Artemisia Gentileschi

Artemisia Lomi or Artemisia Gentileschi (US: /ˌɛntiˈlɛski/,[1][2] Italian: [arteˈmiːzja dʒentiˈleski]; July 8, 1593 – c. 1656) was an Italian Baroque painter, now considered one of the most accomplished seventeenth-century artists, initially working in the style of Caravaggio. She was producing professional work by the age of fifteen.[3] In an era when women had few opportunities to pursue artistic training or work as professional artists, Artemisia was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence and she had an international clientele.[4][5]

Many of Artemisia's paintings feature women from myths, allegories, and the Bible, including victims, suicides, and warriors.[6] Some of her best known subjects are Susanna and the Elders (particularly the 1610 version in Pommersfelden), Judith Slaying Holofernes (her 1614–1620 version is in the Uffizi gallery), and Judith and Her Maidservant (her version of 1625 is in the Detroit Institute of Arts).

Artemisia was known for being able to depict the female figure with great naturalism,[7][8] and for her skill in handling color to express dimension and drama.[9][10]

Her achievements as an artist were long overshadowed by the story of her rape by Agostino Tassi when she was a young woman and her participation in the trial of her rapist.[11] For many years Artemisia was regarded as a curiosity, but her life and art have been reexamined by scholars in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and she is now regarded as one of the most progressive and expressive painters of her generation. Now she is being given recognition for her talents alone and major exhibitions at internationally esteemed fine art institutions, such as the National Gallery in London.[12]

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

 
Susanna and the Elders, 1610, earliest of her surviving works, Schönborn Collection, Pommersfelden

Artemisia Lomi Gentileschi was born in Rome on July 8, 1593, although her birth certificate from the Archivio di Stato indicated she was born in 1590. She was the eldest child of Prudenzia di Ottaviano Montoni and the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi.[13] Orazio Gentileschi was a painter from Pisa. After his arrival in Rome his painting reached its expressive peak, taking inspiration from the innovations of Caravaggio, from which he derived the habit of painting real models, without idealizing or sweetening them and, indeed, transfiguring them into a powerful and realistic drama. Baptized two days after her birth in the church of San Lorenzo in Lucina, little Artemisia became orphan of her mother in 1605. It was probably at this time that she approached painting: Artemisia was introduced to painting in her father's workshop, showing much more enthusiasm and talent than her brothers, who worked alongside her. She learned drawing, how to mix colour, and how to paint. "By 1612, when she was not yet nineteen years old, her father could boast of her exemplary talents, claiming that in the profession of painting, which she had practised for three years, she had no peer."[3]

During that period her father's style took inspiration from Caravaggio, so her style was also strongly influenced by him. Artemisia's approach to subject matter was different from that of her father, however. Her paintings are highly naturalistic; Orazio's are idealized. At the same time, Artemisia had to overcome the "traditional attitude and psychological submission to this brainwashing and jealousy of her obvious talent".[14] By doing so, she gained great respect and recognition for her work.[5]

Her earliest surviving work, by seventeen-year-old Artemisia, is the Susanna and the Elders (1610, Schönborn collection in Pommersfelden). The painting depicts the Biblical story of Susanna. The painting shows how Artemisia assimilated the realism of and effects used by Caravaggio without being indifferent to the classicism of Annibale Carracci and the Bolognese School of Baroque style.

Rape by Agostino TassiEdit

 
Salome with the Head of Saint John the Baptist, c. 1610–1615, Budapest

In 1611, Orazio was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino delle Muse inside the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi in Rome. One day in May, Tassi visited the Orazio household and, when alone with Artemisia, raped her.[11][15] Another man, Cosimo Quorli, was involved in the rape as well.[16]

With the expectation that they were going to be married in order to restore her dignity and secure her future, Artemisia started to have sexual relations with Tassi after the rape, but he reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia. Nine months after the rape, when he learnt that Artemisia and Tassi were not going to be married, her father Orazio pressed charges against Tassi.[11] Orazio also accused Tassi of stealing a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household. The major issue of the trial was the fact that Tassi had taken Artemisia's virginity. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, by the existing laws the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges.

During the ensuing seven-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi had planned to murder his wife, had engaged in adultery with his sister-in-law, and planned to steal some of Orazio's paintings. At the end of the trial Tassi was exiled from Rome, although the sentence was never carried out.[17] At the trial, Artemisia was tortured with thumbscrews with the intention of verifying her testimony.[18]

After the loss of her mother at age 12, Artemisia had been surrounded mainly by males. When Artemisia was 17, Orazio rented the upstairs apartment of their home to a female tenant, Tuzia. Artemisia befriended Tuzia; however, Tuzia allowed Agostino Tassi and Cosimo Quorli to accompany Artemisia in Artemisia's home on multiple occasions. The day the rape occurred, Artemisia cried out to Tuzia for the help, but Tuzia simply ignored Artemisia and pretended she knew nothing of what happened. Tuzia's betrayal and role in facilitating the rape has been compared to the role of a procuress who is complicit in the sexual exploitation of a prostitute.[19]

A painting entitled Mother and Child that was discovered in Crow's Nest, Australia, in 1976, may or may not have been painted by Artemisia.[20] Presuming that it is her work, the baby has been interpreted as an indirect reference to Agostino Tassi, her rapist, as it dates to 1612, just two years after the rape. It depicts a strong and suffering woman and casts light on her anguish and expressive artistic capability.[21][22]

Florentine period (1612–1620)Edit

A month after the trial, Orazio arranged for his daughter to marry Pierantonio Stiattesi, a modest artist from Florence. Shortly afterward the couple moved to Florence. The six years spent in Florence would be decisive for both family life and professional career.[23] Artemisia became a successful court painter, enjoying the patronage of the House of Medici, and playing a significant role in courtly culture of the city. She gave birth to five children, although by the time she left Florence in 1620, only two were still alive.[24] She also embarked on a passionate relationship with the Florentine nobleman Francesco Maria Maringhi.[25]

As an artist, Artemisia enjoyed significant success in Florence. She was the first woman accepted into the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (Academy of the Arts of Drawing). She maintained good relations with the most respected artists of her time, such as Cristofano Allori, and was able to garner the favour and the protection of influential people, beginning with Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and especially, of the Grand Duchess, Christina of Lorraine. Her acquaintance with Galileo Galilei, evident from a letter she wrote to the scientist in 1635, appears to stem from her Florentine years; indeed it may have stimulated her depiction of the compass in the Allegory of Inclination.[26]

Her involvement in the courtly culture in Florence not only provided access to patrons, but it widened her education and exposure to the arts. She learned to read and write and became familiar with musical and theatrical performances. Such artistic spectacles helped Artemisia's approach to depicting lavish clothing in her paintings: "Artemisia understood that the representation of biblical or mythological figures in contemporary dress... was an essential feature of the spectacle of courtly life."[27]

 
Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1614–1620, 199×162 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

In 1615, she received the attention of Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger (a younger relative of Michelangelo). Busy with the construction of the Casa Buonarroti to celebrate his noted great uncle, he asked Artemisia—along with other Florentine artists, including Agostino Ciampelli, Sigismondo Coccapani, Giovan Battista Guidoni, and Zanobi Rosi—to contribute a painting for the ceiling. Artemisia was then in an advanced state of pregnancy.[28] Each artist was commissioned to present an allegory of a virtue associated with Michelangelo, and Artemisia was assigned the Allegory of Inclination. In this instance, Artemisia was paid three times more than any other artist participating in the series.[28] Artemisia painted this in the form of a nude young woman holding a compass. Her painting is located on the Galleria ceiling on the second floor. It is believed that the subject bears a resemblance to Artemisia.[28] Indeed, in several of her paintings, Artemisia's energetic heroines resemble her as self-portraits.

Other significant works from this period include La Conversione della Maddalena (The Conversion of the Magdalene), Self-Portrait as a Lute Player (in the collection of the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art), and Giuditta con la sua ancella (Judith and her Maidservant), now in the Palazzo Pitti. Artemisia painted a second version of Judith beheading Holofernes, which now is housed in the Uffizi Gallery of Florence. The first, smaller Judith Beheading Holofernes (1612–13) is displayed in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Six variations by Artemisia on the subject of Judith Beheading Holofernes are known to exist.[28]

 
Self portrait as Saint Catherine of Alexandria, 1619

While in Florence, Artemisia and Pierantonio had five children. Giovanni Battista, Agnola, and Lisabella did not survive for more than a year. Their second son, Cristofano, died at the age of five after Artemisia had returned to Rome. Only Prudentia survived into adulthood.[29] Prudentia was also known as Palmira, which has led some scholars to conclude erroneously that Artemisia had a sixth child. Prudentia was named after Artemisia's mother, who had died when Artemisia was 12. It is known that Artemisia's daughter was a painter and was trained by her mother, although nothing is known of her work.[30]

In 2011, Francesco Solinas discovered a collection of thirty-six letters, dating from about 1616 to 1620, that add startling context to personal and financial life of the Gentileschi family in Florence.[31] They show that Artemisia had a passionate love affair with a wealthy Florentine nobleman, named Francesco Maria Maringhi. Her husband, Pierantonio Stiattesi, was well aware of their relationship and he maintained a correspondence with Maringhi on the back of Artemisia's love letters. He tolerated it, presumably because Maringhi was a powerful ally who provided the couple financial support. However, by 1620, rumours of the affair had begun to spread in the Florentine court and this, combined with ongoing legal and financial problems, led them to relocate to Rome.[27]

Return to Rome (1620–1626/7)Edit

Just as with the preceding decade, the early 1620s saw ongoing upheaval in Artemisia's life. Her son Cristofano died. Just as she arrived in Rome, her father Orazio departed for Genoa. Immediate contact with her lover Maringhi appeared to have lessened. By 1623, any mention of her husband disappears from any surviving documentation.[32]

Her arrival in Rome offered the opportunity to cooperate with other painters and to seek patronage from the wide network of art collectors in the city, opportunities that Artemisia fully grasped. One art historian noted of the period, "Artemisia's Roman career quickly took off, the money problems eased".[33] Large-scale papal commissions were largely off-limits, however. The long papacy of Urban VIII showed a preference for large-scale decorative works and altarpieces, typified by the baroque style of Pietro da Cortona. Artemisia's training in easel paintings, and perhaps the suspicion that women painters did not have the energy to carry out large-scale painting cycles, meant that the ambitious patrons within Urban's VIII circle commissioned other artists.

But Rome hosted a wide range of patrons. Spanish resident, Fernando Afan de Ribera, the 3rd Duke of Alcala, added her painting of the Magdalen and David, Christ Blessing the Children to his collection.[32] During the same period she became associated with Cassiano dal Pozzo, a humanist and a collector and lover of arts. Dal Pozzo helped to forge relationships with other artists and patrons. Her reputation grew. The visiting French artist Pierre Dumonstier II produced a black and red chalk drawing of her right hand in 1625.[34]

The variety of patrons in Rome also meant a variety of styles. Caravaggio's style remained highly influential and converted many painters to following his style (the so-called Caravaggisti), such as Carlo Saraceni (who returned to Venice in 1620), Bartolomeo Manfredi, and Simon Vouet. Artemisia and Vouet would go on to have a professional relationship and would influence each other's styles.[35] Vouet would go on to complete a portrait of Artemisia. Artemisia also interacted with the Bentveughels group of Flemish and Dutch painters living in Rome. The Bolognese school (particularly during the 1621 to 1623 period of Gregory XV) also began to grow in popularity, and Artemisia's Susanna and the Elders (1622) often is associated with the style introduced by Guercino.[33]

Although it is sometimes difficult to date her paintings, it is possible to assign certain works by Artemisia to these years, such as the Portrait of a Gonfaloniere, today in Bologna (a rare example of her capacity as portrait painter) and the Judith and her Maidservant today in the Detroit Institute of Arts. The Detroit painting is notable for her mastery of chiaroscuro and tenebrism (the effects of extreme lights and darks), techniques for which Gerrit van Honthorst and many others in Rome were famous.

Three Years in Venice (1626/7–1630)Edit

 
Esther before Ahasuerus, c. 1628–1635

The absence of sufficient documentation makes it difficult to follow Artemisia's movements in the late 1620s. However, It is certain that between 1626 and 1627, she moved to Venice, perhaps in search of richer commissions. Many verses and letters were composed in appreciation of her and her works in Venice. Knowledge of her commissions during the time is vague, but her The Sleeping Venus, today in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, and her Esther and Ahasuerus now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, are testimony to her assimilation of the lessons of Venetian colourism.

Naples and the English period (1630–1656)Edit

In 1630, Artemisia moved to Naples, a city rich with workshops and art lovers, in search of new and more lucrative job opportunities. The eighteenth-century biographer Bernardo de' Dominici speculated that Artemisia was already known in Naples before her arrival.[36] She may have been invited to Naples by the Duke of Alcalá, Fernando Enriquez Afan de Ribera, who had three of her paintings: a Penitent Magdalene, Christ Blessing the Children, and David with a Harp.[37] Many other artists, including Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, and Simon Vouet, had stayed in Naples for some time in their lives. At that time, Jusepe de Ribera, Massimo Stanzione, and Domenichino were working there, and later, Giovanni Lanfranco and many others would flock to the city. The Neapolitan debut of Artemisia is represented by the Annunciation in the Capodimonte Museum.[37] With the exceptions of a brief trip to London and some other journeys, Artemisia resided in Naples for the remainder of her career.

 
Cleopatra, 1633–35

On Saturday, March 18, 1634, the traveller Bullen Reymes recorded in his diary visiting Artemisia and her daughter, Palmira ('who also paints'), with a group of fellow-Englishmen.[38] She had relations with many renowned artists, among them Massimo Stanzione, with whom, Bernardo de' Dominici reports, she started an artistic collaboration based on a real friendship and artistic similarities. Artemisia's work influenced Stanzione's use of colors, as seen in his Assumption of the Virgin, c. 1630. De' Dominici states that "Stanzione learned how to compose an istoria from Domenichino, but learned his coloring from Artemisia".[36]

In Naples Artemisia started working on paintings in a cathedral for the first time. They are dedicated to San Gennaro nell'anfiteatro di Pozzuoli (Saint Januarius in the amphitheater of Pozzuoli) in Pozzuoli. During her first Neapolitan period she painted the Birth of Saint John the Baptist now in the Prado in Madrid, and Corisca e il satiro (Corisca and the Satyr), in a private collection. In these paintings Artemisia again demonstrates her ability to adapt to the novelties of the period and to handle different subjects, instead of the usual Judith, Susanna, Bathsheba, and Penitent Magdalenes, for which she already was known. Many of these paintings were collaborations; Bathsheba, for instance, was attributed to Artemisia, Codazzi, and Gargiulo.[37]

In 1638, Artemisia joined her father in London at the court of Charles I of England, where Orazio had become court painter and received the important job of decorating a ceiling allegory of Triumph of Peace and the Arts in the Queen's House, Greenwich built for Queen Henrietta Maria. Father and daughter were working together once again, although helping her father probably was not her only reason for travelling to London: Charles I had invited her to his court, and it was not possible to refuse. Charles I was an enthusiastic collector, willing to incur criticism for his spending on art. The fame of Artemisia probably intrigued him, and it is not a coincidence that his collection included a painting of great suggestion, the Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, which is the lead image of this article.

 
Bathsheba, c. 1645–1650, Neues Palais, Potsdam

Orazio died suddenly in 1639. Artemisia had her own commissions to fulfill after her father's death, although there are no known works assignable with certainty to this period. It is known that Artemisia had left England by 1642, when the English Civil War was just starting. Nothing much is known about her subsequent movements. Historians know that in 1649 she was in Naples again, corresponding with Don Antonio Ruffo of Sicily, who became her mentor during this second Neapolitan period. The last known letter to her mentor is dated 1650 and makes clear that she still was fully active.

In her last known years of activity she is attributed with works that are likely commissions and follow a traditional representation of the feminine in her works.[39]

It was once believed that Artemisia died in 1652 or 1653;[6] however, modern evidence has shown that she was still accepting commissions in 1654, although she was increasingly dependent upon her assistant, Onofrio Palumbo.[40] Some have speculated that she died in the devastating plague that swept Naples in 1656 and virtually wiped out an entire generation of Neapolitan artists.

Some works in this period are the Susanna and the Elders (1622) today in Brno, the Virgin and Child with a Rosary today in El Escorial, the David and Bathsheba today in Columbus, Ohio, and the Bathsheba today in Leipzig.

Her 'David with the Head of Goliath', rediscovered in London in 2020, has been attributed by art historian Gianni Papi to Artemisia's London period, in an article published in The Burlington Magazine.[41][42][43][44][45]

Artistic importanceEdit

The research paper "Gentileschi, padre e figlia" (1916) by Roberto Longhi, an Italian critic, described Artemisia as "the only woman in Italy who ever knew about painting, coloring, drawing, and other fundamentals". Longhi also wrote of Judith Slaying Holofernes: "There are about fifty-seven works by Artemisia Gentileschi and 94% (forty-nine works) feature women as protagonists or equal to men".[46] These include her works of Jael and Sisera, Judith and her Maidservant, and Esther. These characters intentionally lacked the stereotypical "feminine" traits—sensitivity, timidness, and weakness—and were courageous, rebellious, and powerful personalities[47] (such subjects are now grouped under the name the Power of Women). A nineteenth-century critic commented on Artemisia's Magdalene stating, "no one would have imagined that it was the work of a woman. The brush work was bold and certain, and there was no sign of timidness".[46] In Ward Bissell's view, she was well aware of how women and female artists were viewed by men, explaining why her works were so bold and defiant in the beginning of her career.[14]

Longhi wrote:

Who could think in fact that over a sheet so candid, a so brutal and terrible massacre could happen [...] but—it's natural to say—this is a terrible woman! A woman painted all this? ... there's nothing sadistic here, instead what strikes the most is the impassibility of the painter, who was even able to notice how the blood, spurting with violence, can decorate with two drops the central spurt! Incredible I tell you! And also please give Mrs. Schiattesi—the conjugal name of Artemisia—the chance to choose the hilt of the sword! At last don't you think that the only aim of Giuditta is to move away to avoid the blood which could stain her dress? We think anyway that that is a dress of Casa Gentileschi, the finest wardrobe in the Europe during 1600, after Van Dyck."[48][49]

Feminist studies increased the interest in Artemisia Gentileschi, underlining her rape and subsequent mistreatment, and the expressive strength of her paintings of biblical heroines, in which the women are interpreted as willing to manifest their rebellion against their condition. In a research paper from the catalogue of the exhibition "Orazio e Artemisia Gentileschi", which took place in Rome in 2001 (and after in New York), Judith W. Mann critiques feminist opinion of Artemisia, finding that old stereotypes of Artemisia as sexually immoral have been replaced by new stereotypes established in feminist readings of Artemisia's paintings:

Without denying that sex and gender can offer valid interpretive strategies for the investigation of Artemisia's art, we may wonder whether the application of gendered readings has created too narrow an expectation. Underpinning Garrard's monograph, and reiterated in a limited way by R. Ward Bissell in his catalogue raisonné, are certain presumptions: that Artemisia's full creative power emerged only in the depiction of strong, assertive women, that she would not engage in conventional religious imagery such as the Madonna and Child or a Virgin who responds with submission to the Annunciation, and that she refused to yield her personal interpretation to suit the tastes of her presumable male clientele. This stereotype has had the doubly restricting effect of causing scholars to question the attribution of pictures that do not conform to the model, and to value less highly those that do not fit the mold.[50]

Because Artemisia returned again and again to violent subject matter such as Judith and Holofernes, a repressed-vengeance theory has been postulated by some art historians,[51] but other art historians suggest that she was shrewdly taking advantage of her fame from the rape trial to cater to a niche market in sexually charged, female-dominated art for male patrons.[52]

The most recent critics, starting from the difficult reconstruction of the entire catalogue of the Gentileschi, tried to give a less reductive reading of the career of Artemisia, placing it more accurately in the context of the different artistic environments in which the painter actively participated. A reading such as this restores Artemisia as an artist who fought with determination—using the weapon of personality and of the artistic qualities—against the prejudices expressed against women painters; being able to introduce herself productively in the circle of the most respected painters of her time, embracing a series of pictorial genres that probably were more ample and varied than her paintings suggest.[51]

Feminist perspectivesEdit

Feminist interest in Artemisia Gentileschi dates from the 1970s when the feminist art historian Linda Nochlin published an article entitled "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?" in which that question was dissected and analyzed. The article explored the definition of "great artists" and posited that oppressive institutions, not lack of talent, have prevented women from achieving the same level of recognition that men received in art and other fields. Nochlin said that studies on Artemisia and other women artists were "worth the effort" in "adding to our knowledge of women's achievement and of art history generally."[53] According to the foreword by Douglas Druick in Eve Straussman-Pflanzer's Violence & Virtue: Artemisia's Judith Slaying Holofernes, Nochlin's article prompted scholars to make more of an attempt to "integrate women artists into the history of art and culture."[54]

 
Lucretia, 1620–21

Artemisia and her oeuvre became a focus again, having had little attention in art history scholarship save Roberto Longhi's article "Gentileschi padre e figlia (Gentileschi, father and daughter)" in 1916 and R. Ward Bissell's article "Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology" in 1968. As Artemisia and her work began to garner new attention among art historians and feminists, more literature about her, fictional and biographical, was published. A fictional account of her life by Anna Banti, wife of critic Roberto Longhi, was published in 1947. This account was well received by literary critics, but was criticized by feminists, notably Laura Benedetti, for being lenient in historical accuracy in order to draw parallels between author and artist.[55] The first full, factual account of Artemisia's life, The Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art, was published in 1989 by Mary Garrard, a feminist art historian. She then published a second, smaller book entitled Artemisia Gentileschi around 1622: The Shaping and Reshaping of an Artistic Identity in 2001 that explored the artist's work and identity. Garrard noted that analysis of Artemisia's oeuvre lacks focus and stable categorization outside of "woman", although Garrard questions whether femaleness is a legitimate category by which to judge her art at all.[56]

Artemisia is known for her portrayals of subjects from the Power of Women group, for example her versions of Judith Slaying Holofernes. She is also known for the rape trial in which she was involved, which scholar Griselda Pollock has argued had unfortunately become the repeated "axis of interpretation of the artist's work". Gentileschi's status in popular culture is deemed by Pollock to be due less to her work than to the sensationalism caused by the persistent focus on the rape trial during which she was tortured. Pollock offers a counter reading of the artist's dramatic narrative paintings, refusing to see the Judith and Holofernes images as responses to rape and the trial. Instead, Pollock points out that the subject of Judith and Holofernes is not a revenge theme, but a story of political courage and indeed, collaboration by two women committing a daring political murder in a war situation. Pollock seeks to shift attention from sensationalism toward deeper analysis of Gentileschi's paintings, notably of death and loss, suggesting the significance of her childhood bereavement as a source of her singular images of the dying Cleopatra. Pollock also argues that Gentileschi's success in the seventeenth century depended on her producing paintings for patrons, often portraying subjects they selected that reflected contemporary tastes and fashions. She aims to place Gentileschi's career in its historical context of taste for dramatic narratives of heroines from the Bible or classical sources.[57]

In a more negative vein, American professor Camille Paglia has argued that modern feminist preoccupation with Artemisia is misguided and that her accomplishments have been overstated: "Artemisia Gentileschi was simply a polished, competent painter in a Baroque style created by men."[58] Nonetheless, according to The National Gallery, Artemisia worked "in Rome, Florence, Venice, Naples, and London, for the highest echelons of European society, including the Grand Duke of Tuscany and Philip IV of Spain".

Feminist literature tends to revolve around the event of Artemisia's rape, largely portraying her as a traumatized, but noble survivor whose work became characterized by sex and violence as a result of her experience. Pollock (2006) interpreted the film by Agnès Merlet as a typical example of the inability of popular culture to look at the painter's remarkable career over many decades and in many major centres of art, rather than this one episode. A literature review by Laura Benedetti, "Reconstructing Artemisia: Twentieth Century Images of a Woman Artist", concluded that Artemisia's work is often interpreted according to the contemporary issues and personal biases of the authors. Feminist scholars, for example, have elevated Artemisia to the status of feminist icon, which Benedetti attributed to Artemisia's paintings of formidable women and her success as an artist in a male-dominated field while also being a single mother.[55] Elena Ciletti, author of Gran Macchina a Bellezza, wrote that "The stakes are very high in Artemisia's case, especially for feminists, because we have invested in her so much of our quest for justice for women, historically and currently, intellectually and politically."[59]

Feminist scholars suggest that Artemisia wanted to take a stand against the stereotype of female submissiveness. One example of this symbolism appears in her Corisca and the Satyr, created between 1630 and 1635. In the painting, a nymph runs away from a satyr. The satyr attempts to grab the nymph by her hair, but the hair is a wig. Here, Artemisia depicts the nymph to be quite clever and to be actively resisting the aggressive attack of the satyr.

Contemporary female paintersEdit

For a woman at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Artemisia being a painter represented an uncommon and difficult choice, but not an exceptional one. Artemisia was aware of "her position as a female artist and the current representations of women's relationship to art."[60] This is evident in her allegorical self portrait, Self Portrait as La Pittura, which shows Artemisia as a muse, "symbolic embodiment of the art" and as a professional artist.[60]

Before Artemisia, between the end of the 1500 and the beginning of 1600, other women painters had successful careers, including Sofonisba Anguissola (born in Cremona around 1530). Later Fede Galizia (born in Milano or Trento in 1578) painted still lifes and a Judith with the Head of Holofernes.

Italian Baroque painter Elisabetta Sirani was another female artist from this same time period. Sirani's painting "Allergory Painting of Clio" shares a common color scheme with Artemisia's work. Elisabetta was popular for a brief period of time, but she was recognized.

Other women painters also began their careers while Artemisia was alive. Judged on their artistic merits, Longhi's statement that Artemisia was "the only woman in Italy who ever knew about painting" is clearly false.

There is no doubt that Artemisia continues to be among the most highly regarded of women artists, and she has attained her place among the great Baroque artists.

In popular cultureEdit

In novels and fictionEdit

 
Samson and Delilah, c. 1630–1638
  • The first writer who produced a novel around the figure of Artemisia may have been George Eliot in Romola (1862–63), where some aspects of Artemisia's story, while set in the Florence in her time, are recognizable, but much embroidered.
  • A later and clearer use of Artemisia's story appears in Anna Banti's Artemisia. Banti's book is written in an "open diary" format, in which she maintains a dialogue with Artemisia.
  • Susan Vreeland published The Passion of Artemisia (2002), a biographical novel based on her life.[61]
  • She appears in Eric Flint's Ring of Fire alternate history series, being mentioned in 1634: The Galileo Affair (2004) and figuring prominently in 1635: The Dreeson Incident (2008), as well as appearing in a number of shorter stories in the 1632 universe.
  • The novel Maestra (2016) by L.S. Hilton includes Artemisia as a central reference for the main character, and several of her paintings are discussed.
  • The novel Salem's Cipher (2016) by Jess Lourey used Artemisia's painting Judith Beheading Holofernes to send a clue.

In the theatreEdit

  • Artemisia, and more specifically her painting Judith Beheading Holofernes, are referred to in Wendy Wasserstein's play The Heidi Chronicles (1988), in which the main character, Heidi, lectures about it as part of her art history course on female painters. At the end of the play, Heidi adopts a daughter she names Judy, which is at least a partial reference to the painting.
  • Canadian playwright Sally Clark wrote several stage plays based on the events leading up to and following the rape of Artemisia. Life Without Instruction, commissioned by Nightwood Theatre in 1988, premiered at Theatre Plus Toronto on August 2, 1991.
  • Blood Water Paint, a play by Joy McCullough, was turned into the novel Blood Water Paint (2017) by the same author. Productions of the play were performed in Seattle in 2015 and 2019.[62][63][64]
  • Breach Theatre's It's True, It's True, It's True (2018) is a play derived from the transcripts of the trial, translated from Latin and Italian into conversational English, and was first performed at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, where it won The Stage Edinburgh award and a Fringe First award.[65] After touring the UK, it was then broadcast on BBC Four on 9 February 2020 and was available on BBC iPlayer until 11 March 2020.[65]
  • The Anthropologists, a theater company in New York City, created a solo show, Artemisia’s Intent, inspired by the life of Artemisia Gentileschi.[66]
  • The speculative nonfiction opera entitled Artemisia, with music by Laura Schwendinger and libretto by Ginger Strand, was performed in New York by Trinity Wall Street at St. Paul's Chapel with Christopher Alden, director and Lidiya Yankovskaya, conductor, March 7 and 9, 2019; and in San Francisco by the Left Coast Chamber Ensemble, June 1 and 2, 2019.[67]

In televisionEdit

  • Artemisia's life and the Judith Slaying Holofernes painting played a pivotal role in the ITV miniseries Painted Lady (1997), starring Helen Mirren.[61]
  • An episode of the British television crime series Endeavour (2018) depicts a series of murders inspired by Artemisia's biblical paintings of women taking vengeance on the men who harmed or abused them.[61]

In other artworksEdit

In cinemaEdit

  • The film Artemisia (1997), by Agnès Merlet, tells the story of Artemisia's entry into being a professional artist, her relationship with Tassi, and the trial. Merlet exonerates Tassi of rape, however, not only by depicting their sex as loving and consensual (which was controversial when the film was released), but also by two ahistorical fabrications: Artemisia denies the rape under torture, while Tassi falsely confesses to rape to stop Artemisia's torment.

On the webEdit

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ "Gentileschi". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  2. ^ "Gentileschi". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Garrard (1989), p. 13.
  4. ^ Gunnell, Barbara (July 4, 1993), "The rape of Artemisia", The Independent, archived from the original on 28 December 2014, retrieved December 28, 2014
  5. ^ a b Bissell (1999), p. [page needed].
  6. ^ a b Lubbock, Tom (September 30, 2005), "Great Works: Judith and her Maidservant", The Independent, London, p. 30, Review section, archived from the original on May 2, 2015
  7. ^ Patrizia Cavazzini, "Artemisia in Her Father's House", in Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi (New Haven and London, 2001), pp. 283–295.
  8. ^ Mary D. Garrard, "Artemisia Gentileschi's Self Portrait as the Allegory of Painting", The Art Bulletin, Vol. 62, No.1 (Mar.,1980) pp. 97–112.
  9. ^ Adelina Modesti, "'Il Pennello Virile': Elisabetta Sirani and Artemisia Gentileschi as Masculinized Painters?" in Artemisia Gentileschi in a Changing Light, ed. Shelia Barker (Turnhout, 2018)
  10. ^ Jesse Locker, "Artemisia in the Eyes of the Neapolitan Poets," from Artemisia Gentileschi: The Language of Painting (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)
  11. ^ a b c Cohen (2000).
  12. ^ Davis-Marks, Isis, Why a Long-Awaited Artemisia Gentileschi Exhibition Is So Significant, Smithsonian, October 2, 2020
  13. ^ Bissell (1999), p. 135.
  14. ^ a b Bissell (1999), p. 113.
  15. ^ "Artemisia Gentileschi - Biography & Art - The Art History Archive". www.arthistoryarchive.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  16. ^ "Artemisia, The Rape and the Trial". www.webwinds.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  17. ^ "Artemisia Gentileschi". Biography.com. May 13, 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  18. ^ Artemisia: The Rape and the Trial Webwinds.com
  19. ^ Zarucchi (1998), pp. 13–19.
  20. ^ Christodoulou, Mario (2017-07-06). "Is this painting found in a Sydney flat the work of 17th-century Italian Artemisia Gentileschi?". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2020-07-08.
  21. ^ Moss, Matthew. "Distraught young mother breastfeeds her infant. Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1653". academia.edu. The feeding child, his full bloated tummy attached to two chubby legs is holding on firmly to the young woman's arm while his dark somnolent eyes peer into the distance with a look of self-satisfaction. The artist shows him at the moment shortly after having been fed. In the process of drawing the milk from the mother's nipples, his sharp newly emerged teeth, bite the mother's breast, sufficiently to draw blood. That part of the shift covering her right breast, from which he has already fed, is blood soaked, causing her underlying injuries. The suffering mother's face is, turned away from the child. Her pallid features and tortured heavy-lidded eyes display the physical signs of amnesia from the loss of blood.
  22. ^ "An Artemisia Conundrum". artmontecarlo.com. October 22, 2016.
  23. ^ Cropper (2020), pp. 10–31.
  24. ^ Cropper (2020), p. 14.
  25. ^ Solinas, Nicolaci & Primarosa (2011), p. [page needed].
  26. ^ Cropper (2020), p. 17.
  27. ^ a b Cropper (2020), p. 21.
  28. ^ a b c d Fortune (2009), p. 157.
  29. ^ Bissell (1999), p. 159.
  30. ^ Garrard (1989), p. 63.
  31. ^ Solinas, Nicolaci & Primarosa (2011).
  32. ^ a b Cropper (2020), p. 22.
  33. ^ a b Cavazzini (2020), p. 42[incomplete short citation]
  34. ^ "Right hand of Artemisia Gentileschi holding a brush. 1625 Black and red chalk", British Museum, 9 October 2016, retrieved October 9, 2016
  35. ^ Richard Spear, "I have made up my mind to take a short trip to Rome," in Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, 335–43.
  36. ^ a b Locker, Jesse (2014). Artemisia Gentileschi: The Language of Painting. Yale University Press. p. 100.
  37. ^ a b c Christiansen & Mann (2001), p. 392
  38. ^ Chaney (2000), p. 111.
  39. ^ Bissell (1999), p. 99.
  40. ^ De Vito, Giuseppe (2005). "A note on Artemisia Gentileschi and Her Collaborator Onofrio Palumbo". Burlington Magazine. 1232 (137): 749.
  41. ^ Papi, Gianni; Gillespie, Simon; Chaplin, Tracey D (2020). "A 'David and Goliath' by Artemisia Gentileschi rediscovered". The Burlington Magazine. 162 (1404): 188–195. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  42. ^ Gerlis, Melanie (27 February 2020). "The Art Market". The Financial Times.
  43. ^ Sanderson, David (28 February 2020). "David and Goliath painting revealed as an Artemisia Gentileschi". The Times.
  44. ^ Moorhead, Joanna (28 February 2020). "Newly attributed Artemisia Gentileschi painting of David and Goliath revealed in London". The Art Newspaper.
  45. ^ Moorhead, Joanna (29 February 2020). "Artemisia Gentileschi, the baroque #MeToo heroine who avenged her rape through art". The Guardian.
  46. ^ a b Bissell (1999), p. 112.
  47. ^ Bissell (1999), pp. 112–113.
  48. ^ Longhi, Roberto (1916). "Gentileschi padre e figlia". L'Arte.
  49. ^ "Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi | MetPublications | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  50. ^ Christiansen & Mann (2001), p. 250.
  51. ^ a b Holly Williams. "The artist who triumphed over her shocking rape and torture". Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  52. ^ Moss, Matthew. "Distraught young mother breastfeeds her infant. Artemisia Gentileschi 1593–1653". academia.edu. The artist's intention was, likely, an attempt to express her feeling through the painter's medium, that of her impotence and he powerlessness in the face of a society where violence against a woman was the norm; that had the power, and had used it, to treat her with intolerance and disrespect. This, in the face of the mild six month jail sentence the courts inflicted on Agostino Tassi.
  53. ^ Nochlin (1971), p. [page needed].
  54. ^ Straussman-Pflanzer (2013), p. [page needed].
  55. ^ a b Benedetti, Laura (Winter 1999), "Reconstructing Artemisia, Twentieth Century Images of a Woman Artist", Comparative Literature, 51 (1): 42–46, doi:10.2307/1771455, JSTOR 1771455
  56. ^ Garrard (2001), p. [page needed].
  57. ^ Pollock (1999), p. [page needed].
  58. ^ Camille Paglia (1994). Vamps and Tramps NY: Vintage, p. 115
  59. ^ Ciletti (2006), p. [page needed].
  60. ^ a b Rozsika, Parker (1981). Old Mistresses : Women, Art, and Ideology. Pollock, Griselda. London. ISBN 0710008791. OCLC 8160325.
  61. ^ a b c Jenni, Murray (October 12, 2018). "The Vengeance of Artemisia Gentileschi". Literary Hub. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  62. ^ "Blood/Water/Paint".
  63. ^ "Blood Water Paint".
  64. ^ https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/557182/blood-water-paint-by-joy-mccullough/9780735232136/
  65. ^ a b Snow, Georgia (2020-02-06). "Breach Theatre's It's True, It's True, It's True to be given BBC TV screening | News". The Stage. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  66. ^ "Artemisia's Intent". The Anthropologists. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  67. ^ "Artemisia, an Opera By Laura Schwendinger".
  68. ^ "Artemisia Gentileschi's 427th Birthday". Google. 8 July 2020.

SourcesEdit

  • Bissell, R. Ward (1999), Artemisia Gentileschi and the Authority of Art: Critical Reading and Catalogue Raisonné, Pennsylvania University Press, ISBN 0-271-02120-9
  • Chaney, Edward (2000), The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4474-9
  • Christiansen, Keith; Mann, Judith W. (2001). Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi (exhibition catatalogue). Yale University Press. ISBN 1588390063. OCLC 893698075. (also at The Metropolitan Museum of art
  • Ciletti, Elena (2006), "Gran Macchina a Bellezza", in Bal, Mieke (ed.), The Artemisia Files: Artemisia Gentileschi for Feminists and Other Thinking People, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press
  • Cohen, Elizabeth S. (Spring 2000). "The Trials of Artemisia Gentileschi: A Rape as History". Sixteenth Century Journal. 31 (1): 47–75. doi:10.2307/2671289. JSTOR 2671289.
  • Cropper, Elizabeth (2020). "Artemisia Gentileschi: La Pittora". In Treves, Letizia (ed.). Artemisia. London: National Gallery.
  • Fortune, Jane (2009). Invisible Women (3rd ed.). Florentine Press. ISBN 978-88-902434-5-5.
  • Garrard, Mary D. (1989). Artemisia Gentileschi: The Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04050-9.
  • Garrard, Mary D. (2001), Artemisia Gentileschi Around 1622: The Shaping and Reshaping of an Artistic Identity, Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520228412
  • Nochlin, Linda (1971), "Why Have There Been No Great Woman Artists?", in Gornick, Vivian; Moran, Barbara K. (eds.), Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness, Basic Books
  • Pollock, Griselda (1999). Differencing the Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art's Histories. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Pollock, Griselda (2006), "Feminist Dilemmas with the Art/Life Problem", in Bal, Mieke (ed.), The Artemisia Files: Artemisia Gentileschi for Feminists and Other Thinking People, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press
  • Solinas, Francesco; Nicolaci, Michele; Primarosa, Yuri (2011). Lettere di Artemisia: Edizione critica e annotata con quarantatre documenti inediti. Rome: De Luca. ISBN 9788865570524.
  • Straussman-Pflanzer, Eve (2013), Violence & Virtue: Artemisia Gentileschi's Judith Slaying Holofernes, Chicago, Illinois: Art Institute of Chicago
  • Zarucchi, Jeanne Morgan (1998). "The Gentileschi Danaë: A Narrative of Rape". Woman's Art Journal. 19: 13–16. doi:10.2307/1358400.

Further readingEdit

  • Barker, Sheila (December 2014). "A new document concerning Artemisia Gentileschi's marriage". The Burlington Magazine. Vol. 156 no. 1341. pp. 803–804.
  • Barker, Sheila (2017). Artemisia Gentileschi in a Changing Light. Harvey Miller Publishers.
  • Christiansen, Keith (2004). "Becoming Artemisia: Afterthoughts on the Gentileschi Exhibition". Metropolitan Museum Journal. 39: 101–126. doi:10.1086/met.39.40034603.
  • Contini, Roberto; Solinas, Francesco (2011). Artemisia Gentileschi: storia di una passione (in Italian). Palazzo reale di Milano, Milano: 24 ore cultura.
  • Contini, Roberto; Solinas, Francesco (2013). Artemisia: la musa Clio e gli anni napoletani (in Italian). Roma, De Luca: Blu palazzo d'arte e cultura (Pisa).
  • Garrard, Mary D. (2005). Reclaiming Female Agency: Feminist Art History after Postmodernism. University of Californian Press.
  • Greer, Germaine (1979). The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work. London: Martin Secker and Warburg.
  • Lapierre, Alexandra (2001). Artemisia: The Story of a Battle for Greatness. Vintage. ISBN 0-09-928939-3.
  • Locker, Jesse M. (2015). Artemisia Gentileschi: The Language of Painting. New Haven, Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300185119.
  • Lutz, Dagmar (2011). Artemisia Gentileschi: Leben und Werk (in German). Belser, Stuttgart, Germany. ISBN 978-3-7630-2586-2.
  • Mann, Judith (2006). Artemisia Gentileschi: Taking Stock. Brepols Publishers. ISBN 978-2503515076.
  • Rabb, Theodore K. (1993). Renaissance Lives: Portraits of an Age. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Shulman, Ken (1 September 1991). "A Painter of Heroic Women in a Brawling, Violent World". The New York Times. p. H23.
  • Vreeland, Susan (2002). "The Passion of Artemisia". Headline Review. ISBN 0-7472-6533-X.

External linksEdit