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The Andalusians (Spanish: andaluces) are the citizens and ethnic group of Andalusia, an autonomous community in southern Spain. Andalusia's statute of autonomy defines Andalusians as the Spanish citizens who reside in any of the municipalities of Andalusia, as well as those Spaniards who reside abroad and had their last Spanish residence in Andalusia, and their descendants. Since the 2007 reform, the statute also identifies the region as a "historic nationality" but this statement is in the preamble and thus has no legal value. The Spanish Language Academy recognizes Andalusian Spanish as a distinct dialect.
|c. 11–12 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
Andalusia: 8,379,248 (2017)
Iberian, Tartessian, Phoenician/Punic, Greek, Latin, Mozarabic, Andalusi Arabic, Berber, Visigoth
Roman Catholicism (79%)
The genesis of modern Andalusian culture can be traced to the last phase of the Reconquista and the two centuries that followed (13th to 17th century) which brought about a greater adoption of Catholicism and, more specifically various Marian cults, as other religions which had been found in the region during the prior seven or eight centuries declined (notably Sunni Islam and Sephardic Judaism). It also coincides with the arrival of the Romani people in the mid 15th century, who also contributed to the culture of modern Andalusia. The degree to which the region's particularly long Islamic history is central to Andalusia's modern singularity is controversial and largely a matter of ideology, particularly considering Andalusia was heavily re-settled by Castilians, Leonese and others from central and northern regions of Spain.
Blas Infante, the creator of Andalusian regionalism and nationalism, drew heavily from Islamic, Latin and Jewish heritage as defining elements of the Andalusian identity. Nevertheless, local Catholic cults act as the primary vehicle of Andalusian cultural cohesion and identity.  Paradoxically, religious fervor in Andalusia seems not to clash with the region being among the most left-leaning and anti-clerical in the entire country, with below average levels of mass attendance and very little interest in orthodox Catholic doctrine. The peculiar form and role of religion in Andalusia has been subject to significant ethnographic and anthropological study.
A cultural divide exists between what is known as "high Andalusia" (what used to be the Kingdom of Granada) and Low or Western Andalusia (the heavily populated Guadalquivir valley). Significant differences exist between the culture and the accents of all of eight provinces of Andalusia, but the widest difference is between these two regions. Some Andalusians of High Andalusia (notably Granada and Almería) complain that since the beginning of democracy and Andalusia's autonomy in 1981, Andalusian political power has been heavily centered around Seville and, as a result, Andalusian culture and identity has been built around this region, ignoring the unique culture and traditions of other parts of Andalusia. Calls for a separate Autonomy for eastern Andalusia have been made since the advent of democracy, yet have never attracted enough support to endanger Andalusia's integrity.
Geographical location and populationEdit
Andalusian people live mainly in Spain's eight southernmost provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Sevilla, which all are part of the region and modern Autonomous Community of Andalucía. In January 2006 the total population of this region stood at 7,849,799; Andalucía is the most populous region of Spain. In comparison with the rest of Spain, Andalusia population growth has been slower and it continues to be sparsely populated in some rural areas (averaging just 84 inh. per km²). Since 1960, the region's share of total population has declined, despite birth rates being about 40 percent higher than the Spanish average during past decades (currently it is only a 13% higher). Between 1951 and 1975, over 1.7 million Andalusian people emigrated out of Andalusia to other areas of Spain. This figure was approximately a 24% of the population of Andalusia as a whole, mostly hitting the countryside areas. The main recipients of this migration were Catalonia (989,256 people of Andalusian origin in 1975), Madrid (330,479) and Valencia (217,636), and to a lesser level, the Basque Country and Balearics.
During 1962 to 1974, around 700,000 Andalusians —almost all of them male— moved abroad for economic reasons, mainly originating from the provinces of Granada, Jaén and Córdoba. Their preferred destination were France, West Germany and Switzerland, followed by the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium. There are no official recorded figures for previous decades.
In South America in the last twenty years of 19th century, over 150,000 Andalusians emigrated to the Americas as a result of crop failures caused by the Phylloxera plague. Many Andalusian peasants moved to Brazil to work in the coffee plantations, mainly in rural areas of São Paulo State. Spanish immigrants to Hawai'i who were solicited to work in the sugar industry, arrived in October 1898, numbering 7,735 men, women and children by 1913. Most of them came from Andalusia, home of Don Marin. However, unlike other plantation immigrant groups, the Spanish moved on, and by 1930 only 1,219 remained, including a scant eight children born in Hawai'i. Most Spanish left for the promising fields of California to make higher wages and live among relatives and friends who had settled in greater numbers there.
Additionally, Andalusians formed the major component of Spanish colonial immigration to certain parts of Spain's American and Asian empire and the largest group to participate in the colonisation of the Canary Islands. Principally, Andalusians and their descendants predominate in the Canary Islands(Spain), the Caribbean islands (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Cuba), and the circum-Caribbean area (Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, the Caribbean coast of Colombia, and in Venezuela). They were also predominant in the Rio de la Plata region of Argentina and Uruguay and in the coastal areas of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. In Asia, Andalusians predominated in the Spanish population of the Philippines as evidenced by the strong Andalusian character of the former Spanish in the Philippines and Spanish-based creoles, despite the fact that the Philippines were under the colonial supervision of the Vice-royalty of New Spain (Mexico).
Most descriptions of Andalusia begin with the landownership system, as the most powerful forces in the region have for centuries been the owners of the large estates, called latifundios. These wide expanses of land have their origins in landowning patterns that stretch back to Roman times; in grants of land made to the nobility, to the military orders, and to the church during the Reconquest (Reconquista); and in laws of the nineteenth century by which church and common lands were sold in large tracts to the urban upper middle class. The workers of this land, called jornaleros (peasants without land), were themselves landless.
This economic and cultural system produced a distinctive perspective, involving class consciousness and class conflicts as well as significant emigration. In contrast to the much smaller farm towns and villages of northern Spain, where the land was worked by its owners, class distinctions in the agro-towns of Andalusia stood out. The families of the landless farmers lived at, or near, the poverty level, and their relations with the landed gentry were marked by conflict, aggression, and hostility. The two main forces that kept Andalusia's rural society from flying apart were external. The first was the coercive power of the state, as exemplified by Spain's rural constabulary, the Civil Guard (Guardia Civil). The second was the opportunities to migrate to other parts of Spain, or to other countries in Western Europe. Some of this migration was seasonal; in 1972, for example, 80,000 farmers, mostly Andalusians, migrated to France for the wine harvest. Part of the migration consisted of entire families who intended to remain in their new home for longer periods, once the head of the family group had settled down.
Economic growth and social mobility, although dispersed and not homogeneous in the region, fundamentally start in the nineteen seventies, coincides with the arrival of the democracy, and are intensified by the development of agroindustrial, tourism, and services sectors. In 1981 the Statute of Autonomy is approved after the Andalusian movement of autonomy. Since 1990 Andalusia follows a dynamic convergence process and is moving closer in development to the most advanced regions in Europe; more and more it comes closer to overcome the average of European living standards.
Leaders and politiciansEdit
- Arganthonios (630 BCE – 550 BCE), King of Tartessos.
- Trajan (53–117), Emperor of Rome.
- Hadrian (76–138), Emperor of Rome.
- Marcus Aurelius (121–180), Emperor of Rome, philosopher.
- Commodus (161–192), Emperor of Rome.
- Theodosius I (347–395), Emperor of Rome.
- Abd-ar-Rahman III (889–961), Emir and first caliph of Cordoba.
- Ferdinand IV of Castile (1285–1312), King of Castilla.
- Henry II of Castile (1334–1379), King of Castilla.
- Beltrán de la Cueva (1443–1492), Nobleman, presumed lover of Joan I of Portugal and father of Juana la Beltraneja.
- Boabdil (1460–1533), Emir of Granada.
- Antonio de Mendoza (1495–1552), First viceroy of New Spain.
- Pedro Moya de Contreras (1528–1591), Viceroy of New Spain.
- Pedro Álvarez de Toledo y Leiva (1585–1654), Viceroy of Peru.
- Luisa de Guzmán (1616–1666), Queen of Portugal by marriage.
- Tomás Marín González de Poveda (1650–1703), Politician, governor of Chile.
- Pedro Antonio de Cevallos (1715–1778), Viceroy of Río de la Plata.
- Luis de Unzaga (1721–1790, Military commander, first governor of Louisiana.
- Maria Antonietta of Spain(1729–1785), Queen of Sardinia by marriage.
- Pedro Jiménez de Góngora, Writer and ambassador to the United Kingdom.
- Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786), Governor of Cuba and Louisiana.
- Francisco Javier Venegas (1760–1838), Viceroy of New Spain.
- Javier de Burgos (1778–1849), Jurist, translator and senator.
- Antonio Alcalá Galiano (1789–1865), Politician and writer.
- Juan Álvarez Mendizábal (1790–1853), Economist and prime minister.
- Ramón María Narváez (1800–1868), Military commander and prime minister under Isabel II.
- Antonio María Martínez (died 1823), Last governor of Spanish Texas.
- Mariana Pineda (1804–1834), National heroine.
- Marqués de Salamanca (1811–1883), Politician, businessman and Finance Minister of Spain.
- Eugenia de Montijo (1826–1920), Empress consort of the French, married to Napoleon III.
- Antonio Cánovas del Castillo (1828–1897), Prime Minister of Spain under queen Isabel II.
- Emilio Castelar y Ripoll (1832–1899), Politician, president of the First Spanish Republic.
- Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso (1838–1908), President of the First Spanish Republic.
- Princess Marie Isabelle d'Orléans (1848–1919), Infant of Spain.
- Elías Ahúja y Andría (1863–1951), Philanthropist.
- Alejandro Lerroux (1864–1949), Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic.
- Miguel Primo de Rivera (1870–1930), Politician, military commander and dictator.
- Niceto Alcalá-Zamora (1877–1949), Politician, President of the Second Spanish Republic.
- Diego Martínez Barrio (1883–1962), Politician, President of the Second Spanish Republic in the exile.
- Blas Infante (1885–1936), Politician, "Father" of Andalusian fatherland.
- Anita Delgado (1890–1962), Flamenco dancer, married to Jagatjit Singh Bahadur of Kapurthala.
- José Brocca (1891–1950), Pacifist and politician.
- Victoria Kent (1892–1987), Politician and lawyer, one of the pioneers of feminism in Spain.
- Julián Herranz Casado (born 1930), Cardinal, ex president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts.
- José María Álvarez del Manzano (born 1937), Politician, former mayor of Madrid.
- Inocencio Arias (born 1940), Diplomat and politician.
- Alfonso Guerra (born 1940), Politician, former Deputy Prime Minister (1982–2006).
- Julio Anguita (born 1941), Politician, former secretary general of Izquierda Unida and the Communist Party of Spain.
- Felipe González (born 1942), Ex Prime Minister (1982–1996).
- Manuel Chaves (born 1945), Third Deputy Prime Minister (2009–2012) and head of PSOE (since 2000).
- Juan Barranco (born 1947), Mayor of Madrid.
- Celia Villalobos (born 1949), Politician, former Minister of Public Health.
- Cristóbal Montoro (born 1950), Former Minister of the Treasury (2000–2004).
- Luisa Fernand Rudi (born 1950), Member of European Parliament.
- Magdalena Álvarez (born 1952), Politician, Minister of Public Works (2004–2009).
- José Montilla (born 1955), Former Minister of Industry.
- Gaspar Zarrías (born 1955), Politician, Secretary of Territorial Cooperation (2009–2012).
- Baltasar Garzón (born 1955), Judge.
- Javier Arenas (born 1957), Politician, deputy Vice-Prime Minister (2004–2008).
- Carmen Calvo (born 1957), Politician, Minister of Culture (2004–2007).
- Trinidad Jiménez (born 1962), Politician, Minister of Public Health (2009–2012).
- Anne Hidalgo (born 1956), Mayor of Paris.
- Aguas Santas Ocaña Navarro (born 1963), Former First Lady of Honduras (2002–2006).
- Bibiana Aído (born 1977), Politician, Minister for Equality in charge (2008–2012).
Philosophers and theologiansEdit
- Moderatus of Gades (1st century BC), philosopher.
- Seneca the Elder (54 BC – 39), rhetorician and writer.
- Seneca the Younger (4 BC – 65), philosopher.
- Hosius of Corduba (257–359), theologian.
- Saint Isidore of Seville (560–636), scholar and historian.
- Ibn Hazm (994–1064), philosopher, theologian, jurist and historian.
- Ibn al-Arif (1088–1141), Sufi theologian and philosopher.
- Ibn Tufail (1105–1185), writer, philosopher, theologian and physician.
- Averroes (1126–1198), philosopher, theologian, jurist and scientist.
- Maimonides (1135–1204), philosopher and physician.
- Al-Qurtubi (1214–1273), Muslim scholar.
- Abraham ben Isaac of Granada (13th century), kabbalist.
- David Abudirham (14th century), Hebrew rishom.
- Bartolomé de las Casas (1484–1566), theologian, philosopher, jurist and defender of the Native Americans.
- Louis of Granada (1505–1588), theologian and writer.
- Moses ben Jacob Cordovero (1522–1570), Hebrew mystic and scholar.
- Francisco Suárez (1548–1617), philosopher, theologian and scholar.
- Joseph Athias (1635–1700), rabbi and Hebrew scholar.
- Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1839–1915), philosopher and educator.
- María Zambrano (1904–1991), philosopher.
- Jesús Padilla Gálvez (born 1959), philosopher.
Historians, philologists and writersEdit
- Judah ben David Hayyuj (945–1000), Hebrew grammarian.
- Ibn Faradi (962–1012), historian.
- Ibn al-Qūṭiyya (died 977), historian.
- Ibn Hayyan (987–1075), historian.
- Jonah ibn Janah (990–1050), grammarian and lexicographer.
- Al-Udri (1003–1085), geographer and historian.
- Hanoch ben Moses (died 1024), rabbi.
- Said Al-Andalusi (1029–1070), historian and scientist.
- Antonio de Nebrija (1441–1522), scholar and author of the first published grammar of the Spanish or any Romance language.
- Fernán Pérez de Oliva (1492–1530), man of letters.
- Juan Pérez de Pineda (1500–1567), Protestant writer.
- José Amador de los Ríos (1818–1878), historian and archaeologist.
- Ángel Ganivet (1865–1898), writer and diplomat.
- Rafael Cansinos Assens (1882–1964), poet, novelist and translator.
- Emilio García Gómez (1905–1995), Arabist, literary historian and critic.
- Francisco Ayala (1906–2009), writer and essayist.
- Abel Paz (1921–2009), anarchist, historian and activist.
- Emilio Lledó (born 1927), writer and philosopher.
- Lucius Cornelius Balbus (major) (1st century BC), military officer.
- Lucius Cornelius Balbus (minor) (1st century BC), military officer.
- Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir (938–1002), military commander.
- Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, "El Gran Capitán" (1453–1515), military commander.
- María Pacheco (1496–1531), noblewoman and military commander.
- Álvaro de Bazán (1526–1588), military commander.
- Miguel de Barrios y Valle (1635–1706), military commander and poet.
- Diego de Alvear y Ponce de León (1749–1830), politician, sailor and military commander.
- Juan Ruiz de Apodaca (1754–1835), military commander.
- Joaquín Blake (1759–1827), military commander.
- Dionisio Alcalá Galiano (1760–1805), brigadier, cartographer and explorer.
- Luis Daoíz (1767–1808), military commander.
- Henry O'Donnell (1769–1834), military commander.
- Luis Lacy (1772–1817), military commander.
- Pascual Cervera y Topete (1839–1909), admiral.
Poets, Novelists and playwrightsEdit
- Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella (4–70), tribune and writer.
- Lucan (39–65), poet.
- Wallada (994–1091), poet.
- Ibn Zaydun (1003–1071), poet.
- Solomon ibn Gabirol (1021–1058), poet and philosopher.
- Moses ibn Ezra (1055–1138), poet and philosopher.
- Ibn Quzman (1078–1160), poet.
- Ibn Sahl of Seville (1212–1251), poet.
- Ibn al-Yayyab (1274–1349), poet and statesman.
- Ibn al-Khatib (1313–1374), poet, historian and philosopher.
- Ibn Zamrak (1333–1394), poet and statesman.
- Juan Alfonso de Baena (1375–1434), poet.
- Juan de Mena (1411–1456), poet.
- Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (1503–1575), poet and diplomat.
- Lope de Rueda (1510–1565), playwright.
- Gutierre de Cetina (1519–1554), poet.
- Fernando de Herrera (1534–1597), poet and man of letters.
- Juan de la Cueva (1543–1612), playwright and poet.
- Mateo Alemán (1547–1615), writer.
- Luis de Góngora (1561–1627), poet and playwright.
- Antonio Mira de Amescua (1578–1636), playwright.
- Luis Vélez de Guevara (1579–1644), novelist and playwright.
- José Cadalso (1741–1782), poet, playwright and essayist.
- Joseph Blanco White (1745–1841), poet and theologian.
- Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (1787–1862), poet, playwright and politician.
- Ángel de Saavedra, Duke of Rivas (1791–1865), poet, dramatist and politician.
- Juan Valera(1824–1905), novelist.
- Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833–1891), novelist.
- Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (1836–1870), poet and short story writer.
- Salvador Rueda (1857–1933), journalist and poet.
- Carlos Fernández Shaw (1865–1911), poet and playwright.
- Manuel Machado (1874–1947), poet and playwright.
- Antonio Machado (1875–1939), poet.
- Francisco Villaespesa (1877–1936), poet and playwright.
- Pedro Muñoz Seca (1879–1936), playwright.
- José María Álvarez de Sotomayor (1880–1947), poet and playwright.
- Juan Ramón Jiménez (1881–1958), poet and writer, Nobel prize laureate.
- José María Pemán (1897–1981), poet, novelist and playwright.
- Federico García Lorca (1898–1936), poet, playwright and theatre director.
- Vicente Aleixandre (1898–1984), poet, Nobel prize laureate.
- Emilio Prados (1899–1962), poet.
- Luis Cernuda (1902–1963), poet.
- Rafael Alberti (1902–1999), poet.
- Manuel Altolaguirre (1905–1959), poet and editor.
- Luis Rosales (1910–1992), poet.
- Carlos Edmundo de Ory (born 1923), poet, essayist and translator.
- José Manuel Caballero Bonald (born 1926), poet.
- Fernando Quiñones (1930–1998), poet.
- Agustín Gómez Arcos (1933–1998), writer
- Antonio Gala (born 1936), writer.
- Juan Madrid (born 1947), writer.
- Juan Eslava Galán (born 1948), novelist.
- Eduardo Mendicutti (born 1948), novelist.
- Antonio Muñoz Molina (born 1956), novelist, director of Instituto Cervantes in New York City.
- Luis García Montero (born 1958), poet.
- Francisco Domene (born 1960), poet.
- Elvira Lindo (born 1962), writer and journalist.
Catholic saints and martyrsEdit
- Saint Justa and Saint Rufina (3rd century), Catholic martyrs.
- Saint Acisclus (died 303), Catholic martyr.
- Saint Argimir (9th century), Catholic martyr.
- Saint Adolph (9th century), Catholic martyr.
- Saint Eulogius of Córdoba (9th century), Catholic martyr.
- Saint Aurelius and Saint Natalia (9th century), Catholic martyrs.
- Saint Laura (9th century), Catholic martyr.
- Perfectus (9th century), Catholic martyr.
- Saint Diego de Alcalá (1400–1463), Catholic saint.
- Saint Francis Solanus (1549–1610), saint and missionary in the Americas.
- Saint José María Rubio (1864–1929), Catholic saint.
- Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad (9th century), explorer and navigator.
- Pedro Tafur (1410–1487), explorer of the Mediterranean and Middle East.
- Martín Alonso Pinzón (1441–1493), explorer, one of the discoverers of America with Columbus.
- Pedro de Cordova (1460–1525), missionary of present-day Dominican Republic and Venezuela.
- Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (1462–1514), explorer, one of the discoverers of America with Columbus.
- Pedro Alonso Niño (1468–1505), explorer of the Caribbean with Columbus.
- Rodrigo de Triana (1469 – after 1525), explorer with Columbus, first European since the Vikings to officially see the Americas.
- Juan Díaz de Solís (1470–1515), explorer of Yucatán, Brazil, and present-day Argentina and Uruguay.
- Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479–1551), conquistador, explorer of present Central America, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
- Cristóbal de Olid (1488–1524), conquistador, military commander in the conquest of Cuba, Mexico and Honduras.
- Diego de Lopez (late 18th century), friar from Granada, Spain, Parish Priest of Pandacan, Manila, founder of Tolosa town in the Philippines, patriarch of the Lopez- Romualdez family, great grand father of Imelda Romualdez- Marcos, Philippine First Lady.
- Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1490–1557), conquistador, explorer of the Caribbean, present-day USA and Mexico.
- Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1495–1579), conquistador and explorer of Colombia.
- Pedro de Mendoza (1499–1537), conquistador, explorer of present-day Argentina and founder of Buenos Aires.
- Diego de Nicuesa (died 1511), conquistador, explorer of present-day Panamá, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
- Juan de Esquivel (died 1513), conquistador of Jamaica.
- Ruy López de Villalobos (1500–1544), explorer of the Pacific Ocean and the Philippines.
- Juan de Padilla (1500–1542), missionary, Christian martyr and explorer of present-day USA.
- Alonzo de Barcena (1528–1598), missionary in Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay.
- Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera (1538–1574), conquistador, founder of Córdoba, Argentina.
- Judar Pasha (died 1605), military commander and explorer, conqueror of Niger.
- Antonio de Ulloa (1716–1795), military commander, explorer and astronomer.
- Juan de Ayala (1745–1797), naval officer and explorer of California.
Scientists and physiciansEdit
- Abbas Ibn Firnas (810–887), scientist.
- Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon (1120 – after 1190), physician and translator.
- Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati (c. 1200), scientist, botanist, and pharmacist. Teacher of al-Baitar.
- Ibn al-Baitar (1197–1248), scientist, botanist, pharmacist, and physician.
- al-Arbuli (15th century), bromatologist.
- Celestino Mutis (1732–1808), botanist and mathematician.
- Santiago Maria del Granado (1757–1823), physician.
- Alberto Lista (1775–1848), mathematician and poet.
- Cristóbal Martínez-Bordiú (1922–1998), son in law of caudillo Francisco Franco and surgeon.
- Luis Rojas-Marcos (born 1943), psychiatrist.
- Ginés Morata (born 1945), biologist.
Classical composers and opera singersEdit
- Cristobal de Morales (1500–1553), composer.
- Vicente Espinel (1550–1624), composer and poet.
- Alonso Lobo (1555–1617), composer.
- Manuel García (1775–1832), tenor.
- Julián Arcas (1832–1888), classical guitarist.
- Manuel de Falla (1876–1946), composer.
- Maria Galvany (1878–1949), soprano.
- Joaquín Turina (1882–1949), composer.
- José Padilla (1889–1960), composer.
- Andrés Segovia (1893–1987), classical guitarist.
- Carlos Álvarez (born 1966), baritone, Grammy Award laureate.
Painters and sculptorsEdit
- Antonio Mohedano (1563–1626), painter.
- Juan Martínez Montañés (1568–1649), sculptor.
- Francisco Herrera the Elder (1576–1656), painter.
- Juan de Mesa (1583–1627), sculptor.
- Diego de Velázquez (1599–1660), painter.
- Alonso Cano (1601–1667), painter, sculptor and architect.
- Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682), painter.
- Francisco Herrera the Younger (1622–1655), painter and architect.
- Juan de Valdés Leal (1622–1690), painter.
- Pedro de Mena (1628–1688), sculptor.
- Jose Risueño (1640–1721), Baroque painter.
- Pedro Nuñez de Villavicencio (1635–1700), painter.
- Antonio Palomino (1653–1726), painter.
- José Denis Belgrano (1844–1917), painter.
- Julio Romero de Torres (1874–1930), painter.
- Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881–1973), painter.
- Daniel Vázquez Díaz (1882–1969), painter.
- Juan Cristóbal (1897–1961), sculptor.
- Antonio León Ortega (1907–1991), sculptor.
- es:Jesús de Perceval (1915–1985), painter.
- Federico "Fred" Castellon (1914–1971), painter and illustrator, naturalized American.
- Miguel Berrocal (1933–2006), sculptor.
- Vicente Navarro Romero (1888-1979), sculptor, painter, artist.
- Marcial Gómez Parejo (1930-2012) painter and illustrator.
- Carlos Pacheco (born 1961), comic-book artist.
- Joseph Contreras (1710–1780), luthier.
- Antonio de Torres Jurado (1817-1892), guitarist and luthier.
- Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo (1871–1949), fashion designer.
- Manuel García Ferré (born 1929), cartoonist.
- Gerundino Fernández (1931–2006), luthier.
- Juan Ballesta (born 1935), cartoonist and illustrator.
- Juanjo Guarnido (born 1967), comic illustrator.
- Idígoras y Pachi, cartoonist active since the 1990s.
- Andrés Vázquez de Sola political cartoonist and journalist.
- Costillares (1743–1800), matador, father of modern bullfighting.
- Pedro Romero (1754–1839), matador, one of the fathers of modern bullfighting.
- Rafael Molina Sánchez, "Lagartijo" (1841–1900), matador.
- Frascuelo (1842–1898), matador.
- Rafael Guerra, "Guerrita" (1862–1941), matador.
- Rafael González Madrid, "Machaquito" (1880–1955), matador.
- Rafael Gómez Ortega, "El Gallo" (1882–1960), matador.
- Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (1891–1934), matador.
- Juan Belmonte (1892–1962), bullfighter.
- José Gómez Ortega, "Gallito" (1895–1920), matador.
- Cayetano Ordóñez (1904–1961), matador.
- Manolete (1917–1947), matador.
- Álvaro Domecq y Díez (1917–2005), breeder and horseback bullfighter.
- Miguel Báez, "El Litri" (born 1930), matador.
- Antonio Ordóñez (1932–1998), matador.
- Curro Romero (born 1933), matador.
- Manuel Benítez, "El Cordobés" (born 1936), matador.
- Palomo Linares (born 1947), matador.
- Francisco Rivera, "Paquirri" (1948–1984), matador.
- Finito de Córdoba (born 1971), matador.
- Jesulín de Ubrique (born 1974), matador and singer.
- Javier Conde (born 1975), matador.
Actors, comedians and entertainersEdit
- Rafaela Aparicio (1906–1996), actress.
- Carmen Sevilla (born 1930), actress, singer and TV presenter.
- Lita Baron (born 1929), Hollywood film actress.
- Paco Morán (born 1930), actor.
- Chiquito de la Calzada (born 1932), comedian and flamenco singer.
- Elisa Montés (born 1934), actress.
- Pilar Bardem (born 1939), actress. (Of Catalan and Madrileño origin yet born in Seville).
- Juan Luis Galiardo (born 1940), film actor.
- Juan Tamariz (born 1942), magician. (Born in Madrid to Andalusian parents)
- Juan Diego (born 1942), film actor.
- Soledad Miranda (1943–1970), actress.
- Marisol (born 1948), actress.
- Rafael Álvarez, "El Brujo" (born 1950), actor.
- Amparo Muñoz (born 1954), actress and model, Miss Universe laureate.
- Bibiana Fernández (born 1954), actress.
- Juan Joya (born 1956), comedian and actor.
- Rosario Pardo (born 1959), actress.
- Antonio Banderas (born 1960), actor, film director and film producer.
- María Barranco (born 1961), actress.
- Pedro Reyes (born 1961), actor and comedian.
- Pablo Carbonell (born 1962), actor, comedian and singer.
- Juan y Medio (born 1962), TV presenter and comedian.
- Ángel Garó (born 1965), comedian.
- Pepón Nieto (born 1967), actor.
- Ana Álvarez (born 1969), actress.
- Paz Padilla (born 1969), actress and comedian.
- Antonio Garrido (born 1971), actor.
- Paco León (born 1974), actor.
- Ruth Gabriel (born 1975), actress.
- Paz Vega (born 1976), actress.
- Verónica Sánchez (born 1977), actress.
- Fran Perea (born 1978), actor and singer.
- Dúo Sacapuntas, comedian during the 1980s.
- Los Morancos, comedian since the 1980s.
- Juan García Postigo (born 1981), model, Mister World laureate.
- Jean Reno (Juan Moreno y Jederique Jiménez) (born 1948), actor.
- Cecilio Paniagua (died 1979), photography director.
- Manuel Summers (1935–1993), film director.
- Miguel Hermoso (born 1942), film director.
- Manuel Martín Cuenca (born 1964), film director.
- Benito Zambrano (born 1965), film director.
- Santiago Amodeo (born 1969), film director.
- Pedro Temboury (born 1971), film director.
- Alberto Rodríguez (born 1971), film director.
- Julián Lara (born 1975), film director.
- Isabel Oyarzábal Smith (1878–1974), writer and diplomat.
- María Dolores Pérez Enciso (1908–1949), feminist writer and journalist.
- Matías Prats (1913–2004), journalist and TV and radio presenter.
- Jesús Hermida (born 1937), journalist and TV presenter, long-time correspondent for TVE in New York City.
- Encarna Sánchez (1940–1996), journalist and radio presenter.
- Jesús Quintero (born 1940), journalist and TV presenter.
- María Teresa Campos (born 1940), journalist and TV presenter.
- Paco Lobatón (born 1951), journalist and TV presenter.
- Carlos Herrera (born 1956), journalist and TV and radio presenter.
- Juan Jacinto Muñoz Rengel (born 1974), journalist and writer.
- Marta Nebot (born 1975), journalist and TV presenter.
- María Patiño (born 1971), journalist and TV presenter.
Footballers and football coachesEdit
- Antonio Biosca (born 1949), international footballer.
- Juan Ramón López Caro (born 1953), football coach.
- Juan Gómez González, "Juanito" (1954–1992), international footballer.
- Joaquín Caparrós (born 1955), football coach.
- Gregorio Manzano (born 1956), football coach.
- Antonio García Navajas (born 1958), international footballer.
- Luis Fernández (born 1959), international footballer.
- Ricardo Serna (born 1964), international footballer.
- Rafa Paz (born 1965), footballer.
- Miguel Pardeza (born 1965), international footballer.
- Lucas Alcaraz (born 1966), football coach.
- Adolfo Aldana (born 1966), international footballer.
- Fernando Hierro (born 1968), international footballer.
- José María Quevedo (born 1969), footballer.
- Francisco Narváez, "Kiko" (born 1972), international footballer.
- Luis Tevenet (born 1974), footballer.
- Diego Tristán (born 1976), international footballer.
- Jesús Capitán, "Capi" (born 1977), international footballer.
- José María Romero Poyón, "José Mari" (born 1978), international footballer.
- Carlos Marchena (born 1979), international footballer.
- Daniel Güiza (born 1980), international footballer.
- Joaquín (born 1981), international footballer.
- José Antonio Reyes (born 1983), international footballer.
- Antonio Puerta (1984–2007), international footballer.
- Jesús Navas (born 1985), international footballer.
- Sergio Ramos (born 1986), international footballer.
- Isco (born 1992), international footballer, Golden boy 2012.
- Pedro Carrasco (1943–2001), boxer.
- Manuel Orantes (born 1949), tennis player, 2nd in ATP ranking and US Open winner.
- Juan Martínez Oliver (born 1962), road bicycle racer.
- Miguel Ángel Jiménez (born 1964), golfer.
- Manuel Pancorbo (born 1966), Olympic track and field athlete.
- Ignacio Rodríguez (born 1970), Olympic basketballer.
- Antonio Carlos Ortega (born 1971), Olympic handball player.
- Juan José Salvador (born 1975), international volleyball player.
- María José Rienda (born 1975), World Cup ski racer.
- Faustino Reyes (born 1975), boxer, Olympic laureate.
- Paquillo Fernández (born 1977), race walker, Olympic laureate.
- Antonio Jiménez Pentinel (born 1977), international long distance runner.
- Felipe Reyes (born 1980), international basketballer.
- Berni Rodríguez (born 1980), international basketballer.
- Carlos Cabezas (born 1980), international basketballer.
Singers and musiciansEdit
- Silverio Franconetti (1831–1889), flamenco singer.
- Juan Breva (1844–1918), flamenco singer.
- El Piyayo (1864–1940), flamenco singer and guitar player.
- Antonio Chacón (1869–1929), flamenco singer.
- Pepe Marchena (1903–1976), flamenco singer.
- Miguel de Molina (1908–1993), flamenco singer and folk singer.
- Manolo Caracol (1909–1963), flamenco singer.
- Antonio Mairena (1909–1983), flamenco singer.
- Niña de la Puebla (1909–1999), flamenco and folk singer.
- Manolo el Malagueño (1912–1975), flamenco and folk singer.
- Juanito Valderrama (1916–2005), flamenco and folk singer.
- Wenday Wyrk, singer.
- Lola Flores (1923–1995), flamenco singer and actress.
- Antonio Molina (1928–1992), flamenco and folk singer.
- Manolo Escobar (born 1931), folk singer.
- Fosforito (born 1932), flamenco singer.
- Juan Peña, "El Lebrijano", flamenco singer and musician.
- Enrique Morente (born 1942), flamenco singer.
- Karina (born 1943), singer.
- Raphael (born 1943), folk singer.
- Carlos Cano (1946–2000), folk singer.
- Miguel Ríos (born 1946), singer and composer, one of the pioneers of rock'n'roll in Spain.
- Rocío Jurado (1946–2006), folk singer and actress.
- Cristina Hoyos (born 1946), flamenco dancer and choreographer.
- Joselito (born 1947), folk singer.
- Paco de Lucía (1947-2014), flamenco guitarist.
- Joaquín Sabina (born 1949), singer, composer and poet.
- María Jiménez (born 1950), singer.
- Camarón de la Isla (1950–1992), flamenco singer.
- Carmen Linares (born 1951), flamenco singer.
- José Mercé (born 1955), flamenco singer.
- Isabel Pantoja (born 1956), folk singer.
- Tito Alcedo (born 1958), guitarist.
- Tomatito (born 1958), flamenco guitarist.
- Gabriel Delgado-López (born 1958), singer.
- Chano Domínguez (born 1960), flamenco jazz pianist.
- Remedios Amaya (born 1962), flamenco singer.
- Antonio Carmona (born 1965), pop singer from Ketama band.
- 091, rock band from the 1980s and 1990s.
- Juan Antonio Canta (1966–1996), singer.
- Vicente Amigo (born 1967), flamenco guitarist.
- Joaquín Cortés (born 1969), flamenco dancer.
- Lole y Manuel, flamenco duo.
- Eva la Yerbabuena (born 1970), flamenco dancer.
- Dareysteel (born 1975) Hip-Hop rapper.
- El Koala (born 1970), rock singer.
- Radio Tarifa, flamenco pop band.
- Sara Baras (born 1971), flamenco dancer.
- Triana, progressive rock band from the 1970s and early 1980s.
- Navajita Plateá, flamenco pop band.
- es:Carlos Chaouen (born 1974), singer.
- Niño Josele (born 1974), flamenco guitarist.
- José Rubio (born 1978), power metal singer.
- Niña Pastori (born 1978), flamenco singer.
- Pastora Soler (born 1978), folk singer.
- Falete (born 1978), folk singer.
- Nuria Fergó (born 1979), folk singer.
- Vega (born 1979), pop singer.
- David Bisbal (born 1979), singer and Latin Grammy Award laureate.
- Las Ketchup, flamenco pop band, Latin Grammy Award nominees.
- Chambao, flamenco-chill band.
- Andy & Lucas, flamenco pop band.
- Estrella Morente (born 1980), flamenco singer.
- Rosa López (born 1981), pop singer.
- Manuel Carrasco (born 1981), pop singer.
- Medina Azahara, rock band from the 1980s and 1990s.
- Los del Río, folk duo from the 1990s.
- Cataluña roza los 7,6 millones de habitantes y es segunda CCAA que más crece, La Vanguardia, 24 April 2018
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2006-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Source: Consejería de Gobernación, Junta de Andalucía (Andalusian Autonomous Government)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2006-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Recaño Valverde, Joaquín (1998): "La emigración andaluza en España" in Boletín Económico de Andalucía, issue 24
- Recaño Valverde, Joaquín: Ibid
- Consejería de Gobernación
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Dirección General de Andaluces en el Exterior, Junta de Andalucía
- Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España
- Article 5 of the 2007 Statute of Autonomy (full text in [https://es.wikisource.org/wiki/Estatuto_de_Autonom%C3%ADa_de_Andaluc%C3%ADa_2007:_03 Wikisource])
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-04. Retrieved 2016-04-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.lavanguardia.com/vangdata/20150402/54429637154/interactivo-creencias-y-practicas-religiosas-en-espana.html[permanent dead link]
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-22. Retrieved 2016-04-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) INSTITUTO DE ESTADÍSTICA DE ANDALUCÍA (2006): Andalucía. Datos básicos 2006. Consejería de Economía y Hacienda, Junta de Andalucía. Page 13
- Recaño Valverde, Joaquín: Ibid
- http://www.ahimsav.com/149-nov_archivos/page0006.htm[permanent dead link] "El boom migratorio exterior"
- De Mateo Aviles, Elias (1993): La Emigración Andaluza a América (1850–1936). Editorial Arguval. Málaga, Spain
- Albert, Manuel J. (11 July 2011). "El pintor amigo de Flash Gordon" [The painter friend of Flash Gordon]. El País. Retrieved 11 July 2014.