Abul Hasan Hankari (Arabic: ا بوالحسن ہنکاری‎)[1] Abu Al Hasan Ali Bin Mohammad Qureshi Hankari (born in 409 Hijri, in the town of Hankar), town of Mosul (city of northern Iraq, some 400 km north of Baghdad), died 1st Moharram 486 AH (1 February 1093 C.E), in Baghdad,[2] (1077–1166 CE), was a Muslim mystic[3] also renowned as one of the most influential Muslim scholar, philosopher, theologian and jurist of his time and Sufi based in Hankar.[4]

Abul Hasan Ali bin Mohammad Qureshi Hankari
ا بوالحسن ہنکاری
TitleShaikh ul Islam
Personal
Born
Abu al-Hassan Ali Bin Mohammad Qureshi Hankari

409 AH, 1018 CE
Hankar village, Mosul Iraq
Died1st Moharram 486 AH, 1 February 1093 CE
ReligionIslam
EraIslamic Golden Age
RegionHankar (Mosul), Iraq
Abbasid Caliphate(Baghdad)/(Jerusalem)/(Damascus)
DenominationSunni Islam
Main interest(s)Sufism, theology, philosophy, logic, Islamic jurisprudence
Senior posting

Contents

BiographyEdit

He got education from his father. He was a man acquainted with the hidden secrets and was known for his Karamats. He would fast for 3 consecutive days and complete 2 whole Quran between Isha and Tahajjud. He devoutly stayed in worship day and night. He had the habit of practicing excessive religious exercises and recitals. He traveled across many countries to get religious knowledge. From Rome to Spain to Harmain, etc. he met numerous scholars and shaikhs from whom he began to receive instruction in Fiqh and muhaddiths from whom he memorized ahadith by heart. He even met Shaikh Abu al-Layla Misri and heard hadith from him. All Hafiz (memorizers of Quran), Muhaddiths (narrators of Hadiths), Qaries (reciters of Quran with correct accent and pronunciation) are given a chain of credible narrators linking to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[5] He gained exoteric and esoteric education from the most prominent and influential scholars of his time. He even got spiritual beneficence from Bayazid Bastami. After sometime, he went back to his homeland. Hence, the people around him gave him a lot of respect and he gained fame. He earned the title of Shaikh-ul-Islam due to the unmatched religious knowledge and beneficence of the time. Countless seekers of Allah benefitted from him as he was an Arif Kamil. He was the Imam of Shariat and Tariqat of his time. He wore the khirqa of khilafat from Mohammad Yousaf Abu al-Farah Tartusi who was the Qutb of that time.[6] The period between the 11th and 14th centuries is considered to be the "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, he has an important role to play in it as he was one of those early Sufis who brought logic into the Islamic seminary.[7][8]

Ancestral lineageEdit

Abul Hasan Hankari bin yusaf bin Muhammad bin Umar bin Abdul wahab bin ameer zaid bin imam Muhammad Harris bin ameer ul momineen Ali al murtaza karma ullah wagihul kareem bin abi talib bin abu mutalib bin hashim bin abdul manaf His descendants later spread to the State of Bahawalpur, Azalah, Jhang, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Faisalabad, Lahore, etc.[9]

Saintly LineageEdit

The spiritual heritage of Faqr was passed on to Abul Hasan Hankari though the silsila of Junaid al-Baghdadi which makes him a spiritual descendant of the Islamic prophet Mohammad in the following order:[10][11]

  1. Muhammad
  2. 'Alī bin Abī Ṭālib
  3. al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī
  4. Habib al Ajami
  5. Dawud Tai
  6. Maruf Karkhi
  7. Sirri Saqti
  8. Junaid Baghdadi
  9. Abu Bakr Shibli
  10. Abdul Aziz bin Hars bin Asad Yemeni Tamimi
  11. Abu Al Fazal Abdul Wahid Yemeni Tamimi
  12. Mohammad Yousaf Abu al-Farah Tartusi
  13. Abu-al-Hassan Ali Bin Mohammad Qureshi Hankari

The Murshid of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi spent 18 years at the service of Abul Hasan Hankari and led the silsila after him.[12][13]

StudentsEdit

Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi was the khalifa-e-akbar (senior spiritual successor)[14]
Tahir (son of Abul Hasan Hankari) was khalifa-e-asghar (junior spiritual successor) [15][16][17]

InfluencedEdit

Abul Hasan Hankari influenced a lot of scholars and Islamic scholars alike most of whom have a notable name in the history such as:

  1. Hujjat-ul-Islam Imam Mohammad Ghazali Tusi (505 H/1111 CE);[18]
  2. Hafiz Darqatni;
  3. Sartaj Nehyan Ibn Jani;
  4. Sartaj Bilfar Badee
  5. Qadwari Shaikh Al-Hanafia (428H);
  6. Avicenna (427H);[19]
  7. Imam Behqi;[20][21]
  8. Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani (471H);
  9. Shaikh Abu al-Hassan al-Kharaqani.[22]

DeathEdit

He died on 1st Moharram 486 H, 1 February 1093 CE during the Abbassid Caliphate. His shrine is the village of Hankar, Baghdad.[15]

Further readingEdit

  • Zikr Hasan Allama Ghulam Dastgeer
  • Al-Darul Munzim Fi Manaqib Ghaus-ul-Azam
  • Tazkira Mashaikh Qadria Rizvia

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Names".
  2. ^ The works of Shaykh Umar Eli of Somalia of al-Tariqat al-Qadiriyyah.
  3. ^ W. Braune, Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 69.
  4. ^ Muhammad Riyaz Qadri, Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. Mystical Discourses of Ghaus-e-Azam. Abbasi Publications. ISBN 9789698510213.
  5. ^ Names, Tawassul of Qadiriyya. "The spiritual genealogy from the Prophet Mohammad till Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
  6. ^ Francis Burton, Sir Richard. Lineage of khilafat from Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani to Muhammed (Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, Volume 2). Courier Corporation. ISBN 9780486212180.
  7. ^ Tony Street. "Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Language and Logic". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  8. ^ Burton, Richard. Specimen of a Murshid's Diploma, in the Kadiri Order of the Mystic Craft Al-Tasawwuf.
  9. ^ Riyaz Qadri, Muhammad. Ilhamat-e-Ghaus-e-Azam : Hazrat Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A.). Abbasi Publications.
  10. ^ Sult̤ān Bāhū (1998). Death Before Dying: The Sufi Poems of Sultan Bahu. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92046-0.
  11. ^ Francis Burton, Sir Richard. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, Volume 2. Courier Corporation. Lahore, Pakistan. ISBN 9780486212180.
  12. ^ "spiritual golden chain".
  13. ^ Mohammad Najib ur Rehman, Hazrat Sakhi Sultan. Sultan-Bahoo-The-Life-and-Teachings. Sultan ul Faqr Publications Regd. ISBN 9789699795183.
  14. ^ "AwliyasWorld".
  15. ^ a b Tazkira Mashaikh Qadria Rizvia
  16. ^ Zikr Hasan Allama Ghulam Dastgeer
  17. ^ Al-Darul Munzim Fi Manaqib Ghaus-ul-Azam
  18. ^ "Ghazali, al-". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  19. ^ "Avicenna (Persian philosopher and scientist) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
  20. ^ Imam Bayhaqi
  21. ^ Gibb, H.A.R.; Kramers, J.H.; Levi-Provencal, E.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1960]. Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume I (A-B). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 1130. ISBN 9004081143.
  22. ^ S.H. Nasr, "Iran" in History of Humanity: From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, edited by Sigfried J. de Laet, M. A. Al-Bakhit, International Commission for a History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind History of mankind, L. Bazin, S. M. Cissco. Published by Taylor & Francis US, 2000. pg 368