Bahia (/bəˈhə/ (About this soundlisten); Portuguese pronunciation: [bɐˈi.jɐ])[a] is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the 4th-largest Brazilian state by population (after São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro) and the 5th-largest by area. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador (formerly known as "Cidade do São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos", lit. "City of Holy Saviour of All Saints Bay"), located on a spit of land separating the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic. Once a monarchial stronghold dominated by agricultural, slaving, and ranching interests, Bahia is now a local manufacturing center whose last four elections have been dominated by the Workers' Party. The state is home to 7% of the Brazilian population[3] and produces 4.2% of the country's GDP.[4]

Bahia
Estado da Bahia
State of Bahia
Coat of arms of Bahia
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
"Per ardua surgo"
(I rise through the hardship)
Anthem: Hino da Bahia
Location of State of Bahia in Brazil
Location of State of Bahia in Brazil
Coordinates: 12°S 41°W / 12°S 41°W / -12; -41Coordinates: 12°S 41°W / 12°S 41°W / -12; -41
Country Brazil
Capital and largest citySalvador
Government
 • GovernorRui Costa (PT)
 • Vice GovernorJoão Leão (PP)
 • SenatorsAngelo Coronel (PSD)
Jaques Wagner (PT)
Otto Alencar (PSD)
Area
 • Total565,733 km2 (218,431 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Population
 (2010)[1]
 • Total14,016,906
 • Estimate 
(2019)
14,873,064
 • Rank4th
 • Density25/km2 (64/sq mi)
 • Density rank12th
Demonym(s)Baiano Bahiano
GDP
 • Year2011 estimate
 • TotalR$ 159,869,000,000 (6th)
 • Per capitaR$ 11,340.26 (19th)
HDI
 • Year2017
 • Category0.714[2]high (22nd)
Time zoneUTC-3 (BRT)
Postal code
40000-000 to 48990-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-BA
Websitebahia.ba.gov.br

NameEdit

The name of the state derives from the earlier captaincy of Bahia de Todos os Santos, named for Bay of All Saints (Baía de Todos os Santos in modern Portuguese), a major feature of its coastline. The bay itself was named by the explorer Amerigo Vespucci during his second voyage, when he found it on All Saints' Day (1 November), 1502. He named it after his parish church in Florence, San Salvatore di Ognissanti ("Holy Savior of All the Saints"). Over time, the bay became distinguished as the Bay of All Saints, the state as Bahia ("Bay"), and its capital first as Bahia and then finally as Salvador.[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

Bahia is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, with its Bay of All Saints the largest in Brazil. Under the Brazilian Empire, it was bounded on the north by the Rio Real and by the Jequitinhonha on the south,[5] but Bahia now comprises an irregular shape bound by other states of Brazil, some of which were formed from it. In the north, it is now bordered (from east to west) by Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco and Piauí. In the northwest, it is bordered by Tocantins. In the southwest, it borders Goiás, and in the south it is bordered (from east to west) by Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais.

The state is crossed from west to east by many rivers, but the most important is the São Francisco, which starts in Minas Gerais and runs through western Bahia before emptying into the Atlantic between Sergipe and Alagoas. Formerly plied by paddlewheel steamers, the river is only navigable to small modern craft but is still vital to the arid west since it continuously supplies water during seasons when many other smaller rivers dry out. The Sobradinho Dam created one of the largest reservoirs in the world; other major hydroelectric projects along its length include the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex and the Itaparica or Luiz Gonzaga Dam.

RegionsEdit

 
Colonial Portuguese architecture in Pelourinho, Salvador

Bahia's geographical regions comprise the Atlantic Forest; the maritime region (Recôncavo)[6] radiating from the Bay of All Saints, the site of sugar and tobacco cultivation; and the Planalto, which includes the sertão region of Bahia's far interior. The state is crossed from north to south by the Diamantina Tableland (Chapada Diamantina), which divides it into two distinct geographical zones. To the east, the soil is fertile and the rain falls regularly.[citation needed] The western area is more arid[6] and its predominate vegetation the cerrado. The natural aridity was greatly worsened over the 19th century by the cowboys' habit of starting wildfires each year to improve the quality of the grass.[7] The Chapada Diamantina National Park is home to picturesque chapadões, plateaus with steep edges which are visited for their natural environment, but for the most part the tough conditions of the interior cause it to be much less developed than the coast.[citation needed]

Coconut CoastEdit

The Coconut Coast, in the north of Bahia, corresponds to a total of 193 km (120 mi) of coastline, where coconut groves, dunes, rivers, swamps and fresh water lagoons are abundant as well as the presence of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The Green Road, a road that connects Mangue Seco in the far north to Praia do Forte, crosses this region maintaining a critical distance from the areas of environmental preservation. For this reason, the route is sometimes more than 10 km (6.2 mi) from the beach. At Praia do Forte, the road meets the Coconut Road (Estrada do Côco) leading to Salvador, passing through spots, which are now integrated in the urban development of the state capital. In this region is located Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport.

Bay of All SaintsEdit

 
View of Salvador.

The largest bay on the Brazilian coast, the Bay of All Saints (Bahia de Todos os Santos) has a large number of islands with tropical beaches and vegetation. In its 1,052 square km, it contains 56 islands, receives fresh water from numerous rivers and creeks (especially the Paraguaçú and Subaé) and bathes the first capital of Brazil and the largest in the Northeast, Salvador, and more than ten municipalities. It is the largest navigable bay in Brazil and one of the most favorite spots for nautical sports, due to its regular breezes, medium annual temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and sheltered waters. The bay offers various leisure options, with hundreds of vessels of all different types, especially saveiros, schooners, motor boats, jet ski that criss-cross its crystalline waters on maritime excursions to the islands, and boat races. Events and sport activities occur throughout the year, beginning on 1 January, with the Procession of Bom Jesus dos Navegantes greeting the New Year.

All Saints' has also been traditionally the venue for rowing contests at the Enseada dos Tainheiros, in Salvador and now the bay is included in the routes of the great international regattas, such as the Ralley Les Iles du Soleil, regatta Hong Kong Challenge and the Expo 98 Round the World Rally, which consider the bay an important stop along the route. The islands of the bay are a separate attraction. Some are privately owned, others were declared a state heritage and transformed into Environmental Protection Areas or ecological stations. Other islands are the patrimony of 12 municipalities located around the bay. Only a few are uninhabited and many have small communities where the natives live on fishing and tourism. All have common characteristics, such a calm sea, dense vegetation, especially coconuts and bananas, as well as vestiges of the Atlantic Forest. Of the 56 islands, the most important are Itaparica, Madre de Deus, Maré, Frades, Medo, Bom Jesus dos Passos.

Dendê CoastEdit

 
Morro de São Paulo.

The Dendê Coast, south of Salvador, is surrounded by verdant vegetation, clear waters, islands, bays, coral reefs and a very diversified fauna. The name of the area refers to the cultivation of the palm oil, or Elaeis guineensis, likely imported from West Africa. It is connected to Salvador and the southern part of the state by ferryboats and the BA-001 highway, the second ecological highway along the Bahian coast, which connects the southern coastline and the extreme southern part of the state. It includes the municipalities of Valença, Cairu and the International attractions of Morro de São Paulo, Camamu, Taperoá, Igrapiúna, Ituberá and Maraú. The mouth of the Rio Una, in the form of a delta, contains 26 islands, the largest of which is Ilha de Tinharé, where the Morro de São Paulo is located. At Boipeba and Cairú, which are part of the archipelago of Tinharé, the diversity of the ecosystems enables visitors to practice water sports, walk along the beach, follow trails in the rainforest and bathe on completely deserted beaches such as Garapuá.[8]

Cacao CoastEdit

Along the southern coast of Bahia, the Cacao Coast preserves ecological sanctuaries with dozens of kilometers of beaches shaded by dense coconut groves, the Atlantic Forest, large areas of wetland vegetation and cacao plantations. Walking along paths in the forest or along the beaches, horseback riding along the coast, boat trips up the vast number of rivers are some of the options that the region offers. Here one can find Environmental Protection Areas at Itacaré/Serra Grande and the Lagoa Encantada in Ilhéus, the Biological Reserve of Una and the Ecological Reserve of Prainha at Itacaré. From the Morro de Pernambuco to Canavieiras, there are 110 km (68 mi) of beaches, with reefs, inlets, coconut grove and an infinite number of estuaries of rivers which extend throughout the Cacao Coast. Highway BA-001 links the municipalities, nearly always bordering the coastline. The most important locations at Cacao Coast are: Itacaré, Ilhéus, and Olivença.

Discovery CoastEdit

 
Church in Porto Seguro.

The Discovery Coast preserves, virtually intact, the landscape seen by the Portuguese fleet described in the first pages of the history of Brazil. There are approximately 150 km (93 mi) of beaches, inlets, bays, cliffs, numerous rivers and streams surrounded by the verdant coconut groves, wetlands and the Atlantic Forest. Over land and sea the excursions are always associated with nature, and there are various types of water sports, walks, trips on horseback, surfing and deep sea diving. Recife de Fora, Coroa Alta and Trancoso for one day schooner excursions. BA-001 and two ferryboat systems over the Rio João de Tiba and Rio Buranhém connect the municipalities with the coast. Trips from Barra do Cai, passing through the Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal, Caraíva, Trancoso, Arraial d'Ajuda, the environmental protection areas of Santo Antônio and Coroa Vermelha, to the mouth of the Rio João de Tiba as far as the Rio Jequitinhonha are among the various ecological trips for visitors.

Whale CoastEdit

The Abrolhos archipelago in the extreme southern part of Bahia is an ecotourism attraction for diving and whale watching. Whales are frequent between July and November. This region contains one of the largest concentrations of fish, in terms of volume and variety, per square meter on the planet.[citation needed] There are 17 species of corals. The Whale Coast includes the municipalities of Alcobaça, Caravelas, Nova Viçosa and Mucuri and its main attraction is the Abrolhos Marine National Park.

Diamantina TablelandEdit

The geographical center of Bahia is the Diamantina Tableland (Chapada Diamantina) region. In this mountainous region with a diversified topography, 90% of the rivers of the Paraguaçu, Jacuípe, and Rio das Contas basins have their source here. There are thousands of kilometers of clear waters that spring from these mountains and descend in cascades and waterfalls to plateaus and plains, forming natural pools. The vegetation mixes cactus species of the caatinga dry lands with rare examples of the mountain flora, especially bromeliads, orchids and "sempre vivas" (member of the strawflower family). On the area one can find the three highest mountains in the state: Pico do Barbado, 2,080 m (6,820 ft) high, Pico Itobira, 1,970 m (6,460 ft), and Pico das Almas, 1,958 m (6,424 ft).

Another scenic attraction is the Cachoeira da Fumaça ("Waterfall"), which falls 420 m (1,380 ft); the Gruta dos Brejões, the largest cavern opening of Bahia; and the Poço Encantado. There are so many natural attractions that it is possible to choose between subterranean routes in caves or trip to waterfalls, trek along old gold mining trails or follow the steps of the Prestes Column, rappel, climb mountains, or go horseback riding in the Vale do Capão or Vale do Paty in the midst of small local communities. Many of the sites are protected by the National Park of the Diamantina Tableland and the Environmental Preservation Area Serra do Barbado and Marimbus, Iraquara. There are opportunities to take long bikes and to travel on horseback, mountain bike, or off-road vehicles.

ClimateEdit

 
Köppen climate types of Bahia

Tropical. In addition to its considerable size, it has the longest coastline of the country: 1,103 km long (685 miles; north coast: 143; Bay of All Saints: 124; and southern: 418). With 68% of its territory located in the semi-arid zone, the State presents diversified climates and an average rainfall that varies from 363 to 2,000 mm (14.3 to 78.7 in) per year, depending on the region.

HistoryEdit

 
Topographical and administrative map of the Province of Bahia, 1857.
 
Historic Centre of Salvador.
 
São Marcelo Fort, in the capital of the state.

The Portuguese Pedro Álvares Cabral sighted Monte Pascoal ("Easter Mountain") near Itamaraju and landed at what is now Porto Seguro on the southern coast of Bahia in 1500, claiming the territory for Portugal. In 1549, Portugal established the city of Salvador on a hill facing the Bay of All Saints. The city and surrounding captaincy served as the administrative capital of Portugal's colonies in the Americas until 1763. It remains the religious capital of Brazil's Roman Catholic hierarchy, with its archbishop serving as the national primate. Salvador holds the country's oldest cathedral and first medical college, as well as the highest number of churches per capita of any Brazilian state capital.[citation needed]

Bahia's captaincy was the first to fail, with its lands reverting to the Portuguese crown in 1549.[9] While Portugal was united with Spain, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Bahia but were largely defeated in the area, with Dutch Brazil restricted to Pernambuco.

Bahia was a center of sugarcane cultivation from the 16th to the 18th centuries and contains a number of historic towns, such as Cachoeira, dating from this era. Integral to the sugar economy was the importation of a vast number of African slaves: more than a third of all slaves taken from Africa were sent to Brazil, mostly to be processed in Bahia before being sent to work in plantations elsewhere in the country.

The state was the last area of the country to join the Empire of Brazil, as members in the local elite remained loyal to the Portuguese crown after the rest of the country proclaimed independence under Pedro I on 7 September 1822. Control of the province was disputed in several battles, mostly in Pirajá, before the Portuguese were fully expelled on 2 July 1823. Under the name Bahia Independence Day, this date vies in local importance with Brazilian Independence Day, which commemorates Pedro's 7 September proclamation.[citation needed] It became a Brazilian state in 1889.[9]

Charles Darwin visited Bahia in 1832 on his famous voyage on the Beagle. In 1835, Bahia was the site of an urban slave revolt, Malê Revolt of 1835 by the predominantly Muslim West African slaves at the time. The term malê was commonly used to refer to Muslims at the time from the Yoruba word imale . The revolt is particularly notable as the greatest slave rebellion in the history of the Americas.[citation needed] Under the Empire, Bahia returned 14 deputies to the general assembly and 7 senators; its own provincial assembly consisted of 36 members.[6] In the 19th century, cotton, coffee, and tobacco plantations joined those for sugarcane and the discovery of diamonds in 1844 led to large influx of "washers" (garimpeiros) until the still-larger deposits in South Africa came to light.[6] A smaller boom hit Caetité in 1872 upon the discovery of amethysts there.[6] The cattle industry of the interior led to the development of Feira de Santana before collapsing in a series of droughts.[9]

PoliticsEdit

After the end of military governments in Brazil in 1985, the state of Bahia was usually governed by PFL or PMDB. The Workers' Party achieved the governorship in 2007 and has held it ever since, in four successive elections (2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018).

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18721,379,616—    
18901,919,802+1.85%
19002,117,956+0.99%
19203,334,465+2.30%
19403,918,112+0.81%
19504,834,575+2.12%
19605,990,605+2.17%
19707,583,140+2.39%
19809,597,393+2.38%
199111,855,157+1.94%
200013,066,910+1.09%
201014,016,906+0.70%
201715,344,447+1.30%
source:[10]

According to IBGE data of 2008, there were 14,561,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 24.93 inhabitants per square kilometre (64.6/sq mi). Urban population: 67.4% (2006); Population growth: 1.1% (1991–2000); Houses: 3,826,000 (2006).[11] The last PNAD (National Census of a Sample of Households) showed the following numbers: 9,149,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (62.83%), 3,000,000 White people (20.60%), 2,328,000 Black people (15.99%), 42,000 Amerindian people (0.29%), 37,000 Asian people (0.26%).[12]

Historically, the population was estimated at 1.45 million in the 1870s[6] and was 1.92 million at the time of the 1890 Brazilian census.[9]

Public SafetyEdit

The crime rate in Bahia is statistically higher than in another Brazilian states in the region and far more than the south region of the country that is considered the safest region in the nation.[13] The state of Bahia has four of the ten most violent cities in Brazil. Gun violence in the state more than doubled in the period from 2004 to 2014, ranking 1st of the 26 states of Brazil murders.[14] In 2014 the state of Bahia had the largest number of murderers in the country.[15][16]

Largest citiesEdit

Tourism and recreationEdit

 
Beach in Itacaré.
 
Itaparica Island.

Bahia is the most important tourist center in the Northeast and the 2nd in the country as they are famous for their lands.[citation needed] The tourist product in Bahia, 50% of its global flow centered in Salvador, unites in a same space the characteristics of a natural landscape and a unique culture in the country, in which the typical culinary arts, the colonial architecture and popular feasts reveal a strong integration of elements of European and African origin in the formation and in the way of life of the people of Bahia. By its natural and historic-cultural attractions, Bahia presents an enormous potential for the development of the tourist activity. Owner of the biggest portion of seacoast of the country and of singular views in its interior, Bahia possesses specific cultural, folklore and religious characteristics, manifest in its extensive calendar of popular festivities, in its architectonic patrimony and in its typical food.[citation needed]

Salvador, with its Historical Center registered by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and with its coast clipped into many beaches and dozens of islands, has a varied receptive infrastructure, composed of 170 hostelry units (of which 20 are of international standard hotels) and 25 thousand beds, further to restaurants, bars, nightclubs, shopping malls, theaters, crafts centers, Convention and Fairs Center, rental agencies, tourist agencies, and other equipment and services. In the last few years, the State Government promoted the total restoration of the Pelourinho, the largest group of colonial Iberian baroque style buildings in Latin America, today transformed into an important point for visitation by tourists. that will find there a synthesis of what best Bahia has to offer in specialized services, in regional and international cooking, in architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries and in music, with daily shows by the great artists of Bahia, famous in the country and abroad.[citation needed] It is important to note,[tone] however, that the Pelourinho was once Salvador's principal red-light district as well as a working-class neighborhood that home to thousands of Afro-Brazilians.[clarification needed] Since 1992, however, the overwhelming majority of these people have been forcibly removed and replaced by boutiques, NGO headquarters, government offices, folkloric representations, monuments, and amenities for tourists.[18] The period of festivities in Bahia has its high point between December and March (summer months) and has in carnival its supreme point, with more than one million tourists in Salvador, Porto Seguro and other cities of the State's Tourist circuit.[citation needed]

EducationEdit

The literacy rate in Bahia is 85%.[citation needed]

 
Faculty of Law of the Federal University of Bahia.

Educational institutionsEdit

  • Centro Universitário da Bahia[19] (FIB) (University Centre of Bahia);
  • Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (EBMSP) (Bahian School of Medicine and Public Health);
  • Federal do Vale do São Francisco[20] (UNIVASF) (Foundation Federal University of São Francisco Valley);
  • Instituto Federal da Bahia[21] (IFBA);
  • Instituto Federal Baiano[22] (IFBAIANO);
  • Universidade Católica de Salvador[23] (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);
  • Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB) (Bahia State University);
  • Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana[24] (UEFS) (State University of Feira de Santana);
  • Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz[25] (UESC) (State University of Santa Cruz);
  • Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia[26] (Uesb) (State University of Southwest of Bahia);
  • Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);
  • Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia[27] (UFRB) (Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia);
  • Universidade Salvador[28] (Unifacs) (Salvador University);
  • and many others.

CultureEdit

 
People in Bonfim Church. Religion in Bahia is a syncretic mix of European Catholicism and African religions.
 
Nowadays, there are about 50 museums in Salvador alone, of which 25 are functioning normally.

As the chief locus of the early Brazilian slave trade, Bahia is considered to possess the greatest and most distinctive African imprint, in terms of culture and customs, in Brazil. These include the Yoruba-derived religious system of Candomblé, the capoeira (martial art emerged in Quilombo dos Palmares, located in the Captaincy of Pernambuco[29]), African-derived music such as samba (especially samba's Bahian precursor samba-de-roda), afoxé, and axé, and a cuisine with strong links to western Africa.

Bahia is the birthplace of many noted Brazilian artists, writers and musicians. Among the noted musical figures born in the state are Waldick Soriano (a legendary singer in Brazil), Raul Seixas (maybe the most legendary rock singer), Marcelo Nova (friend of raul seixas, sang along with him), Luiz Caldas (famous singer in the 1980s), Dinho (de Mamonas Assassinas) (one of the greatest parody singers in the history of the country), Netinho (the best axé singer in the history of the country), Carla Perez (singer and sex symbol), Dorival Caymmi, Joao Gilberto, Bira (de Sexteto do Jô) and Carlinhos Brown.

The city of Salvador is also home to groups known as "blocos-afros", including Olodum, Ara Ketu, É o Tchan!, and Ilê Aiyê. Additionally, groups such as Chiclete com Banana also are based in Bahia. The first well-known rock'n roll singer in Brazil was also from Bahia. Born Raul Seixas, he was known as "Maluco Beleza" or "Peaceful Lunatic" (being "beleza (beauty)" in this manner means to be either "in peace" or "tranquil").

During the 19th century, one of Brazil's greatest poets, the Bahian abolitionist poet and playwright Castro Alves, a native of the recôncavo city of Cachoeira, penned his poem, Navio negreiro, about slavery; the poem is considered a masterpiece of Brazilian Romanticism and a central anti-slavery text.

Other notable Bahian writers include playwright and screenwriter Dias Gomes, Gregório de Matos, who wrote during the 17th century and was one of the first Brazilian writers, and Fr. António Vieira, who during the colonial period was one of many authors who contributed to the expansion of the Portuguese language throughout the Brazilian territory.

One of Brazil's most prominent writers of the 20th century, Jorge Amado, was born in the southeastern Bahian city of Itabuna, and resided for many years in Salvador. His major novels include Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon; Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands; and Tieta, the Goat Girl, all of which became internationally renowned films. Other notable authors from Bahia include the fiction writers João Ubaldo Ribeiro and historic writer Euclides da Cunha, who wrote "Os Sertões". In the visual and plastic arts, one of the best known Bahian figures was the multigenre artist and Argentinian native Hector Julio Páride Bernabó, also known as Carybé (1911–1997). Fine examples of his work are visible in the Afro-Brazilian Museum in Salvador.

CarnivalEdit

The 'Trio-Elétricos' sweep up whoever is in Salvador during Carnival. The 'Trio-Elétricos', floats with amplifiers used as moving stages, pass through three official circuits. Behind them, more than 2 million merrymakers dance along 25 km (16 mi) of streets and avenues. Osmar's float goes from Campo Grande to Castro Alves square, in the town centre; Dodô's float, goes from Farol da Barra to Ondina, along the coast; and Batatinha's float goes across the Pelourinho. The first is the oldest circuit. It is also where the event's most traditional groups parade.[citation needed]

EconomyEdit

 
Cocoa in Ilhéus
 
Coconut in Caetité
 
Sugarcane in Bahia
 
Soy plantation in Barreiras

In 2004, Bahia comprised 4.9% of the economic activity of Brazil and it has the biggest GDP of the states of the North and Northeast. The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 48.5%, followed by the service sector at 40.8%. Agriculture represents 10.7% of GDP (2004). Bahia exports: chemicals 22.4%, fuel 17.5%, mineral metallics 13%, paper 9.4%, cacao 5.6%, vehicles 4.8%, soybean 4.5% (2002). In addition to important agricultural and industrial sectors, the state also has considerable mineral and petroleum deposits. In recent years, soy cultivation has increased substantially in the state. Bahia is the sixth largest economy in the country.

During the colonial and imperial periods, Bahia was a center of Brazilian sugarcane production and slave trading. In the 19th century, the Bay of All Saints was also a whaling spot, as some species of whales used the bay as a mating ground.[citation needed] By that time, the province was also growing cotton, coffee, and tobacco with great success.[6] mandioc, rice, beans, and corn, saffron, oranges, mangoes, and other fruit were grown for local consumption.[6] The arid interior was mostly used for cattle-farming, but this was ruined by a series of droughts caused in part by the custom of starting annual wildfires to improve the grass.[9] Diamonds, gold, and amethysts were panned for in the rivers, while coal was mined on Itaparica.[6] cacao was being farmed by the time of the First World War.[9] As late as the mid-1950s, the Bahian economy could be considered a typical example of the primary-exporting model, which followed the subsistence production. For ten years, this dynamic was led by the cocoa crop, that used to be the state's main product and its most important source of income. With the acceleration of the industrialisation process in the 1970s, which started in the 1950s, the productive structure began to change. This process, which was not limited to the regional market, was inserted in the Brazilian industry matrix through the chemical (specially petrochemical) and metallurgical segment. Consequently, for the last twenty years, it grew more than the national average, due to the fact that the state was previously below the average level. The industrial sector is the main contributor to this growth, when the investments that was being made was in the chemical, petrochemical and automotive segment, and in agroindustry and food production.

In agriculture, the state stands out in the production of cotton, cocoa, soy and tropical fruits such as coconut, papaya, mango, banana and guarana, in addition to also producing sugar cane, orange, beans and cassava, among others.

In 2017, the Northeast Region was the largest producer of coconut in the country, with 74.0% of national production. Bahia produced 351 million fruits, being the leader in the country. However, the sector has been suffering strong competition and losing market to Indonesia, the Philippines and India, the world's largest producers, who even export coconut water to Brazil. In addition to climatic problems, the low productivity of coconut palms in the Northeast Region is the result of factors related to the variety of coconut harvested and the technological level used in coastal regions. In these areas, the semi-extractive cultivation system still prevails, with low fertility and without the adoption of cultural management practices. The three states that have the largest production, Bahia, Sergipe and Ceará, present a yield three times lower than that of Pernambuco, which is in 5th place in the national production. This is because most of the coconut trees in these three states are located in coastal areas and cultivated in semi-extractivist systems.[30]

In the production of cocoa, for a long time, Bahia led the Brazilian production. Today, it is disputing the leadership of national production with the state of Pará. In 2017 Pará obtained the leadership for the first time. In 2019, people from Pará harvested 135 thousand tons of cocoa, and Bahians harvested 130 thousand tons. Bahia's cocoa area is practically three times larger than that of Pará, but Pará's productivity is practically three times greater. Some factors that explain this are: the crops in Bahia are more extractivist, and those in Pará have a more modern and commercial style, in addition to paraenses using more productive and resistant seeds, and their region providing resistance to Witch's broom.[31]

In 2018, the Northeast was in 3rd place among the regions that most produce sugar cane in the country. Brazil is the world's largest producer, with 672.8 million tons harvested this year. The Northeast harvested 45.7 million tons, 6.8% of national production. Alagoas is the largest producer, with 33.3% of Northeastern production (15.2 million tons). Pernambuco is the 2nd largest producer in the Northeast, with 22.7% of the total in the region (10.3 million tons). Paraíba has 11.9% of northeastern production (5.5 million tons) and Bahia, 10.24% of production (4.7 million tons).[32]

Bahia is the 2nd largest producer of cotton in Brazil, losing only to Mato Grosso. In 2019, it harvested 1.5 million tonnes of the product.[33][34][35]

In soy, Brazil produced close to 120 million tons in 2019, being the largest world producer. In 2019, the Northeast produced close to 10.7 million tons, or 9% of the Brazilian total. The largest producer in the Northeast was Bahia (5.3 million tons).[36]

In the production of corn, in 2018 Brazil was the 3rd largest producer in the world, with 82 million tons. The Northeast produced about 8.4% of the country's total. Bahia was the largest producer in the Northeast, with 2.2 million tons.[37][34]

In 2018, the South Region was the main producer of beans with 26.4% of the total, followed by the Midwest (25.4%), Southeast Region (25.1%), Northeast (20.6%) and North (2.5%). The largest producers in the Northeast were Ceará and Bahia.[38][34]

In cassava production, Brazil produced a total of 17.6 million tons in 2018. Maranhão was the 7th largest producer in the country, with 681 thousand tons. Ceará was 9th, with 622 thousand tons. Bahia was 10th with 610 thousand tons. In total, the northeast produced 3,5 million tons.[39]

About orange, Bahia was the 4th largest producer in Brazil in 2018, with a total of 604 thousand tons, 3,6% of the national production.[40]

Bahia is the second largest fruit producer in the country, with more than 3.3 million tons a year, behind São Paulo. The north of Bahia is one of the main fruit suppliers in the country. The State is one of the main national producers of ten types of fruit. In 2017, Bahia led the production of cajarana, coconut, count fruit or pinecone, soursop, umbu, jackfruit, licuri, mango and passion fruit, and is in second place in cocoa almond, atemoia, cupuaçu, lime and lemon, and third in banana, carambola, guava, papaya, watermelon, melon, cherry, pomegranate and table grapes. In all, 34 products from Bahia's fruit culture have an important participation in the national economy.[41][42]

Rio Grande do Norte is the largest producer of melon in the country. In 2017 it produced 354 thousand tons. The Northeast region accounted for 95.8% of the country's production in 2007. In addition to Rio Grande do Norte, which in 2005 produced 45.4% of the country's total, the other 3 largest in the country were Ceará, Bahia and Pernambuco.[43][44]

In the production of papaya, in 2018 Bahia was the 2nd largest producer state in Brazil, almost equaling with Espírito Santo: 337 thousand tons.[45]

Bahia was the largest producer of mango in the country in 2019, with production of around 281 thousand tons per year. Juazeiro (130 thousand tons per year) and Casa Nova (54 thousand tons per year) are at the top of the list of Brazilian cities that lead the cultivation of fruit.[41]

In the production of banana, in 2018 Bahia was the 2nd largest national producer.[46]

 
Goats in Araci
 
Alstom factory in Camaçari
 
Hydrogen Unit at the Camaçari Petrochemical Complex

Bahia is the largest Brazilian producer of guaraná. In 2017, Brazilian production was close to 3.3 million tons. Bahia harvested 2.3 million (mainly in the city of Taperoá), Amazonas 0.7 million (mainly in the city of Maués) and the rest of the country, 0.3 million. Despite the fact that the fruit originated in the Amazon, since 1989 Bahia has beaten Amazonas in terms of production volume and guarana productivity, due to the fact that the soil in Bahia is more favorable, in addition to the absence of diseases in the region. The most famous users of the product, however, acquire 90% to 100% of their guarana from the Amazon region, such as Ambev and Coca-Cola. Bahian guarana prices are well below those of other states, but Sudam's tax exemptions lead the beverage industry to prefer to purchase seeds in the North, which helps maintain the highest added value of Amazonian guarana. The pharmaceutical industries and importers, on the other hand, buy more guarana from Bahia, due to the price.[47]

The Northeast region housed 93.2% of the brazilian goat herd (8,944,461 heads) and 64.2% of the sheep herd (11,544,939 heads) in 2017. Bahia concentrated 30.9% of the goat herd and 20.9% of the national sheep herd. Casa Nova took first place in the municipal ranking with the largest numbers of both species.[48]

In 2017, Bahia had 1.68% of the national mineral participation (4th place in the country). Bahia had production of gold (6.2 tons at a value of R$ 730 million), copper (56 thousand tons, at a value of R$ 404 million); chrome (520 thousand tons, at a value of R$ 254 million) and vanadium (358 thousand tons, at a value of R$ 91 million).[49]

Bahia had an industrial GDP of R$ 53.0 billion in 2017, equivalent to 4.4% of the national industry. It employs 356,997 workers in the industry. The main industrial sectors are: Construction (24.8%), Industrial Services of Public Utility, such as Electricity and Water (15.0%), Petroleum Derivatives and Biofuels (13.8%), Chemicals (9.4%), and Food (6.1%). These 5 sectors concentrate 69.1% of the state's industry.[50]

Bahian industry have automobile and tyre industries, footwear and textiles, furniture, food and beverages, cosmetics and perfumes, information technology and naval sectors.

In Brazil, the automotive sector represents close to 22% of industrial GDP. Bahia has a Ford factory.[51][52] It was created in Camaçari (2001). The Bahian automotive sector, led by Ford was in 2005 the third largest contributor (14.6%) to the Bahian GDP.

Chemical and petrochemicalEdit

Bahia's Petrochemical Pole is the largest integrated complex in the Southern Hemisphere, and is the result of R$10 billion in investments, accounting for a third of the state's exports and for nearly half of the industrial production value.

Reconcavo BasinEdit

The Reconcavo Basin has been a principal petroleum-producing region, mainly from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Bahia Supergroup, since 1939 and contains the Agua Grande Field (discovered in 1951 by the Conselho Nacional de Petroleo and producing from the Sergei and Candeias Formations at about 1 km depth and the shallower Ilhas Formation), the Dom Joao Field (discovered in 1947 by the Conselho Nacional de Petroleo and producing from the Sergei Formation at a depth of about 200 m), the Miranga Field (discovered in 1965 by Petrobras producing from the Ilhas Formation at a depth of about 1 km), the Candeias Field (discovered in 1941 by Conselho Nacional de Petroleo and producing from the Candeias Formation at a depth ranging from 690–2400 m), the Buracica Field (discovered in 1959 by Petrobras and producing from the Sergi Formation at about 600 m depth), and the Taquipe Field (discovered in 1958 by Petrobras and producing from the Ilhas Formation).[53]

 
Airport of Ilhéus.

Other market segmentsEdit

Agribusiness; Footwear; Call Centers; Informatics, Electronics, and Telecommunications; Nautical; Paper and Pulp; Textiles; Plastic Transformation; and Tourism.

TourismEdit

Bahia's long coastline, beaches and cultural treasures make it one of Brazil's chief tourist destinations. In addition to the island of Itaparica, the town of Morro de São Paulo across the Bay on the northernmost tip of the southern coastline, and the large number of beaches between Ilhéus and Porto Seguro, on the southeastern coast, the littoral area north of Salvador, stretching towards the border with Sergipe, has become an important tourist destination.[citation needed] The Costa do Sauípe contains one of the largest resort hotel developments in Brazil and South America.[citation needed]

Public investmentEdit

 
Transports in the state.

The State of Bahia has been assigning a significant part of its revenues to public investments. The investment programs of the state have been backed basically by its own resources and, in a complementary fashion, with resources originating from credit operations signed with international organizations (World Bank, IDB, KFW, OECF, etc.), and with national creditors (CEF, BNDES, etc.). There are governmental investments in progress in the fields of environmental and urban sanitation (Bahia Azul), popular housing (Viver Melhor), transportation (Corredores Rodoviários), tourism (Prodetur), urban development (Produr), and regional development (Sertão Forte).

InfrastructureEdit

AirportEdit

Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport is located in an area of more than 6 million square meters (1,500 acres). It lies 20 km (12 mi) north of downtown Salvador. In 2007, the airport handled 5,920,573 passengers and 91,043 aircraft movements,[54] making it the fifth busiest airport in Brazil in terms of passengers. It's responsible for more than 30% of passenger movement in northeastern Brazil. Nearly 35,000 people circulate daily through the passenger terminal. The airport generates more than 16,000 direct and indirect jobs, to serve a daily average of over 10,000 passengers, 250 takeoffs and landings of 100 domestic and 16 international flights.

The international airlines are Lufthansa, TAP, United Airlines, American Airlines, Alitália, Air France, Air Europa, Ibéria, Aerolíneas Argentinas, LanChile. In addition to domestic and regional services, the airport has non-stop flights to Lisbon, Madrid, Frankfurt, Montevideo, London, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Asunción and Miami. Its IATA airport code is SSA and it is the sixth busiest airport in the country, the first in northeastern Brazil, behind Congonhas International, Guarulhos International, Juscelino Kubitschek International, Santos Dumont Regional and Galeão International.

Bahia also has some smaller modern regional airports like Ilhéus Jorge Amado Airport or Porto Seguro Airport.

HighwaysEdit

 
BR-101 in Ubaitaba
 
Hydroelectric plant of Paulo Afonso

The state has its transportation based on highways, with few options in other sectors. The main highways in the state are all from the Federal Government:

Also noteworthy is the BR-030, which crosses the south of Bahia in an east-west direction.

PortEdit

With cargo volume that grows year after year following the same economic development rhythm implemented in the State, the Port of Salvador, located on the Bay of All Saints, holds status as the port with the highest movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruit exporter in Brazil. The port's facilities operate from 8am to noon and from 1h30am to 5h30pm.

The ability to handle high shipping volume has positioned the port of Salvador for new investments in technological modernization, and the port is noted for implementing a high level of operational flexibility and competitive rates. The goal of port officials is to offer the necessary infrastructure for the movement of goods, while simultaneously meeting the needs of international importers and exporters.

SportsEdit

Football is the most popular sport. The two most popular football teams are Esporte Clube Bahia and Esporte Clube Vitoria. In 2013, Bahia and Vitoria play in the Brazilian Championship Serie A (first division/premier league). Bahia has won the two most important football national league: The Taça Brasil in 1959 and the Brazilian Championship Serie A (Campeonato Brasileiro) in 1988. Vitoria has never been a national champion but was runner up of the Brazilian Serie A in 1993.

Bahia is renowned for its mixed martial arts fans, with prominent fighters from this state including former heavyweight champion of both Pride Fighting Championship and Ultimate Fighting Championship Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira, his twin brother Antônio Rogério Nogueira, and former Ultimate Fighting Championship Heavyweight Champion Junior dos Santos. In the sport of boxing, Bahian native Acelino Freitas has won the WBC belt in the lightweight class. In the Capoeira world, the actor and Capoeira Master, Lateef Crowder dos Santos is an American born in Salvador, Bahia.

Salvador was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil was the host nation.

FlagEdit

The flag was officially adopted on 11 June 1960. The Bahian flag is influenced by the flag of the United States, as well as colors and symbolism from the 1789 separatist movement of Inconfidência Mineira and the 1798 Bahian slave rebellion of the Revolt of the Tailors.[55]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The common Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation is [bɐˈiˑ.jɐ]. In European Portuguese the pronunciation is [bɐˈi.ɐ]. The h is not pronounced: its purpose in Portuguese orthography is to indicate that the stress is on the i (otherwise, it would be the semivowel /j/, as the English letter y when representing a consonant, and the stress should be in the ba).

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ "Estimativa da população do Brasil passa de 210 milhões, diz IBGE". Agência Brasil. Aug 28, 2019. Retrieved Aug 5, 2020.
  4. ^ "Produto Interno Bruto - PIB | IBGE". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved Aug 5, 2020.
  5. ^   Baynes, T. S., ed. (1878), "Bahia (1.)" , Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 239–240
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i EB (1878).
  7. ^ Lamoureaux, Andrew Jackson (1911), "Bahia (state)" , in Chisholm, Hugh (ed.), Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 210
  8. ^ Goh, KJ; Wong, C.K.; Ng, P.H.C. (2017). "Oil Palm": 382–390. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394807-6.00176-3. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ a b c d e f EB (1911).
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  16. ^ Waiselfsz, Julio Jacobo (2015). [file:///E:/Sergipe/Mapa2016_armas_web.pdf Mapa da Violência 2016: Homicídios Por Armas de Fogo no Brasil] Check |url= value (help) (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brasília (DF), Brasil: FLACSO Brasil. Retrieved 2016-12-14.[permanent dead link]
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  35. ^ MT segue como líder isolado na produção de algodão e safra sobe para 65% em 2017/18
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Further readingEdit

  • Collins, John F. (2015), Revolt of the Saints: Memory and Redemption in the Twilight of Brazilian Racial Democracy, Durham: Duke University Press: describes the hotly contested restoration of the Pelourinho, or Salvador, Bahia's colonial city center that is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and links these changes to racial politics in Brazil today.
  • Romo, Anadelia A. (2010), Brazil's Living Museum: Race, Reform, and Tradition in Bahia, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press: covers the period from the abolition of slavery in 1888 to the start of Brazil's military regime in 1964.

External linksEdit