Anastasios Papoulas

Anastasios Papoulas (Greek: Αναστάσιος Παπούλας; 1/13 January 1857 – 24 April 1935) was a Greek general, most notable as the Greek commander-in-chief during most of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22. Originally a firm royalist, after 1922 he shifted towards the republican Venizelists, and was executed in 1935 for supporting a failed republican coup.

Anastasios Papoulas
Papoulas Anastasios.JPG
Anastasios Papoulas during his command in Anatolia
Born1 January 1857[1]
Missolonghi, Kingdom of Greece
Died24 April 1935(1935-04-24) (aged 78)
Athens, Attica, Kingdom of Greece
Allegiance Kingdom of Greece
Service/branchHellenic Army
Years of service1878–1920
RankGR-Army-OF8-1912.svg Lieutenant General
Battles/warsGreco-Turkish War of 1897
Balkan Wars
Greco-Turkish War of 1919–22
AwardsCommander's Cross of the Cross of Valour


Born in Missolonghi on 1 January 1857, Anastasios Papoulas enlisted in the Greek Army in 1878.[2] He fought in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, and later served as head of police of Athens.[2] During the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 he commanded the 10th Infantry Regiment.[2]

After the end of the wars he was assigned to divisional and corps commands, but in 1917 he was dismissed from the Army due to his royalist sympathies during the National Schism.[2] With the electoral victory of the pro-royalist United Opposition in November 1920, he was recalled to active service and appointed commander-in-chief of the Greek forces (the Army of Asia Minor) in Anatolia, replacing Lt. General Leonidas Paraskevopoulos.[2] He commanded the Army of Asia Minor against the Turkish nationalists in the failed Greek offensives of spring 1921 (First Battle of İnönü, Second Battle of İnönü), the Greek summer offensive of 1921 (Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir and Battle of Sakarya) and the subsequent retreat to the lines captured in the Kütahya–Eskişehir battle.[2]

On 19 May 1922, due to his disagreement with the government on the further prosecution of the war, he was dismissed and retired from active service.[2]

Following the end of the war in 1922, Papoulas became a strong opponent of the monarchy after the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic as a supporter of the Venizelos government during the late 1920s and the early 1930s. As one of the leaders of a pro-Venizelos coup attempt in March 1935, his failure resulted in his capture and eventual execution for treason on 24 April 1935 in Athens.


  1. ^ Note: Greece officially adopted the Gregorian calendar on 16 February 1923 (which became 1 March). All dates prior to that, unless specifically denoted, are Old Style.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Doganis, Th. (1930). "Παπούλας Ἀναστάσιος". Μεγάλη Στρατιωτικὴ καὶ Ναυτικὴ Ἐγκυκλοπαιδεία. Tόμος Πέμπτος: Νάβα–Σαρακηνοί [Great Military and Naval Encyclopaedia. Volume V: Nave–Saracens] (in Greek). Athens: Ἔκδοσις Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικῆς καὶ Ναυτικῆς Ἐγκυκλοπαιδείας. p. 255. OCLC 31255024.
Military offices
Preceded by
Lt. General Leonidas Paraskevopoulos
as Commander-in-chief of the Greek Army
Commander-in-chief of the Army of Asia Minor
12 November 1920 – 19 May 1922
Succeeded by
Lt. General Georgios Hatzianestis