List of demonyms for US states and territories
(Redirected from Adjectivals and demonyms for U.S. states)
(recommended by US GPO)
|Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives|
|American Samoa||American Samoan, Samoan: Amerika Samoa|
|Connecticut||Connecticuter||Connecticotian, Connecticutensian, Nutmeg, Nutmegger|
|Delaware||Delawarean||Blue Hen's Chicken, Muskrat|
|District of Columbia||Washingtonian (see also nicknames of people of Washington state)|
|Florida||Floridian||Alligator, Cracker, Fly-Up-the-Creek, Spanish: Floridano|
|Georgia||Georgian||Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber|
|Guam||Guamanian, Chamorro: Tåotåo Guåhån|
|Hawaii||Hawaii resident||Islander, Kamaʻāina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent.|
|Illinois||Illinoisan||Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander, Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian|
|Indiana||Hoosier||Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016), Indianian (archaic)|
|Kansas||Kansan||Sunflower, Jayhawker, Grasshopper|
|Louisiana||Louisianian||(French: Louisianais, Spanish: Luisiano)|
|Maine||Mainer||Down Easter or Downeaster, Mainiac|
|Massachusetts||Massachusettsan||Bay Stater (official term used by state government), Massachusettsian, Massachusite, Masshole (derogatory as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym)|
|Michigan||Michiganian||Michigander, Wolverine, Michiganite, Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively), Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michigander")|
|Missouri||Missourian||(French: Missourien, Spanish: Misuriano)|
|Nebraska||Nebraskan||Bugeaters or Cornhuskers |
|New Hampshire||New Hampshirite||New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman|
|New Jersey||New Jerseyan||Jerseyite, New Jerseyite|
|New Mexico||New Mexican||Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano|
|New York||New Yorker||Knickerbocker|
|North Carolina||North Carolinian||Tar Heel, Tar Boiler|
|North Dakota||North Dakotan|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Mariana Islander, Chamorro: Tåotåo Mariånas|
|Ohio||Ohioan||Buckeye, Ohian (obsolete)|
|Pennsylvania||Pennsylvanian||Pennamite, Keystoner, Pennsylvania German: Pennsylfaanier|
|Puerto Rico||Puerto Rican||Boricua|
|Rhode Island||Rhode Islander||Rhodean, Swamp Yankee|
|South Carolina||South Carolinian||Sandlapper|
|South Dakota||South Dakotan|
|Tennessee||Tennessean||Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut|
|Texas||Texan||Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical), Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)|
|Virgin Islands||Virgin Islander|
|West Virginia||West Virginian|
|Wisconsin||Wisconsinite||Badger, Cheesehead, Sconnie|
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for astronomical bodies
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for continental regions
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Australia
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Canada
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Cuba
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for India
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Malaysia
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for Mexico
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for New Zealand
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for the Philippines
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for cities
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions
- List of adjectivals and demonyms for fictional regions
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names
- U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23.
- Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
- "The State of Alabama". Netstate.
- Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009.
- "Ar•kie". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan).
- Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post.
- "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "The State of Florida". Netstate.
- "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. June 27, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995.
- "The State of Idaho". Netstate.
- Jim Fitzgerald (October 6, 1987). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!". ChicagoTribune.com.
- "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Indianian". Oxford Dictionaries.
- "The State of Iowa". Netstate.com.
- "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2.
- "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938. (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
- "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved February 29, 2008.: "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
- Safire, William (June 6, 1982). "On Language". The New York Times.
- Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435.
- Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd (ed.). History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465.
- Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270.
- "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". masslive.com. June 25, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8.
- Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. JSTOR 453592.
- "MDE - Michigan Glossary". Michigan.gov. January 30, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Football Players to Eat Corn, Not Bugs". History Nebraska. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. April 13, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary
- New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
- Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
- "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Ohian". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
- Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2.
Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
- "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "History of". Luzerne County. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved September 2, 2015.
- "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - providencejournal.com - Providence Journal". Projo.com. July 17, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "South Carolina - Origin of the Terms Sandlapper, Sand-lapper, and Sand Lapper".
- "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn (eds.). Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2.
- "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
- Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- Partridge, Eric (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 1678. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
- "Chicago Daily Tribune". June 2, 1903. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)