List of demonyms for US states and territories

This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms used to designate the citizens of specific states, federal district, and territories of the United States of America.

ListEdit

State
federal district
or territory
Official
(recommended by US GPO)[1]
Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives
  Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[2][3]
  Alaska Alaskan Russian: Аляскинский
  American Samoa American Samoan, Samoan: Amerika Samoa
  Arizona Arizonan Spanish: Arizoniano
  Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer,[4] Arkie[5]
  California Californian Californio (archaic)
  Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic)[6][7]
  Connecticut Connecticuter Connecticotian,[8][9] Connecticutensian,[8][9] Nutmeg,[8][9] Nutmegger[8][9]
  Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken,[10] Muskrat[10]
  District of Columbia Washingtonian (see also nicknames of people of Washington state)
  Florida Floridian Alligator,[11] Cracker,[12] Fly-Up-the-Creek[11], Spanish: Floridano
  Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber[13]
  Guam Guamanian, Chamorro: Tåotåo Guåhån
  Hawaii Hawaii resident Islander,[14] Kamaʻāina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent.[15]
  Idaho Idahoan Fortune Seekers[16]
  Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander,[17] Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian[18]
  Indiana Hoosier Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016),[1] Indianian (archaic)[19]
  Iowa Iowan Hawkeye[20]
  Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Jayhawker, Grasshopper[21]
  Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker[22]
  Louisiana Louisianian (French: Louisianais, Spanish: Luisiano)
  Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster,[23] Mainiac[24]
  Maryland Marylander
  Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government),[25] Massachusettsian,[26] Massachusite,[27][28] Masshole (derogatory[29] as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym[30])
  Michigan Michiganian Michigander,[31] Wolverine,[32][33] Michiganite, Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively),[34] Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michigander")[34]
  Minnesota Minnesotan Gopher
  Mississippi Mississippian
  Missouri Missourian (French: Missourien, Spanish: Misuriano)
  Montana Montanan
  Nebraska Nebraskan Bugeaters or Cornhuskers [35]
  Nevada Nevadan
  New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman[36]
  New Jersey New Jerseyan Jerseyite, New Jerseyite
  New Mexico New Mexican Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano[37]
  New York New Yorker Knickerbocker[38][39]
  North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler[40]
  North Dakota North Dakotan
  Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islander, Chamorro: Tåotåo Mariånas
  Ohio Ohioan Buckeye,[41] Ohian (obsolete)[42]
  Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie,[43] Sooner[44]
  Oregon Oregonian
  Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite,[45] Keystoner, Pennsylvania German: Pennsylfaanier
  Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Boricua[46]
  Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee[47]
  South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper[48]
  South Dakota South Dakotan
  Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[49]
  Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical),[50] Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)
  Utah Utahn Utahan
  Vermont Vermonter
  Virgin Islands Virgin Islander
  Virginia Virginian
  Washington Washingtonian
  West Virginia West Virginian
  Wisconsin Wisconsinite Badger,[51] Cheesehead,[52][53] Sconnie[54]
  Wyoming Wyomingite Wyomese[55]

MapEdit

 
Map of official demonyms as recommended by the US GPO.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23.
  2. ^ Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  3. ^ "The State of Alabama". Netstate.
  4. ^ Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009.
  5. ^ "Ar•kie". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  6. ^ Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan).
  7. ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post.
  8. ^ a b c d "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  10. ^ a b "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  11. ^ a b "The State of Florida". Netstate.
  12. ^ "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. June 27, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
  13. ^ "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  14. ^ "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  15. ^ Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995.
  16. ^ "The State of Idaho". Netstate.
  17. ^ Jim Fitzgerald (October 6, 1987). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!". ChicagoTribune.com.
  18. ^ "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  19. ^ "Indianian". Oxford Dictionaries.
  20. ^ "The State of Iowa". Netstate.com.
  21. ^ "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  22. ^ Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  23. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2.
  24. ^ "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938. (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  25. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved February 29, 2008.: "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  26. ^ Safire, William (June 6, 1982). "On Language". The New York Times.
  27. ^ Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435.
  28. ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd (ed.). History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465.
  29. ^ Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270.
  30. ^ "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". masslive.com. June 25, 2015. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  31. ^ "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  32. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8.
  33. ^ Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592. JSTOR 453592.
  34. ^ a b "MDE - Michigan Glossary". Michigan.gov. January 30, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  35. ^ "Football Players to Eat Corn, Not Bugs". History Nebraska. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  36. ^ "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. April 13, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  37. ^ Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  38. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  39. ^ New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  40. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
  41. ^ "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  42. ^ "Ohian". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
  43. ^ Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
  44. ^ "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  45. ^ "History of". Luzerne County. Archived from the original on March 27, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  46. ^ "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved September 2, 2015.
  47. ^ "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - providencejournal.com - Providence Journal". Projo.com. July 17, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  48. ^ "South Carolina - Origin of the Terms Sandlapper, Sand-lapper, and Sand Lapper".
  49. ^ "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
  50. ^ de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn (eds.). Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2.
  51. ^ "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
  52. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  53. ^ Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  54. ^ Partridge, Eric (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z. Taylor & Francis. p. 1678. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  55. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune". June 2, 1903. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

External linksEdit