Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن الطيب الباقلاني; c. 940 - 5 June 1013), often known as al-Bāqillānī for short, or reverentially as Imam al-Bāqillānī by Sunni Muslims, was a famous Sunni Islamic theologian, jurist, and logician who spent much of his life defending and strengthening orthodox Sunni Islam. An accomplished rhetorical stylist and master orator, al-Baqillani was held in high regard by his contemporaries for his expertise in debating even the most complex of theological and jurisprudential issues. Al-Baqillani is often given the honorary epithets Shaykh al-Sunna ("Doctor of the Prophetic Way"), Lisān al-Umma ("Mouthpiece of the Community"), Imād al-Dīn ("Pillar of the Faith"), Nāsir al-Islām ("Guardian of Islam"), and Sayf as-Sunna ("Sword of the Prophetic Way") in Sunni tradition.
Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī
|Title||Sayf as-Sunna ("Sword of the Prophetic way"), Imād al-Dīn ("Pillar of the Faith"), Nāsir al-Islām ("Protector of Islam")|
Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqillānī
|Main interest(s)||Theology (Kalam), Philosophy, Logic, Islamic Jurisprudence|
|Notable work(s)||Kitāb al-Tamhīd, Kitāb I'jaz al-Qur'ān|
Born in Basra in 330/950, he spent most of his life in Baghdad, and studied theology under two disciples of al-Ash'ari, Ibn Mujahid al-Ta'i and Abu'l Hasan al-Bahili. He also studied jurisprudence under the Maliki scholars Abu Abdullah al-Shirazi and Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani. After acquiring expertise in both Islamic theology and Maliki jurisprudence he expounding the teachings of the Ash'ari school, and taught Maliki jurisprudence in Baghdad. He held the office of chief Qadi in Baghdad and in 'Ukbara, a town not far from the capital. al-Bāqillānī became a popular lecturer, and took part in debates with well-known scholars of the day. Because of his logical acumen and swift, unhesitating replies, the caliph 'Adud al-Dawla dispatched him as an envoy to the Byzantine court in Constantinople and he debated Christian scholars in the presence of their king in 371/981.
He died in 403/1013.
He supported the doctrine of the apologetic miracle being proof of prophecy, the noncreation of the Quran, intercession, and the possibility of seeing God.
Fifty-five titles of works written by Al-Baqillani have been listed, the great majority on legal and theological matters, and many written against heretical Muslim and other opponents.
- I‘jāz al-Qur’ān (The Inimitability of the Qur'an)
- Al-Intiṣār lil-Qur’ān
- Al-Taqrīb wa-al-irshād al-ṣaghīr
- Kitāb tamhīd al-awāʼil wa-talkhīṣ al-dalāʼil (The Introduction).
- Al-Inṣāf fīmā yajibu i‘tiqāduhu wa-lā yajūzu al-jahl bihi fī ‘ilm al-kalām
- Manāqib al-A’immah al-arba‘ah
- Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm, p 53. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1996. ISBN 9004100342.
- Camilla Adang, Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm, p 51. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1996. ISBN 9004100342.
- David Richard Thomas, Christian Doctrines in Islamic Theology, p 119. Vol. 10 of History of Christian-Muslim Relations Series. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9004169350
- Adang, Camilla; Fierro, Maribel; Schmidtke, Sabine (2012). Ibn Hazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East). Volume I (A-B). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 384. ISBN 978-90-04-23424-6.
- W. M. Watt, Islamic Philosophy and Theology (Edinburgh University Press, 1985), p. 76.
- Ansari, Hassan, Melvin-Koushki, Matthew, Tareh, Masoud, Khodaverdian, Shahram, Omidi, Jalil and Gholami, Rahim, “al-Bāqillānī, Abū Bakr”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
- Richard C. Martín, Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, Volume 1, p 105. ISBN 0028656032
- Nuh Keller, Reliance of the Traveller, x32. p 1026. Amana Publications, 1997. ISBN 0915957728
- David Richard Thomas, Christian Doctrines in Islamic Theology, p 120. Vol. 10 of History of Christian-Muslim Relations Series. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9004169350
- at-tawhid.net. "Abû Bakr Al Bâqillânî - ابو بكر الباقلّاني (m.403) - at-tawhid.net". at-tawhid.net. Archived from the original on 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
- David Richard Thomas, Christian Doctrines in Islamic Theology, p 121. Vol. 10 of History of Christian-Muslim Relations Series. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9004169350
- Biography of Imâm Al Bâqillânî by Al Qâdî 'Iyâd Al Yahsubî
- Biography of Imâm Al Bâqillânî by Shaykh Jibrîl Al Haddâd
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