Coordinates: 58°46′46.53″N 7°40′6.45″E / 58.7795917°N 7.6684583°E / 58.7795917; 7.6684583

Agder[1] is a county (fylke) and historical district of Norway in Norway's southernmost region.

Agder fylke
Arendal
Agder within Norway
Agder within Norway
CountryNorway
CountyAgder
RegionSouthern Norway
County IDNO-42
Area
 • Total16,434.12 km2 (6,345.25 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total306,849
 • Density19/km2 (48/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Websiteagderfk.no

Before 1 January 2020, the region was divided in two counties, Vest-Agder and Aust-Agder.[2] Since the early 1900s, the term Sørlandet ("south country") has been commonly used for this region, sometimes with the inclusion of neighbouring Rogaland. Before that, the area was considered a part of Western Norway.[3]

The area was a medieval petty kingdom, and after Norway's unification became known as Egdafylki and later Agdesiden, a county within the kingdom of Norway. The name Agder was not used after 1662, when the area was split into smaller governmental units called Nedenæs, Råbyggelaget, Lister, and Mandal. The name was resurrected in 1919 when two counties of Norway that roughly corresponded to the old Agdesiden county were renamed Aust-Agder (East Agder) and Vest-Agder (West Agder). Even before the two counties joined in 2020, they cooperated in many ways; the University of Agder had sites in both Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder, as did many other institutions, such as the Diocese of Agder og Telemark, the Agder Court of Appeal, and the Agder Police District.

NameEdit

The name Agder is older than the Norwegian language. Its meaning is not known. Just as the Norwegian language derives from Old Norse, Agder derives from the Old Norse word Agðir. In the early Viking Age, before Harald Fairhair, Agðir was a petty kingdom inhabited by a people named after it, the Egðir.[3]

Nothing in Old Norse gives any hint as to the word's meaning; it was not produced (from known segments) in Old Norse, which means the name is older still. The Egðir are believed to be the same etymologically as the Augandzi people mentioned in the Getica of Jordanes, who wrote of Scandza (Scandinavia) in the 6th century. If Jordanes's Scandza is a palatalized form of *Scandia, then Augandzi is likely a palatalized form of *Augandii, residents of *Augandia.[4]

A name of that period would have to be closer to Proto-Germanic; in fact, a word of that period does present itself and fits the geographical lore of the times: *agwjō (meaning "island"),[5] which Jordanes and all his predecessors writing of Scandinavia believed it to be. A simple metathesis produces a possibly late form, *augjo-, but this derivation is speculative. There is no other evidence on Auganza, and its connection to Egder is hypothetical too.

MunicipalitiesEdit

Agder has 25 municipalities.[6]

No. Municipality No. Name Created Former Municipality No. Former County
1 4201 Risør January 1, 2020 0901 Risør Aust-Agder
2 4202 Grimstad January 1, 2020 0904 Grimstad
3 4203 Arendal January 1, 2020 0906 Arendal
4 4204 Kristiansand January 1, 2020 1001 Kristiansand
1017 Songdalen
1018 Søgne
Vest-Agder
5 4205 Lindesnes January 1, 2020 1002 Mandal
1021 Marnardal
1029 Lindesnes
6 4206 Farsund January 1, 2020 1003 Farsund
7 4207 Flekkefjord January 1, 2020 1004 Flekkefjord
8 4211 Gjerstad January 1, 2020 0911 Gjerstad Aust-Agder
9 4212 Vegårshei January 1, 2020 0912 Vegårshei
10 4213 Tvedestrand January 1, 2020 0914 Tvedestrand
11 4214 Froland January 1, 2020 0919 Froland
12 4215 Lillesand January 1, 2020 0926 Lillesand
13 4216 Birkenes January 1, 2020 0928 Birkenes
14 4217 Åmli January 1, 2020 0929 Åmli
15 4218 Iveland January 1, 2020 0935 Iveland
16 4219 Evje og Hornnes January 1, 2020 0937 Evje og Hornnes
17 4220 Bygland January 1, 2020 0938 Bygland
18 4221 Valle January 1, 2020 0940 Valle
19 4222 Bykle January 1, 2020 0941 Bykle
20 4223 Vennesla January 1, 2020 1014 Vennesla Vest-Agder
21 4224 Åseral January 1, 2020 1026 Åseral
22 4225 Lyngdal January 1, 2020 1027 Audnedal
1032 Lyngdal
23 4226 Hægebostad January 1, 2020 1034 Hægebostad
24 4227 Kvinesdal January 1, 2020 1037 Kvinesdal
25 4228 Sirdal January 1, 2020 1046 Sirdal

HistoryEdit

Norway of the Viking Age was divided into petty kingdoms ruled by chiefs who contended for land, maritime supremacy or political ascendance and sought alliances or control through marriage with other royal families, either voluntary or forced. These circumstances produced the generally turbulent and heroic lives recorded in the Heimskringla.

For example, the Ynglinga saga tells us that Harald Redbeard, chief of Agðir, refused his daughter Åsa to Gudröd Halvdanson, on which event Gudröd invaded Agðir, killed Harald and his son Gyrd, and took Åsa whether she would or no. She bore a son, Halvdan (the Black), obviously named after his deceased grandfather, and later arranged to have Gudröd assassinated. Among the royal families these events seem to have been rather ordinary. Her word was the last in the argument, as her grandson, Harald Fairhair, unified Norway.

Kings of AgderEdit

Legendary KingsEdit

Monarchs of Agder: 790–987Edit

Prior to the Viking Age is a gap in the history of the region for a few hundred years, but in Jordanes we also find regions of the same but earlier forms of names, presumably also petty kingdoms under now unknown chiefs. The previous most credible source, Ptolemy, gives the briefest of sketches, only citing all of Norway as the Chaedini ("country people"). Perhaps the difference between kingdoms were not sufficiently important to cite them individually.

Prior to then the most credible and respected source, Tacitus in Germania Chapter 44 described the Suiones, who were divided into civitates (kingdoms?) along the coast of Scandinavia and were unusual in owning fleets of a special type of ship. These were pointed on both ends and were driven by banks of oars that could be rearranged or shipped for river passage. They did not depend on sail (so Tacitus says) but other than that they do not differ from Viking ships. These civitates went all the way around Scandinavia to the Arctic, or at least to regions of very long days, where they stopped.

It seems clear that in the Roman Iron Age Norway was populated by people of the same identity as Sweden, who were called the Suiones by Latin sources. In settling the coast at some point in prehistory they had been divided into civitates by the terrain. These states took on mainly geographical names or names of individuals or mythological characters. Agder was one of them.

After the unification of Norway by Harold Fairhair and army and allies in the 10th century, all the civitates became provinces (fylker) and after their conversion to Christianity they became dioceses or parishes. The development of Old Norse into local dialects and the dissimilation of customs due to isolation added an ethnic flavor to the area, which is cherished today.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Arealstatistikk for Norge". Kartverket (in Norwegian Bokmål). 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  2. ^ http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/kommunesammenslaaing/dette-er-norges-nye-regioner/a/23931222/
  3. ^ a b Store norske leksikon. "Agder" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  4. ^ Völundarhúsins, Freyia. "Augandzi (The Tribe and Kingdom of Agder, Norway)". Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  5. ^ "Indo-European Roots Appendix". The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  6. ^ List of Norwegian municipality numbers