Altamira, Pará

Altamira is one of one hundred and forty-four municipalities in the state of Pará, in northern Brazil. It has an area of 161,446 square kilometres or 62,335 square miles, making it the largest municipality by area both in Pará state and Brazil, and until 2009 it was the world's largest municipal subdivision. It occupies 12.8% of the state's territory, 1.8% of Brazil's territory and 0.8% of South America. It also covers a more extensive area than 104 countries, and is comparable to the US State of Missouri or Florida.

Altamira
Panorama view of Altamira and Xingu River
Panorama view of Altamira and Xingu River
Flag of Altamira
Flag
Official seal of Altamira
Seal
Location of Altamira
Location of Altamira
Altamira is located in Brazil
Altamira
Altamira
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 3°12′10″S 52°12′21″W / 3.20278°S 52.20583°W / -3.20278; -52.20583Coordinates: 3°12′10″S 52°12′21″W / 3.20278°S 52.20583°W / -3.20278; -52.20583
Country Brazil
RegionNorthern Region
StateBandeira do Pará.svg Pará
FoundedNovember 6, 1911
Government
 • MayorDomingos Juvenil
Area
 • Total159,533.73 km2 (61,596.32 sq mi)
Elevation
109 m (358 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total109,938
 • Density0.69/km2 (1.8/sq mi)

Altamira Municipality encompasses the Altamira city and district, the seat of local government, whose majority population lives in urban area, and nine other mostly rural districts (most of those covered by the Amazon rainforest), whose urban populations are minorities, and live in inhabited areas spaced by tens or hundreds of kilometers. According to the 2010 Brazilian National Census the municipality has 99,075 inhabitants, making a density of only 0.65 inhabitants per square kilometer at the same year. It is home to hundreds of indigenous communities and environmental protection areas. The infamous Belo Monte Dam, a hydroelectric dam complex is currently under construction in the area of the Xingu River in the municipality.

HistoryEdit

The history of Altamira traditionally includes the period from the installation of the Jesuit mission of the city to the present day. However, the municipal territory has been inhabited since time immemorial by nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous peoples.

Kuben-Kran-Keñ, an extinct Jê language belonging to the Kayapó group, was once spoken in the municipality.[1]

Mission TavaquaraEdit

Although it is well known that even before the eighteenth century former Jesuit Missions already inhabited the Xingu region, it was not until the 1750s that Father Roque Hunderfund entered the Xingu River until the Tucuruí Igarapé, later called Vitória. There, he made contacts with indigenous Xipaia and Kuruaya, who guided him towards Volta Grande do Xingu. There, near the mouth of the Panelas stream, they chose the foundation of the Tavaquara Mission, whose settlement formed the city of Altamira.

The policies of the Portuguese Prime Minister Marquês de Pombal, still in the eighteenth century, shut down all Jesuit missions in the colonies, causing the Tavaquara Mission to close its activities. The parish of Souzel continued to assist the village, but only in 1841 did Fr. Antonio Torquato de Souza reopen the sting that linked the Victoria stream on the lower Xingu ground to the Tavaquara Mission, higher up. crossing the waterfalls, making the work in Tavaquara more accessible.

Administrative recognitionEdit

The first administrative elevation took place on April 14, 1874, when the municipality of Souzel (now Senator José Porfírio ) was created, where the Tavaquara Mission (Altamira) was elevated to the status of village. During this period the village survived from the extraction and commercialization of rubber and other drugs from the backlands, as well as communicating with Souzel and Moz Port by steam navigation.

On April 2, 1883, under the influence of Colonel Francisco Gayoso, the town of Tavaquara was elevated to the town of Souzel, receiving the name of Altamira. Also under the influence of Colonel Gayoso, a bite was opened, linking the bass to the middle Xingu, with the objective of turning it into a road, employing African slave labor.

In 1880, Agrarian Cavalgante resumed the works of Col. Gayoso, rectifying the layout of the road, starting from where today is the headquarters of the municipality of Vitória do Xingu and arriving at the mouth of the Ambé stream, there building Fort Ambé, which no longer exists.

EconomyEdit

The municipal GDP is around US$450 million and is mainly linked to agricultural activities, trade and since 2010 has been driven by the construction of the Belo Monte Dam.

The municipality is served by Altamira Airport.

Belo Monte DamEdit

In Altamira the third-largest dam in the world by generating capacity (behind the Three Gorges Dam and Itaipu Dam), with a capacity of 11.233 GW, is being built. As of October 2019 all turbines at Pimental and 17 turbines in main power powerhouse are online with total installed capacity of 10,388.87 MW at Belo Monte site, totaling 10,621.97 with the Pimental site.[2]

GeographyEdit

Altamira is located in a transition area between the Brazilian Highlands and Amazonian Lowlands, is situated on the shores of the Xingu River a tributary of the Amazon River, with average elevation of 109 meters.

The municipality contains part of the 724,965 hectares (1,791,430 acres) Altamira National Forest, a sustainable use conservation unit created in 1998.[3] The municipality contains part of the Jamanxim National Park, a protected area.[4] It contains part of the 3,373,134 hectares (8,335,200 acres) Terra do Meio Ecological Station, a strictly protected conservation unit created in 2005.[5] It also contains part of the 342,192 hectares (845,570 acres) Nascentes da Serra do Cachimbo Biological Reserve, a strictly protected conservation unit established in 2005.[6] The municipality contains 49% of the 445,408 hectares (1,100,630 acres) Serra do Pardo National Park, established at the same time.[7]

ClimateEdit

The climate of Altamira is tropical humid, with high temperatures all year and average rainfall of 1844 mm (72 inches) annually. The seasons are undefined, with only change in rainfall rate.

Climate data for Altamira
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.7
(85.5)
29.7
(85.5)
29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.9
(87.6)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
32.1
(89.8)
31.7
(89.1)
31.1
(88.0)
30.6
(87.1)
30.8
(87.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
25.8
(78.4)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79.0)
25.8
(78.4)
25.7
(78.3)
26.2
(79.2)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
26.2
(79.2)
26.2
(79.2)
Average low °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
21.9
(71.4)
21.9
(71.4)
22.0
(71.6)
21.2
(70.2)
20.6
(69.1)
20.8
(69.4)
21.3
(70.3)
21.7
(71.1)
22.1
(71.8)
22.1
(71.8)
21.6
(70.9)
21.6
(70.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 269
(10.6)
270
(10.6)
330
(13.0)
270
(10.6)
198
(7.8)
114
(4.5)
53
(2.1)
41
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
35
(1.4)
82
(3.2)
148
(5.8)
1,844
(72.5)
Source: [8]

MediaEdit

Altamira is an important destination in the 1979 movie Bye Bye Brasil.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  2. ^ "A história de Belo Monte – Cronologia". Norte Energia (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  3. ^ Unidade de Conservação: Floresta Nacional Altamira (in Portuguese), MMA: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, retrieved May 29, 2016
  4. ^ Unidade de Conservação: Parque Nacional do Jamanxim (in Portuguese), MMA: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, retrieved May 19, 2016[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ Unidade de Conservação: Estação Ecológica da Terra do Meio (in Portuguese), MMA: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, archived from the original on October 1, 2018, retrieved May 29, 2016
  6. ^ Unidade de Conservação: Reserva Biológica Nascentes Serra do Cachimbo (in Portuguese), MMA: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, retrieved May 27, 2016
  7. ^ PARNA da Serra do Pardo (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved August 8, 2016
  8. ^ "Clima Altamira". Retrieved April 15, 2019.