterpiece, an objet d'art rather than a movie. It would be more at home, and perhaps easier to like, on the bookshelf, next to something like 'The Age of the Grand Tour,' than on the silver screen."[22] Pauline Kael of The New Yorker wrote that "Kubrick has taken a quick-witted story" and "controlled it so meticulously that he's drained the blood out of it," adding, "It's a coffee-table movie; we might as well be at a three-hour slide show for art-history majors."[23]

This "air of disappointment"[6] factored into Kubrick's decision for his next film – Stephen King's The Shining – a project that would not only please him artistically, but also be more likely to succeed financially.

Re-evaluationEdit

In recent years, the film has gained a more positive reaction.[24] On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 94% based on 64 reviews, with an average rating of 8.39. The website's critical consensus reads, "Cynical, ironic, and suffused with seductive natural lighting, Barry Lyndon is a complex character piece of a hapless man doomed by Georgian society."[25] Roger Ebert added the film to his 'Great Movies' list on 9 September 2009, writing, "Stanley Kubrick's 'Barry Lyndon,' received indifferently in 1975, has grown in stature in the years since and is now widely regarded as one of the master's best. It is certainly in every frame a Kubrick film: technically awesome, emotionally distant, remorseless in its doubt of human goodness."[24]

Director Martin Scorsese has named Barry Lyndon as his favorite Kubrick film,[26] and it is also one of Lars von Trier's favorite films.[27] Quotations from its script have also appeared in such disparate works as Ridley Scott's The Duellists, Scorsese's The Age of Innocence, and Wes Anderson's Rushmore.[citation needed] IMDb users have given it 8.1 star out of 10 and it has been placed on their 250 Top Rated Movie list.[16]

AwardsEdit

Award Category Recipient Result
Academy Awards[28][6] Best Picture Stanley Kubrick Nominated
Best Director Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated
Best Production Design Ken Adam, Roy Walker and Vernon Dixon Won
Best Costume Design Milena Canonero and Ulla-Britt Söderlund Won
Best Cinematography John Alcott Won
Best Original Score Leonard Rosenman Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Nominated
Best Director Stanley Kubrick Won
Best Production Design Ken Adam Nominated
Best Costume Design Milena Canonero and Ulla-Britt Söderlund Nominated
Best Cinematography John Alcott Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Best Director Stanley Kubrick Nominated

Cinematic analysisEdit

As with any Stanley Kubrick film, there is a great deal of subtle messages and deeper meanings. The main theme explored in Barry Lyndon is one of fate and destiny. Barry is pushed through life by a series of key events, some of which seem unavoidable. As Roger Ebert says, "He is a man to whom things happen."[29] He declines to eat with the highwaymen Captain Feeney, where he would most likely have been robbed, but is robbed anyway farther down the road. The narrator repeatedly emphasizes the role of fate as he announces events before they unfold on screen, like Brian's death and Bullingdon seeking satisfaction. This theme of fate is also developed in the reoccurring motif of the painting. Just like the events featured in the paintings, Barry is participating in events which always were. Another major theme is between father and son. Barry lost his father at a young age and throughout the film he seeks and attaches himself to father-figures. Examples include his uncle, Grogan, and the Chevalier. When given the chance to be a father, Barry loves his son to the point of spoiling him. This contrasts with his role as a father to Lord Bullingdon, whom he disregards and punishes.[29][30][31]

Source novelEdit

Kubrick based his adapted screenplay on William Makepeace Thackeray's The Luck of Barry Lyndon (republished as the novel Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq.), a picaresque tale written and published in serial form in 1844.

The film departs from the novel in several ways. In Thackeray's writings, events are related in the first person by Barry himself. A comic tone pervades the work, as Barry proves both a raconteur and an unreliable narrator. Kubrick's film, by contrast, presents the story objectively. Though the film contains voice-over (by actor Michael Hordern), the comments expressed are not Barry's, but those of an omniscient narrator. Kubrick felt that using a first-person narrative would not be useful in a film adaptation:[32]

I believe Thackeray used Redmond Barry to tell his own story in a deliberately distorted way because it made it more interesting. Instead of the omniscient author, Thackeray used the imperfect observer, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say the dishonest observer, thus allowing the reader to judge for himself, with little difficulty, the probable truth in Redmond Barry's view of his life. This technique worked extremely well in the novel but, of course, in a film you have objective reality in front of you all of the time, so the effect of Thackeray's first-person story-teller could not be repeated on the screen. It might have worked as comedy by the juxtaposition of Barry's version of the truth with the reality on the screen, but I don't think that Barry Lyndon should have been done as a comedy.

Kubrick made several changes to the plot, including the addition of the final duel.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The soundtrack album attributes the composition of the Hohenfriedberger March to Frederick the Great; the origin of this attribution is uncertain

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Barry Lyndon (A)". British Board of Film Classification. 26 November 1975. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b SECOND ANNUAL GROSSES GLOSS Byron, Stuart. Film Comment; New York Vol. 13, Iss. 2, (Mar/Apr 1977): 35-37, 64.
  3. ^ "Barry Lyndon, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  4. ^ Miller, Mark Crispin (1976). "Barry Lyndon Reconsidered". The Georgia Review. XXX (4).
  5. ^ Ciment, Michel; Adair, Gilbert; Bononno, Robert (1 September 2003). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 9780571211081. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Robey, Tim, "Kubrick's Neglected Masterpiece", in Telegraph Review (31 January 2009), pp. 16–17
  7. ^ Ciment, Michel. "Kubrick on Barry Lyndon". Archived from the original on 5 May 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.
  8. ^ Pramaggiore, Maria (18 December 2014). Making Time in Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon: Art, History, and Empire. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781441167750.
  9. ^ a b Whitington, Paul (22 March 2015). "Kubrick in Ireland: the making of Barry Lyndon". The Independent. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Barry Lyndon film locations". Movie-locations.com.
  11. ^ Pramaggiore, Maria (18 December 2014). "Making Time in Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon: Art, History, and Empire". Bloomsbury Publishing USA – via Google Books.
  12. ^ "Ryan O'Neal tells TEN about Kubrick's IRA fears". www.rte.ie.
  13. ^ a b c Two Special Lenses for "Barry Lyndon", by Ed DiGiulio (President, Cinema Products Corp.), American Cinematographer
  14. ^ Ciment, Michel. "Three Interviews with Stanley Kubrick". The Kubrick Site.
  15. ^ "French album certifications – B.O.F. – Barry Lindon" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
  16. ^ a b "Barry Lyndon" – via www.imdb.com.
  17. ^ Ebert, Roger (20 September 1975). "Barry Lyndon". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  18. ^ Canby, Vincent (19 December 1975). "Screen: Kubrick's 'Barry Lyndon' Is Brilliant in Its Images". The New York Times. 52.
  19. ^ Siskel, Gene (26 December 1975). "'Barry Lyndon': Beauty and grace outweigh pace in a Kubrick classic". Chicago Tribune. Section 3, p. 1.
  20. ^ Siskel, Gene (4 January 1976). "Ten films outclass the publicity pitch". Chicago Tribune. Section 6, p. 2.
  21. ^ Champlin, Charles (19 December 1975). "A Rake's Lack of Progress". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, p. 1.
  22. ^ "'Barry' Is All Dressed Up, but Going Where?" The Washington Post. 25 December 1975. H14.
  23. ^ Kael, Pauline (29 December 1975). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker. 49.
  24. ^ a b "Barry Lyndon (1975)". rogerebert.chicagosuntimes.com. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Barry Lyndon (1975)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  26. ^ Ciment, Michel; Adair, Gilbert; Bononno, Robert (1 September 2003). Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. Macmillan. p. vii. ISBN 9780571211081. Retrieved 19 April 2015. I'm not sure if I can have a favorite Kubrick picture, but somehow I keep coming back to Barry Lyndon.
  27. ^ "'It was like a nursery - but 20 times worse'". The Guardian. 11 January 2004. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  28. ^ "Barry Lyndon Awards". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  29. ^ a b Ebert, Roger. "Barry Lyndon Movie Review & Film Summary (1975) - Roger Ebert". www.rogerebert.com.
  30. ^ Dazed (8 August 2016). "Why Barry Lyndon is Stanley Kubrick's secret masterpiece". Dazed.
  31. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (28 July 2016). "Barry Lyndon review – Kubrick's intimate epic of utter lucidity" – via www.theguardian.com.
  32. ^ "Visual memory" (interview). UK. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2010.

External linksEdit