Amalananda Ghosh

Amalananda Ghosh was an Indian archaeologist, the author and editor of numerous works on India's ancient civilizations, and the organizer and director of archaeological expeditions during the mid-1900s.

Amalananda Ghosh
Born(1910-03-03)3 March 1910
Known forRespected Indian archaeologist, former Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India


Ghosh was born on 3 March 1910 in Varanasi, India. He was educated in Varanasi and Allahabad and later received advanced training at the Institute of Archaeology at the University of London.[1][2]


Ghosh joined the Archaeological Survey of India in 1937 and eventually rose to become its Director-General. He served in that position from 1953 to 1968.[3]

During his period with the Survey, Ghosh led or participated in a number of excavations, including investigations at Pachmarhi,[4] Bikaner,[5] Brahmagiri,[6] Maski,[7] Taxila,[8] Arikamedu,[9] and Harappa.[10] In 1950, Ghosh organized and began a systematic exploration of the Bikaner site, along the dried-up bed of the ancient Saraswati River. Within a few months, his work uncovered 70 sites, 15 of which yielded similar antiquities to those found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro.[5]

During his tenure as Director General, the landmark Centenary of the Archaeological Survey of India was held in 1961.

Following his term with the Survey, Ghosh acted as a UNESCO consultant on archaeology to the Governments of Qatar (1968), Bahrain (1968), Saudi Arabia (1968–69) and Yemen (1970). He was a Fellow of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study from 1968 to 1971.[2]

Ghosh authored and edited a number of books and publications over the span of his career, including The Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology,[11] a comprehensive reference book on archaeological work conducted over the years in India. Other works include A Survey of the Recent Progress in Early Indian Archaeology,[12] The City in Early Historical India,[13] (13) and A Guide to Nālandā.[14]


With wife Sudha Ghosh, Amalananda had two children, Suparna Ghosh and Asim Ghosh. His affiliations included serving as Vice-President of the Royal India, Pakistan and Ceylon Society, London; Honorary Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London, and Honorary Fellow of the Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut, Berlin. He received the decoration of Padma Shri in 1962.[2]


  1. ^ Ghosh, Amalananda, The Free Dictionary [1] accessed 24 August 2011.
  2. ^ a b c An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology, Edited by Amalananda Ghosh [2] accessed 24 August 2011.
  3. ^ Indian Archaeology 1953-1954, A Review [3] Archived 11 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine accessed 24 Aug. 2011
  4. ^ Pachmarhi, Wikipedia
  5. ^ a b What Lies Beneath, Hindustan Times
  6. ^ Brahmagiri, Wikipedia
  7. ^ Maski, Wikipedia
  8. ^ Taxila, Wikipedia
  9. ^ Arikamedu, Wikipedia
  10. ^ Harappa, Wikipedia
  11. ^ An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology, Google Books
  12. ^ A Survey of the Recent Progress in Early Indian Archaeology, Google Books [4]
  13. ^ The City in Early Historical India, Google Books
  14. ^ A Guide to Nālandā

External linksEdit

Preceded by
Madho Sarup Vats
Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India
1953 - 1969
Succeeded by
B. B. Lal