Indigenous peoples in Quebec
Indigenous peoples in Quebec (French: Peuples autochtones du Québec) total 11 distinct ethnic groups. The 10 First Nations and the Inuit communities number 141,915 people and account for approximately 2% of the population of Quebec, Canada.
The Abenaki comprise two First Nations communities named the Odanak First Nation (in Odanak, near Trois-Rivières) and the Wolinak First Nation (in Wôlinak, near Trois-Rivières). They number approximately 1,900 people.
The Algonquin, who refer to themselves as Anishinaabeg, comprise nine First Nations who live in communities located in the Outaouais and Abitibi-Témiscamingue regions of Quebec. These First Nations communities are:
- Abitibiwinni First Nation in Pikogan
- Algonquins of Barriere Lake in Lac-Rapide
- Eagle Village First Nation - Kipawa in Kebaowek
- Kitcisakik First Nation in Kitcisakik
- Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation in Kitigan Zibi
- Long Point First Nation in Winneway
- Nation Anishinaabe du Lac Simon in Lac-Simon
- Timiskaming First Nation in Timiskaming
- Wolf Lake First Nation in Hunter's Point
The Algonquin number approximately 8,600 people.
The three Atikamek (sometimes spelled Atikamekw) bands live in four communities located in the Maurice region of Quebec. These First Nations are:
- Atikamekw d'Opitciwan in Obedjiwan
- Atikamekw de Manawan in Manawan
- Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci in Wemotaci and Coucoucache
The Atikamek number approximately 4,900 people.
The Cree are the most populous nation in the Algonquian-language family. The majority live in Quebec and Ontario, but Cree also live in Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. There are 10 Cree First Nations communities in northern Quebec. They are the:
- Chisasibi First Nation in Chisasibi
- Eastmain First Nation in Eastmain
- Mistissini First Nation in Mistissini
- Nemaska First Nation in Nemaska
- Oujé-Bougoumou First Nation in Oujé-Bougoumou
- Waskaganish First Nation in Waskaganish
- Waswanipi First Nation in Waswanipi
- Wemindji First Nation in Wemindji
- Whapmagoostui First Nation in Whapmagoostui
- Washaw Sibi Eeyou in Amos
The Cree of Quebec number approximately 19,000 people.
The Malécite (or Maliseet, in an older English spelling) comprise one First Nation, the Première Nation Malecite de Viger, whose members live in two communities located in the Bas-St-Laurent region of Quebec. The communities are Cacouna and Whitworth. They number approximately 570 people.
The Mi'kmaq (or Micmac, in an older English spelling) live in the Canadian Maritime provinces and the Quebec region of the Gaspé Peninsula (French=Gaspésie). In Quebec, they number approximately 4,300 people and comprise three First Nations communities:
- Gaspe First Nation in Gaspé
- Gesgapegiag First Nation in Gesgapegiag
- Listuguj Mi'kmaq First Nation in Listuguj
The Innu (formerly referred to as the Montagnais) comprise nine First Nations in the Côte-Nord region of Quebec. These First Nations are:
- Bande des Innus de Pessamit (also known as ‘Pessamit Innu Band’ or Betsiamites First Nation) in Betsiamites
- La Nation Innu Matimekush-Lac John (also known as ‘Innu Nation of Matimekush-Lac John’) in Lac-John and Matimekosh
- Innue Essipit (known also as Essipit First Nation or ‘Montagnais Essipit’) in Essipit
- Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam in Maliotenam and Uashat
- Les Innus de Ekuanitshit in Mingan
- Montagnais du Lac St.-Jean (also known as ‘Première nation des Pekuakamiulnuatsh’ or ‘Ilnuatsh du Pekuakami’) in Mashteuiatsh
- Montagnais de Natashquan in Natashquan
- Montagnais de Pakua Shipi in Pakuashipi
- Montagnais de Unamen Shipu in La Romaine
The Innu number 13,800 people.
The Naskapi are recognized as a distinct nation by the governments of Quebec and Canada; however, they are often considered to be Innu living in a remote area.
Their main language is Naskapi and their second language is English. The Naskapi committee is known as the NLMB (The Naskapi Local Management Board).
The members of the Huron-Wendat Nation live in Wendake, a reserve enclosed within Quebec City. Their original homeland was in Ontario. They number about 2,800 people. Their original language was Wendat, in the Iroquoian-language family.
The Mohawk of Quebec number approximately 13,000 people. They comprise the three following First Nations, which were established at these locations in the colonial period:
The Inuit communities of Quebec are located in the northernmost part of the province, in an area known as Nunavik. They were isolated from European encounter longer than other indigenous nations. There are Inuit communities at: