Shiromani Akali Dal
The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a centre-right Sikh-centric state political party in Punjab, India. The party is the second-oldest in India, after Congress, being founded in 1920. Although, there are many parties with the name Akali Dal but the party recognised as "Shiromani Akali Dal" by the Election Commission of India is the one led by Sukhbir Singh Badal. It controls Sikh religious bodies Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee and is the largest and most influential Sikh political party worldwide. The basic philosophy of Akali Dal was to give a political voice to Sikh issues and it believed that religion and politics go hand in hand but after 1996 Moga Conference party adopted moderate Punjabi secular agenda. Shiromani Akali Dal is part of the BJP led NDA.
|President||Sukhbir Singh Badal|
|Lok Sabha leader||Harsimrat Kaur Badal|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Naresh Gujral|
|Founded||14 December 1920|
|Headquarters||Block #6, Madhya Marg|
Sector 28, Chandigarh
|Student wing||Student Organisation of India  (SOI)|
|Youth wing||Youth Akali Dal|
|Women's wing||Istri Akali Dal|
|Labour wing||Shiromani Akali Dal SC wing|
|Peasant's wing||Shiromani Akali Dal BC wing|
|International affiliation||Shiromani Akali Dal NRI wing|
|Colours||Navy Blue, Orange|
|ECI Status||State Party|
|Alliance||National Democratic Alliance|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
2 / 543
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
3 / 245
|Seats in Punjab Legislative Assembly|
14 / 117
Akali Dal was formed on 14 December 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body. The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. Sardar Sarmukh Singh Chubbal was the first president of a unified proper Akali Dal, but it became popular under Master Tara Singh. Akali movement influenced 30 new Punjabi newspapers launched between 1920 and 1925.
In the provincial election of 1937, the Akali Dal won 10 seats. The Khalsa Nationalists won 11 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist leader Sikander Hyat Khan. The Akalis sat in opposition and made occasional forays into reaching an understanding with the Muslim League, which never reached fruition.
In the provincial election of 1946, the Akali Dal won 22 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana, along with the Indian National Congress. The Muslim League was unable to capture power, despite having won the largest number of seats, which perhaps suited it fine as it strengthened its Pakistan demand. The Muslim League launched a civil disobedience campaign, bringing down the Tiwana government by March 1947. The rest of the period till Indian independence was filled by Governor's Rule.
In the 1950s, the party launched the Punjabi Suba movement, demanding a state with majority of Punjabi speaking people, out of undivided East Punjab under the leadership of Sant Fateh Singh. In 1966, the present Punjab was formed. Akali Dal came to power in the new Punjab in March 1967, but early governments didn't live long due to internal conflicts and power struggles within the party. Later, party strengthened and party governments completed full term.
Shiromani Akali Dal's party constitution has important agenda as protection of Sikh religion and objectives of the community as initially it was a youth wing of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. Protection of Punjab's waters and opposition to Sutlej Yamuna link canal is main agenda of party.
1996 Moga ConferenceEdit
Following is the list of presidents of the party as given on party website.
- Sarmukh Singh Chubbal
- Baba Kharak Singh
- Karam Singh Bassi (Akali)
- Master Tara Singh
- Gopal Singh Kaumi
- Tara Singh Thethar
- Teja Singh Akarpu
- Babu Labh Singh
- Udham Singh Nagoke
- Giani Kartar Singh
- Pritam Singh Gojran (Gujjran Sangrur)
- Hukam Singh
- Fateh Singh
- Achar Singh
- Bhupinder Singh
- Mohan Singh Tur
- Jagdev Singh Talwandi
- Harchand Singh Longowal
- Surjit Singh Barnala
- Simranjit Singh Mann
- Parkash Singh Badal
Current Members in HousesEdit
|Rajya Sabha||3||Naresh Gujral|
|Lok Sabha||2||Harsimrat Kaur Badal|
|Punjab Legislative Assembly||14/117||Sharanjit Singh Dhillon|
Punjab Chief Ministers belonging to Akali DalEdit
- Gurnam Singh (17 February 1969 – 27 March 1970)
- Parkash Singh Badal (27 March 1970 – 14 June 1971)
- Parkash Singh Badal ( 20 June 1977 – 17 February 1980)
- Surjit Singh Barnala (29 September 1985 – 11 June 1987)
- Parkash Singh Badal (12 February 1997 – 26 February 2002)
- Parkash Singh Badal (1 March 2007 – 16 March 2017)
In general electionsEdit
In state electionsEdit
- "SOI Clash". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- World, Republic. "WATCH: Youth Akali Dal protests against Nankana Sahib Gurdwara attack". Republic World. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- Pioneer, The. "Istri Akali Dal protests in front of CM residence". The Pioneer. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "SAD's SC wing feels 'powerless' in Pathankot". The Indian Express. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Jerath, Arati R (14 January 2017). "SAD activists seek BC candidate". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "SAD aims to widen reach, to contest UP poll". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "In post-Independence India, the SAD launched the Punjabi Suba morcha in the 1960s, seeking the re-organisation of Punjab on linguistic basis". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- "Parkash Singh Badal calls for 'genuinely federal structure' for country". The Economic Times. 7 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Bharti, Vishav (6 August 2019). "Article 370: SAD 'dumps' its core ideology of federalism". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Grover, Verinder (1996). Encyclopaedia of India and Her States: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab, Volume 4. Deep & Deep. p. 578.
- Roy, Meenu (1996). India Votes, Elections 1996: A Critical Analysis. Deep & Deep Publications. ISBN 978-81-7100-900-8.
- Chum, B. K. (1 December 2013). Behind Closed Doors: Politics of Punjab, Haryana and the Emergency. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-93-81398-62-3.
- "SAD announces party organisation for Canada". Hindustan Times. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Kumar, Ashutosh (2004). "Electoral Politics in Punjab: Study of Akali Dal". Economic and Political Weekly. 39 (14/15): 1515–1520. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4414869.
- Narang, Amarjit Singh (1 March 2014). "The Shiromani Akali Dal". The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199699308.013.020.
- VINAYAK, RAMESH. "Akali Dal led by Parkash Singh Badal break from the past to forge a moderate agenda". India Today. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Punjab Ke Dangal Mein Kiska Mangal?". NewsClick. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- Bharti, Vishav. "How it became Punjabi journalism's finest hour". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Jalal, The Sole Spokesman 1994, p. 23, 97.
- Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History 1998, p. 74.
- Kudaisya, Gyanesh; Yong, Tan Tai (2004). The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-134-44048-1.
No sooner was it made public than the Sikhs launched a virulent campaign against the Lahore Resolution. Pakistan was portrayed as a possible return to an unhappy past when Sikhs were persecuted and Muslims the persecutor. Public speeches by various Sikh political leaders on the subject of Pakistan invariably raised images of atrocities committed by Muslims on Sikhs and of the martyrdom of their gurus and heroes. Reactions to the Lahore Resolution were uniformly negative and Sikh leaders of all political persuasions made it clear that Pakistan would be 'wholeheartedly resisted'. The Shiromani Akali Dal, the party with a substantial following amongst the rural Sikhs, organized several well-attended conferences in Lahore to condemn the Muslim League. Master Tara Singh, leader of the Akali Dal, declared that his party would fight Pakistan 'tooth and nail'. Not be outdone, other Sikh political organizations, rival to the Akali Dal, namely the Central Khalsa Young Men Union and the moderate and loyalist Chief Khalsa Dewan, declared in equally strong language their unequivocal opposition to the Pakistan scheme.
- Service, Tribune News. "Shiromani Akali Dal, since 1920". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Singh, I. P. "Being Badals". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Singh, Jupinderjit. "Any history of SAD has to be critical of Badals". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Bariana, Sanjeev Singh. "'We've sacrificed a lot in the long journey of making party relevant in Indian polity'". The Tribune. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- ""Panth in danger" – Badal's politics shifts back from Chandigarh to Amritsar". Times of India Blog. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- Akali Dal – Sant Fateh Singh, a splinter group won 3 seats
- Jalal, Ayesha (1994) [First published 1985], The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45850-4
- Jalal, Ayesha (2002), Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-59937-0
- Talbot, Ian (1998), Pakistan: A Modern History, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-21606-1
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer. Sikh Twareekh. Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2007. 5 volumes (in Punjabi)
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer. Sikh History. Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2010-11. 10 volumes
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer. Shiromani Akali Dal (1920-2000). Sikh University Press, Belgium, 2001.